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arranged it between them that a party of young persons should be invited to spend the morrow at their house ; all kinds of attractive amusement were included in the plan, and among the party was to be a winning nymph, a cousin of John's, whose bright eyes were known to exert a fascination over his young heart; and there was to be music, and dancing, and every variety of fruits and confections Jack jumped, and tossed his hat into the air for joy--away went his projected schemes of fishing, and hunting, and sailing; for he would'nt be absent from the party, he said, for the price of his new fowling-piece. You can hardly say, reader, that John was a free agent, for the old folks controlled his will ; and yet you perceive he did just as he pleased.

You may not like this view of things, reader, and I will tell you why; it is not flattering to your self-love; you better like the notion that your superiority over others is the result of your own independent exertions. “ Not of yourselves, it is the gift of God," is a text which soundeth not well in the ear of your pride ; and you doubtless thank not Paul for asking the troublesone questions in the following passage.

" For who maketh thee to differ from another ? and what hast thou that thou didst not receive ? now, if ihou didst receive it, why dost thou glory, as if thou hadst not received it ?” (1. Cor. iv. 7.) And since this brings us to a consideration of the religious differences between some and others, we may as well get to close quarters on this branch of the argumeni.

A. is a christian, B. is not; why? " Because A. chooses so to be, and B. does not.” But why do A. and B. choose so differently? “ Because the one is naturally less perverse and obstinate than the other." And pray who made the one to be thus natu rally less vicious than the other? You are here brought up short, my friend reader. If B. had possessed the same natural dispositions and advantages as A., is it not plain that B. would be a christian too? And can he help, (and must he be endlessly damned fer) not having had the same advantages ? So your creed impliedly asserts, and so Calvinism directly decides; between the two isins, therefore, (as I have said,) there is not a hair's breadth of rational difference. It is no detriment to Arminianism, howèver, that it is essentially identical with Calvinism; on the contrary, it is on that account the more accordant with the scriptures. (“For the children being not yet born, neither having done any good

or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him that calleth,) it was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger. As it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated. What shall we say then ? Is there unrighteousness with God? God forbid. For he saith to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will liave compassion on whom I will have compassion. So then, it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that showeth miercy. For the scripture saith unto Pharaoh, Even for this same purpose have I raised thee up, that I might show my power in thee, and that my name might be declared throughout all the earth. Therefore hath he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth.” (Rom. ix. 11-18.)

It is impossible to read the writings of Paul with unbiased mind, without seeing on the face thereof that in his judgment certain persons are elected from eternity to be the subjects of gospel faith and obedience, whilst others are doomed to remain in darkness and unbelief. Speaking of the comparative fewness of God's worshippers in the days of Elijah, he represents Jehovah as saying to that prophet, “I have reserved to myself seven thousand souls who have not bowed the knee to the image of Baal.” (Rom. xi. 4.)

On which the apostle remarks, “ Even so then at this present tin:e also there is a remnant according to the election of grace. And if by grace, then is it no more of works; otherwise grace is no more grace. But if it be of works, then is it no more grace; otherwise work is no more work.” (Rom. xi. 5, 6.) The same doctrine is carried out in other parts of the scripiure; Christ tells liis disciples, “ Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you." (John xv. 16.) And whilst (as before shown in this work) the greater number of the Jewish people were debarred from belief in him by the purposes of God, a knowledge of his Messiahship was forced upon others, who are termed “the elect," and in regard to whom it is said, “and as many as were ordained to eter. nal life, believed." (Acts xiii. 48.) It has been seen that Thomas did not believe in Christ from choice, but from necessity; and assuredly Paul himself had no will in being thrown from his horse and convinced by ocular evidence that he was persecuting the Lord Messiah! Nothing is clearer from the scriptures than that believers in those times regarded themselves as particularly elect

ed and foreordained to that privilege.“ According as he hath chosen' us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before hiin in love : having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will.” (Ephe. i. 4, 5.) Peter plainly sets forth the same fact in his epistles: he tells the Gentile converts to whom he writes, that while the Jews were afore-appointed unto a disobedience and rejection of the gospel, that themselves were an elect people, "a chosen generation ;'' having now obtained mercy, " that ye should show forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light.” (1 Peter ii. 7, 8, 9.)

To the more superficial part of my readers, an explanation may be necessary, why we should suffer for sin, if it is committed agreeably to the fore-appointment of God. Should we suffer for what we cannot help ? Let such remember that they are as much

concerned to answer this question as I am ; for, whatever their doci trine may be, they must see it to be the fact, that we do suffer for

what we cannot help. We suffer so soon as we are born. , Can we help being born? We suffer greatly from teething. Can we help this natural operation ? Many of ous suffer from hereditary dis

Can we help those diseases ? And lastly, if our lives are prolonged, we suffer from the decay of age, and surely we cannot prevent that decay. “ But why should we be censured and punished for sin, if its commission be but the result of foreordination ?" You are answ

swered, reader, so as you answer yourself, why you crush with detestation the odious reptile under your foot, when you know it cannot help being the reptile that it is! And why you love any beautiful being, and late a loathsome one, when the one nor the other can account for being what it is! Truth is, our Creator has designed that this existence should be one of partial suffering—moral as well as physical suffering ; and in appointing the end, he has also appointed the means. Sin is the main means by which the former is brought on; he who sins most, has most moral suffering : God has joined these two things together, and no man can put them asunder. The reader will therefore learn not to plead this doctrine as an excuse for sinning the more, for, so sure as he does so, he must suffer the more, All this, I know, would reflect no glory upon the Crea



tor's character, but for the fact—the glorious, heart-cheering fact, that out of all this shall issue an universally benevolent result; ** our light aMictions, which are but for a moment, worketh for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory.”

And now, my smart Free-thinker, do you object to the bible because it inculcates this doctrine ? I will then show you that it is as accordant with faci as with scripture. Is it because men please that one is born of rich, and another of poor parents ; one of vicious, and another of virtuous parents; one grows up in decent, and another in profligate society ? Had I been born in the Chinese empire, I should, in a civil respect, have been a slave, and in a religious, a worshipper of the Mogul, or the Lama. Had I been born of Russian peasants, I should have been a serf; but having been born in America, I am a freeman. Did I choose where, or of what parentage I should be born ? Norihis in the order of providence was determined for me by my Creator. Even in christendom. I might have been born of infidel parents, and educated in infidel principles, in which case, in perfect honesty of heart, I should have probably adopted an infidel creed. Or I might have been born a subject of certain moral imbecilities, which would have determined my religious character for life, such as a flexibility of purpose and of principle; my intellect might have been feeble, lacking in forethought and judgment, whilst iny animal propensities might have been violent. Who will say, that thus constituted, I should not have found it more difficult to be a virtuous man, than do others of different natural powers and temperament? Say now, if you can, that our moral characters are determined for us by our own free choice. No sir, if you believe in a God, you must refer all the events of life to his pre-appointment. But you are an Atheist, perhaps? Well then, your goddess, Chance, with her bandaged eyes and dizzy brain, has fixed these affairs of human life thus irreversibly, by the force of her blind decrees. And are we profited by the exchange of an Almighty deity, whose benevolent energies are unerringly,

« From seeming evil still educing good,
And better thence again, aud better still,

In infinite progression,” for an unseeing, unthinking, unfeeling fatuity, whose hap-hazard determinations can never be brought to any beneficent conclusion ?

The Arminian's favorite and stereotyped maxim is, that whatever may be the civil or the constitutional differences among men, the spirit of God operates sufficiently upon all, to make each man's advantages for salvation the same, and to leave all inexcusable who are not saved at last. This I deny :-the scriptures, facts, and virtually their own creeds and prayers, deny it; they are in the constant habit of thanking God for advantages which they themselves possess over others Who, that has read the lives of Bunyan, Tennant, John Newton, Col. Gardner, Brainard, Bramwell, the Wesleys, Adam Clarke, and others of that class, can help admitting that a well arranged train of providences determined them to be what they were ? I have before shown that on Christ's own authority, God did less for Sodom than he afterward did for Chorazin and Bethsaida, and that the former could have been saved, had as much been done for it as had been done for the latter! And God himself told Jerusalem, which he spared, that her sins greatly exceeded those of Sodom, which he had cut off! (Ezek. xvi.) Has the sinner who is cut off in the bloom of youth, and just as he is ripened for hell, equal advantage with him who lives in sin until his hairs are hoary, and who then from sheer satiety turns from sin with loathing, and prepares for heaven? If the natural advantages of all men were equal, and an equal measure of divine assistance were afforded to all, it is certain that the effect upon all would be the same, and if any would be christians all would be. If even the natural advantages of all men were not equal, yet if the measure of divine assistance were proportioned to the requirements of each, the same result would follow; for similar causes will invariably, under like circumstances, produce similar results. But all men are not in a like degree affected by divine grace; therefore, all men have not the same opportunities afforded them in this world, for securing their salvation in the next. Thus Arminianism is logically refuted. For example, if my organ of veneration (phrenologically speaking) is smaller than another's, it will require more external means to excite religious affections in me than in him; if more is not granted me, and he have but barely enough for his salvation, it will follow that I shall be damned for tbe lack of the aid which my Maker saw to be indispensable to my salvation. Could I prevent that lack? Or, if my organ of marvel

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