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THE

INSTITUTES

OF

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

METHODICALLY ARRANGED;

WITE

TORMS OF PARSING AND CORRECTING, EXAMPLES FOR PARSING,
QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION, FALSE SYNTAX FOR COR.
RECTION, EXERCISES FOR WRITING, OBSERVATIONS
FOR THE ADVANCED STUDENT,

METHODS OF ANALYSIS,

AND

A KEY TO THE ORAL EXERCISES:
TO WHICH ARE ADDED FIVE APPENDIXES.

DESIGNED FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS, ACADEMIES, AND PRIVATE LEARNERS.

BY GOOLD BROWN,
PRINCIPAL OF AN ENGLISH AND CLASSICAL ACADEMY, NEW YORK.

• Ne quis igitur tanquam parya fastidiat Grammatices elemeuta."-QUINTILIAN,

A NEW EDITION,
WITH EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS AND PARSING,

BY HENRY KIDDLE, Ą. M.,
SUPERINTENDENT OF COMMON SCHOOLS, NEW YORK CITY.

NEW YORK:
! WILLIAM WOOD & 00., 27 GREAT JONES ST.

1872.

THE NEW YURA
PUBLIC LIBRARY

58955 1
ASTOR, LENOX AND
ADVERTISEMENT.

THE excellence of BROWN'S GRAMMARS, both as treatises and schoolbooks, is very generally acknowledged. The repeated demands, however, for a more extended treatment of the “Analysis of Sentences” than was thought necessary by the author, has induced the publishers to issue a new edition, containing a full and progressive exposition of this department of grammar, and an entirely new series of exercises and examples, both for analysis and parsing, with observations and references to make them correspond with the body of the work. The exercises in Analysis, and the definitions necessary to explain them, have not been confined to the department of Syntax, as in most other grammatical text-books, but made to commence at a point where the intelligent progress of the pupil seems to demand such aid. In the present edition numerous corrections and alterations have been made, including new lists of Irregular and Redundant Verbs. There has also been added a chapter of Oral Exercises (Appendix V.) intended as an introduction to the study of Grammar, which it is believed will be found serviceable to many teachers. No attempt has been made to change the system of grammar therein explained; because, while no change could possibly accommodate it to the views of all, the intelligent teacher can find no difficulty in varying it, in a few minor particulars, so as to make it correspond with his own views. With these alterations, the publishers hope that these works will be found more useful to the public, and a more valuable aid to teachers in imparting instruction in this important branch of education

AUGUST, 1872.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1856, by

GOOLD BROWN,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusette.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1872, by

WILLIAM WOOD & CO.,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington, D. O.

PREFACE.

"Neque enim aut aliena vituperare, aut nostra jactantius prædicare, animus est. en

1. LANGUAGE is the principal vehicle of thought; and so numerous and important are the ends to which it is subservient, that it is difficult to conceive in what manner the affairs of human society could be conducted without it. Its utility, therefore, will ever entitle it to a considerable share of attention in civilized communities, and to an Important place in all systems of education. For, whatever we may think in relation to its origin whether we consider it a special gift from Heaven, or an acquisition of industry-a natural endowment, or an artificial invention,-certain it is, that, in the present state of things, our knowledge of it depends, in a great measure, if not entirely, on the voluntary exercise of our faculties, and on the helps and opportunities afforded us. One may indeed acquire, by mere imitation, such a knowledge of words, as to enjoy the ordinary advantages of speech; and he who is satisfied with the dialect he has so obtained, will find no occasion for treatises on grammar; but he who is desirous either of relishing the beauties of literary composition, or of expressing his sentiments with propriety and ease, must make the principles of language his study.

2. It is not the business of the grammarian to give law to language, but to teach it, agreeably to the best usage. The ultimate principle by which he must be governed, and with which his instructions must always accord, is that species of custom which critics denominate GOOD USE; that is, present, reputable, general use. This principle, which is equally opposed to fantastic innovation, and to a pertinacious adherence to the quaint peculiarities of ancient usage, is the only proper standard of grammatical parity. Those rules and modes of speech, which are established by this authority, may be called the Institutes of Grammar.

3. To embody, in a convenient form, the true principles of the English Language; to express them in a simple and perspicuous style, adapted to the capacity of youth; to illustrate them by appropriate examples and exercises; and to give to the whole all possible advantage from method in the arrangement; are the objects of the following work. The author has not deviated much from the principles adopted in the most approved grammars already in use; nor has he acted the part of a servile copyist. It was not his design to introduce novelties, but to form a practical digest of established rules. He has not laboured to subvert the general system of grammar, received from time immemorial; but to improve upon it, in its present application to our tongue.

4. That which is excellent, may not be perfect; and amendment may be desirable, where subversion would be ruinous. Believing that no theory can better explain the principles of our language, and no contrivance afford greater facilities to the student, the writer has in general adopted those doctrines which are already best known; and has contented himself with attempting little more than an improved method of incul. cating them. The scope of his Labours has been, to define, dispose, and exemplify those doctrines anew; and, with a scrupulous regard to the best usage, to offer, on that authority, some further contributions to the stock of grammatical knowledge. The errors of former grammarians he has been more studious to avoid than to expose; and of their deficiencies the reader may judge, when he sees in what manner they aro here supplied.

5. This treatise being intended for general use, and adapted to aH classes of learners, was designed to embrace in a small compass a complete course of English Grammar, disencumbered of every thing not calculated to convey direct information on the subject. Little regard has therefore been paid to gainsayers. Grammarians have ever disputed, and often with more acrimony than discretion. Those who have dealt most in philological controversy, have well illustrated the couplet of Denham:

“The tree of knowledge, blasted by disputes,

Produces sapless leaves in stead of fruits." 6. They who set aside the authority of custom, and judge every thing to be ungrammatical which appears to them to be unphilosophical, render the whole ground forever disputable, and weary themselves in beating the air. So various have been the notions of this sort of critics, that it would be difficult to mention an opinion not found in some of their books. Amidst this rage for speculation on a subject purely practical, various attempts have been made, to overthrow that system of instruction, which long use has rendered venerable, and long experience proved to be useful. But it is manifestly much easier to raise even plausible objections against this sys

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