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little better than a sort of King of Brentford, whom old Grig (who has alima swelled into Gregorius. Magnus) associated with himself in the important duty of governing some part of the north eastern coast of Scotland.

Notes to Marmion.


Since first, when conquering York atose,

To Henry meek she gave repose:
Henry VI., with his queen, his heir, and the chiefs of his family, fled to
Scotland after the fatal battle of Towton. Queen Margaret certainly
came to Edinburgh, though it seems doubtful whether her husband
did so.


The cloth-yard arrows flew like hail.
This is no poetical exaggeration. In some of the counties of England,
distinguished for archery, shafts of this extraordinary length were
actually used. The Scottish, according to Ascham, had a proverb, that
every English archer. carried under his belt twenty-four Scots, in allusion
to his bundle of unerring shafts.

He saw the hardy burghers there

March armed, on foot, with faces bare.
The Scottish burgesses were, like yeomen, appointed to be armed with
bows and sheaves, sword, buckler, knife, spear, or a good axe instead of
a bow, if worth 1001. : their armour to be of white or bright harness.
They wore white hats, i. e. bright steel caps, without crest or vizor.
By an act of James IV., their weapon-schawings are appointed to be
held four times a year under the aldermen or bailiffs,


On foot the yeomen too. Bows and quivers were in vain recommended to the peasantry of Scot land, by repeated statutes; spears and ases seem universally to have beet used instead of them. Their defensive armour was the plate-jack, hauberk, or brigantine; and their missile weapons cross bows and culverins. All wore swords of excellent temper, according to Patten; and a volumia nous handkerchief round their neck,"not for cold, but for cutting." Tho mace also was much used in the Scottish army.


A banquet rich, and costly wines. In all transactions of great or petty importance, and among whomson ever taking place, it would seem that a present of wine was an uniform and indispensable preliminary.


bis iron belt,
That bound his breast in penance-pains

In memory of his father slain.
Few readers need to be reminded of this belt, to the weight of which
James added certain ounces every year that he lived. Pitscottie founds
his belief, that James was not slain in the battle of Flodden, because the
English never had this token of the Iron belt to shew to any Scottishman.

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The person and character of James are delineated according to our best historians. His: romantic, disposition, which led him highly to rel.sh gaiety, approaching to license, was at the same time, tinged with. en. thusiastic devotion. These propensities sometimes formed a strange cone trast. He was wont, during his fits of devotion, to assume the dress, and conform to the rules of the order of: Franciscans; and when he had thus done penance for some time in Stirling, to plunge again into the tide of pleasure.


Sir Hugh the Heron's wife held sway.
It has been already. noticed, that: King James! acquaintance with Lady
Heron of Ford did not commence imuil he marched into England. Our
historians impute to the king's infatuated passion, the delays that led to
the tatal defeat. of Flodden.

For the fair Queen of France
Sent him a Turquois ring, and glove,
And charged him, as her knight and love,

For her to break a lance.
Also the Queen of France wrote a love-letter to the King of Scotland,
calling him her love, shewing him that she had suffered much rebuke in
France for the defenaing of his honour. She believed surely that he
would recompense her again with some of his kingly support in her ne.
cessity; that is to say, that he would raise her an army, and come three
foot of ground on English ground for her sake. To that effect she sent
him a ring off her finger, with fourteen thousand French crowns to pay
his expenses.


Archibald Bell-the-Cat. Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus, a man remarkable for strength of body and mind, acquired the popular name of Bell-the-Cat, upon the folo lowing remarkable occasion : James the Third, of whom Piiscottie complains that he delighted more in music and “politics of building, than in hunting, hawking, and other noble exercises, was so ill advised as to make favourites of his architects and musicians, whom the same historian irreverently terms masons and fiddlers. His nobility, who did not sympa. thize in the king's respect for the fine arts, were extremely incensed at honours conferred on these persons, particularly on Cochrane, a mason, who had been created Earl of Mar. And seizing the opportunity when, in 1482, the king had convoked the whole array of the country to march against the English, they held a midnight council in the church of Lauder, for the purpose of forcibly removing these minions from the king's person. When all had agreed on the propriety of the measure, Lord Gray told the assembly the Apologue of the Mice; who had formed a resolution that it would be highly advantageous to their community to tie a bell round the cat's neck, that they might hear her approach at a distance; but: which public measure unfortunately miscarried, from no mouse being willing to undertake the task of fastening the bell. “1 understand the moral,” said Angus, "and that what we propose may not lack execution, I will bell the cat."

Against the war had Angus stood,

And chafed his royal lord.
Angus was an old man when the war against England was resolved
upon. He earnestly spoke against that measure from its commencement;
and, on the eve of the battle of Flodden, remonstrated so freely on the
impolicy of fighting, that the king said to him with scorn and indignation
if he was afraid he might go home.” The earl burst into tears at this
insupportable insult, and retired accordingly, leaving his sons, George,
master of Angus, and Sir William, of Glenbervie, to command his folo
lowers. They were both slain in the battle, with two hundred gentlemen

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of the name of Douglas. The aged earl, broken-hearted at the calamitics of his house and his country, retired into a religious house, where he died about a year after the field of Flodden.

NOTE XI. Then rest you in Tantallon Hold. The ruins of Tantallon Castle occupy a high rock projecting into the German Ocean, about two miles east of North Berwick. Tantallon was a principal castle of the Douglas family, and when the Earl of Angus was banished in 1527, it continued to hold out against Jamos V. When the Earl returned from banishment, upon the death of James, he again obtained possession of Tantallon, and it actually afforded refuge to an English ambassador, under circumstances similar to those described in the text. This was no other than the celebrated Sir Ralph Sadler, who resided there for some time under Angus's protection, after the failure of his negotiation for matching the infant Mary with Edward VI,


Their motto on his blade. A very ancient sword, in possession of Lord Douglas, bears, among a great deal of flourishing, iwo hands pointing to a heart, which is placed betwixt them, and the date, 1329, being the year in which Bruce charged the Good Lord Douglas to carry his heart to the Holy Land.


Martin Swart. The name of this German general is preserved by that of the field of battle, which is called, after him, Swartmoor.--There were songs about him long current in England.---See Dissertation prefixed to Ritson's Ancient Songs, 1792, page lxi.


Dun-Edin's Cross. The cross of Edinburgh was an ancient and curious structure. The lower part was an octagonal tower, sixteen fect in diameter, and about fifteen feet high.


This awful summons came.
This supernatural citation is mentioned by all our Scottish historians.
It was, probably, like the apparition at Linlithgow, an attempt,
by those averse to the war, to impose upon the superstitious temper of
James IV

Fitz-Eustace bade them pause a while,

Before a venerable pile.
The convent alluded to is a foundation of Cistertian nuns near North
Berwick, of which there are still some remains. · It was founded by Dune
fen, Earl of Fife, in 1216.

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The savage Dane

At Iol more deep the mead did drain.
The lol of the heathen Danes (a word still applied to Christmas in
Scotland), was solemnized with great festivity. The humour of the Danes
at table displayed itself in pelting each other with bones.


On Christmas eve the mass was sung.
In Roman Catholic countries, mass is never said at night, excepting
on Christmas eve.

The Highlander-
Will on a Friday morn look pale,

If asked to tell a fairy tale.
The Daoine shi', or Men of Peace, of the Scottish Highlanders, rather
resemble the Scandinavian Duergar than the English Fairies. Nota
withstanding their name, they are, if not absolutely malevolent, at least
peevish, discontented, and apt to do mischief on slight provocation. The
belief of their existence is deeply impressed on the Highlanders, who
think they are particularly offended with mortals, who talk of them, who
wear their favourite colour, green, or in any respect interfere with their
affairs. This is particularly to be avoided on Friday, when, whether as
dedicated to Venus, with whom, in Germany, this subterraneous people
are held nearly connected, or for a more solemn reason, they are more
active, and possessed of greater power. Some curious particulars con.
cerning the popular superstitions of the Highlanders, may be found in Dr.
Graham's Picturesque Sketches of Perthshire.



The towers of Franchemont. The journal of the friend, to whom the Fourth Canto of the poem is inscribed, furnishes me with the following account of a striking superstition :

“Passed the pretty little village of Franchemont (near Spaw), with tho romantic ruins of the old castle of the Counts of that name. The road leads through many delightful vales, on a rising ground; at the extremity, of one of them stands the ancient castle, now the subject of many superstitious legends. It is firmly believed by the neighbouring peasantry, that the last Baron of Franchemont deposited, in one of the vaults of the castle, a ponderous chest, containing an immense treasure in gold and silver, which, by some magic spell, was entrusted to the care of the devil, who is constantly found seated on the chest in the shape of a huntsman. Any one adventurous enough to touch the chest is instantly siezed with the palsy. Upon one occasion, a priest of noted piety was brought to the vault: he used all the arts of exorcism to persuade his internal majesty to vacate his seat, but in vain; the huntsman remained immoveable. A last, moved by the earnestness of the priest, he told him that he would agree to resiga the chest, if the exorciser would siga his name with blood

But the priest understood his meaning, and refused, as by that act he would have delivered over his soul to the devil. Yet if any body can discover the mystic words used by the person who deposited the treasure, and pronounce them, the fiend must instantly decamp. I had many stories of a similar nature from a peasant, who had himself seen the devil, in the shape of a great cat."


A Bishop by the altar stood. The well known Gawain Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld, son of Archibald Bell-the-Cat, Earl of Angus. He was author of a Scottish metrical version of the Æneid, and of many other poetical pieces of great merit. Ho had not at this period attained the mitre,

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The huge and sweeping brand,
That wont of yore in battle fray
His foemen's limbs to lop away,

As wood-knife shreds the sapling spray.
Angus had strength and personal activity corresponding to his courage.
Spens of Kilspindie, a favourite of James IV., having spoken of him
lightly, the Earl met him while hawking, and compelling him to single
combat, at one blow cut asunder his thigh bone, and killed him on the
spot. But ere he could obtain James's pardon for this slaughter, Angus
was obliged to yield his castle of Hermitage, in exchange for that of Both-
well, which was some diminution to the family greatness. The sword.
with which he struck so remarkable a blow, was presented by his
descendant, James, Earl of Morton, afterwards Regent of Scotland, to
Lord Lindesay of the Byres, when he defied Bothwell to single combat on

And hopest thou hence unscathed to go?
No, by St. Bryde of Bothwell, no!
Up draw-bridge, grooms-what, warder, ho!

Let the portcullis fall.
This ebullition of violence in the potent Earl of Angus is not without its
examples in the real history of the house of Douglas, whose chieftains
possessed the ferocity with the heroic virtues of a *savage state. The most
curious instance occurred in the case of Maclellan, tutor of Bomby, who,
having refused to acknowledge the pre-eminence claimed by Douglas
over the gentlemen and Barons of Galloway, was seized and imprisoned in
his castle of Thrieve, on the borders of Kirkcudbright-shire. Sir Patrick
Gray, commander of King James the Second's guard, was uncle to the
tutor of Bomby, and obtained from the king a “sweet letter of supplica-
tion," praying the earl to deliver his prisoner into Gray's hand. When
Sir Patrick ärrived at the castle, he was received with all the honour due
to a favourite servant of the king's household; but while he was at dinner,
the earl, who suspected his errand, caused his prisoner to be led forth and
beheaded. After dinner, Sir Patrick presented the king's letter to the
earl, who received it with great affectation of reverence: "and took him
by the hand and led him forth to the green, where the gentleman was
lying dead, and shewed him the manner, and said, 'Sir Patrick, you
are come a little too late ; yonder is your sister's son lying, but he
wants the head : take his body and do with it what you will. Sir Patrick
answered again with a sore heart, and said, 'My lord, if ye have taken from
him his head, dispone upon the body as ye please :' and with that called
for his horse, and leaped thereon; and when he was on horseback, he said
to the earl on this manner, .My lord, if I live, you shall be rewarued
for your labours that you have used at this time, according to your do-

“At this saying, the oorl was highly offended, and cried for horse. Su

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