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expressive of a perfect reliance on his cause, and is if he laughed at the idea of there being any opposition to him. His address was easy although not fluent, and was spoken in a soft conversational sort of manner, eminently calculated to inspire confidence in the speaker. “ That is another good man for a bad cause,” thought Leventhorpe, “ pray, sir, who is that?" That is Mr. Scarlett," was the reply.

The third who started up was a portly-looking man, with a very sallow complexion, and rather dull, heavy, appearance-his voice extremely harsh and husky, grating upon the ear, and his utterance so thick that what he said could scarcely be understood by those who are not accustomed to his mode of speaking. At first, Leventhorpe thought him a very disagreeable, unpleasant person; but he soon became interested in his speech, and the effect of his manner was then lost. The object of his discourse was to show that Mr. Scarlett was all wrong, and in doing this he quoted so many authorities, and produced so many books, to testify upon the point, that Mr. S. was soon beaten out of the field. “ Zounds!” thought Leventhorpe, “ that is a queer-looking chap, but I shouldu't like to have him against me. Pray, sir, who is that?” “ That is Mr. Marryat,” was the reply; he is a very good lawyer.”

By this time, Leventhorpe had inspected all the faces in the Court, but Mr. Mucklecharge was not there; he, therefore, again threaded the mazes of the surrounding passages, and proceeded up the Hall to another Court of smaller dimensions, and more pitiful appearance. But what was wanting in the Court, was all supplied by the presiding Judge—in himself, every thing that was noble, dignified, and venerable. There he sat, not as in the other Court, where there were several Judges, but alone, measuring justice by his single voice. A prosv mumbler was addressing him in a conversational tone, standing bolt upright like a private on parade, with his hands behind him tucking up his gown, but with no more animation than a walkingstick, which indeed he much resembled in perpendicularity. The Judge-it was the Lord Chancellor---sat back in his seat, thoughtful and contemplative, but his huge overhanging brow, and thick eyebrows, his solemnity and sternness of manner, his evident anxiety, with respect to the matter in which he was engaged, manifested by continual reference to the papers strewed around him, all interested Leventhorpe wonderfully in his favor; and when he leant forward, and, with a weak but clear voice, pronounced his decision in a manner far more impressive than words can describe, Leventhorpe could not help thinking, “ I hope my cause may be tried before you."

At this moment he espied Mr. Mucklecharge making his way out of court; Leventhorpe followed, and soon came up with him. “ Ha! Mr. Leventhorpe, is that you ? What, been into see the old Lord Chancellor, eh?”..-“ A good old man, I'll vouch for it. But now, Mr. Mucklecharge—"

“ Ha!” said Mucklecharge, “ I suppose you want to know about your cause, eh? Well, how's Susan, my sweetheart, eh? Have you brought me my fifty pounds, eh?”

“ Fifty, pounds !” echoed Leventhorpe, “ Your fifty pounds!”
“ Ha ! didn't I write to you for fifty pounds, eh?”
“ Sir,” said Leventhorpe, “ I never received any such letter.”

“ Well," said Qui Tam, “ I intended to do it—that's all the same thing. I want fifty pounds on account, eh?”

• Why, Mr. Mucklecharge," said Leventhorpe, “ you have had two hundred already."

"I know, ito--I know it---but it's a very expensive suit.--great outlay-s-counsel's fees---I have just paid nine shillings for court fees, so you'll let me have it by return of post, eb? Take care you do---good morning---give me a look in sometime when you come to town, eb?"

“Sir, sir," exclaimed Leventhorpe, detaining the precipitate attorney, “ but I came up to-day on purpose to enquire how my cause is going on?”

“ Now, my dear fellow," exclaimed the professional gentleman, patting his client familiarly on the shoulder, “ do be patient, and leave that to me. If I were to meddle with farming, you would think me a great fool; now pray don't you meddle with legal matters, eh?"

"I wish," said the poor plaintiff sorrowfully," I wish you never had advised me otherwise.”

"Oh, you entirely mistake me," rejoined Mr. Six-and-Eightpence, “ I mean don't meddle with the conduct of the suite--your suit is a very good suit---a famous suit-.-I would'nt wish to have a bet. ter suit in my office; but we must go on smoothly and pleasantly with it, eh? Then you'll send me the fifty pounds, eh?"

“ Sir, I wouldn't scruple to send you fifty more than that, if the cause could by that means be brought to an end speedily."

“ Fifty more !” exclaimed Latitat, his eye's brightening up, and he himself fixed as an anchor, immediately--.“ well, I dare say we shall want fifty more before long, therefore you may as well send it at once, eh? Then I shall expect a hundred on Wednesday morning, eh? Good morning to you," and off he marched down the Hall..-" But, sir, sir,” said Leventhorpe, “ can you not tell me when it is likely to be settled ? I really can't send you a hundred pounds."

“ Not send a hundred ! you not send a hundred, eh? Pooh!" exclaimed Mr. Capias, pretending to smile, “ that's all nonsense, a rich man like you, pooh! I shall expect a hundred!"

“ But when will the cause be ended ?"

“ Ended, eh? Why it is not more than four years since it was begun. See, do you see that man with the wig, eh? That's the SolicitorGeneral--- Tindal---famous lawyer---but queer looking fellow, eh?" and then running off, he seized hold of a man who was standing near them, exclaiming, “ Ah! Mr. Pepperweight, how do you do, eh? Good morning, Mr. Leventhorpe ; I shall go on with your cause as quickly as possible ; but I shall expect the hundred on Wedņesday, eh? The hundred you know.

• “ But you shan't have it, though, I am thinking :".--and thus muttering to himself, the unfortunate litigant retraced his steps towards the coach-office, in order to secure a place for his return.

MAURICE PENN.

THE LITERATURE OF ENGLAND),

FROM THE TIME OF THE DRUIDS, TO THE PRESENT CENTURY.

No. IV. John Duns, surnamed Scorus, an eminent scholastic divine, who flourished in the latter end of the thirteenth, and beginning of the fourteenth, century, was born near Alnwick, in Northumberland. When a youth, be joined himself tu the Minorite Friars of Newcastle; and, being sent by them to Oxford, was admitted into Merton College, of which, in due time, he became fellow. Upon the removal of William Varron from Oxford to Paris, in 1301, Duns Scotus was chosen to supply his place in the theological chair. After he had lectured three years at Oxford, he was called, in 1304, to Paris, where he was honored with the degrees first of Bachelor and then of Doctor in Divinity. At a meeting of the Monks of his order at Tholouse, in 1307, he was created Regent; and, about the same time, was placed at the head of the theological schools at Paris. Here he is affirmed to have first broached the doctrine of the immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary, and to have supported his position by two hundred arguments. In the year 1308, Duns Scotus was ordered by Gonsalvo, the general of the Minorites, to remove to Cologne, on the road to which he was met in solemn pomp, and conducted thither by the whole body of the citizens. Not long after his arrival in this city, he was seized with apoplexy, which carried him off, on the 8th of November, 1308, in the forty-third year of bis age. There is a melancholy story related concerning the mode of his death, which is, that when he fell down of his apoplexy, he was immediately interred as dead; but that afterwards coming to his senses, he languished in a most miserable manner in his coffin, beating his head and hands against its sides until he died in good earnest.

'It may not be unamusing to recite an example of the extravagant praises that have been bestowed upon Duns Scotus by his followers. “ He was so consummate a philosopher, that he could have been the inventor of philosophy, if it had not before existed. His knowledge of all the mysteries of religion, was so profound and perfect, that it was rather intuitive certainly than belief. He described the divine nature, as if he had seen God; the attributes of celestial spirits, as if he had been an angel; the felicities of a future state, as if he had enjoyed them; and the ways of providence, as if he had penetrated into all its secrets. He wrote so many books, that one man is hardly able to read them; and no one man is able to understand them. He would have written more, if he had composed with less care and accuracy. Such was our immortal Scotus, the most ingenious, acute, and subtile of all the sons of men*.” A list of his works may be seen in Henry Wharton's Appendix to Cave's “ Historia Literaria.”

• Henry's History of Great Britain, vol. iv. p. 454.

2 N

VOL. I.

ROBERT OF BRUNNE flourished in the early part of the fourteenth century. This poet is said to have been a canon of Brunne or Bourne, near Depyng, in Lincolnshire, whence the name by which he is usually called, his real name being Robert Mannyng. Among his many works is a metrical translation of a “ Manuel des Peches," or a “ Handlyng of Sinne,” the beginning of which states it to have been commenced in 1303.

“ Dane Felyp was mayster of tyme,
That y began thys Englysh ryme.
The yere of grace fyl than to be,

A thousynd thre hundred and thre.” From this work we have selected the following short extract in praise of good women :

“ Nothing is to man so dere
As womany's love in goode manere.
A goode woman is manny's blyss,
Wher her love ryght and stedfast ys.
Ther ys no solace under hevene,
Of all that a man may nevene, (name)
That shuld a man so moche glew, (delight)
As a goode woman that loveth trew :
Ne derer is none yn Goddys hurde, (family)
Than a chaste woman with lovely wurde."

Richard RollE.- Towards the middle of the fourteenth century, we find a valuable writer, both in poetry and prose, in Richard Rolle of the order of St. Augustine, often called the Hermit of Hampole, and simply Richard Hampole. From his numerous works we have selected two specimens. The first is from the “ Twelve Profits of Tribulation :”

“ The seveynth profit of tribulation is, that it spredith abred, or opynth thyn hert to receyve the grace of God. For God with many strokys of the hammer spredeth abred a pece of golde, or of silver, to make a vessel for to put in wyne or precyous liquore. And considre as the more precious metalle is more ductible or obeynge to the strokes of the goldsmythe ; so the more precious and meke herte is more paciente in tribulation. And allethough the sharp stroke of tribulation tormenteth the, yet comforth the : for the goldsmythe, Alle-myghty God, holdeth the hammer of tribulation in his band, and knoweth full welle what thou maiste suffir, and mesurith hys smytynge after the frele nature."

The following versification and description of the poet's heaven, from the long poem entitled the “ Prikke of Conscience,” expressly written for those only who could understand English, are certainly pleasing:

“ Ther is lyf without ony deth,

And ther is youthe without ony elde,
And ther is alle manner welthe to welde :
And ther is reste without ony travaille :--
And ther is pees without ony strife,
And ther is alle manner lykynge of lyf:
And ther is bright somer ever to see,
And ther is nevére wynter in that countre :--
And ther is more worship and honour
Than ever hadde kynge other emperour.
And ther is gret melodee of aungele's songe,
And ther is preysing him amonge.

And ther is alle manner frendshipe that may be,
And ther is ever perfect love and charite :
And ther is wisdom without folye,
And ther is honestye without vileyne.
All these a man may joyes of hevene calle ;
And yet the most soveryn joye of alle,
Is the sight of Godde's bright face,
In wham resteth alle manere grace."

John Gower is entitled to a place among English writers only relatively to the time in which he lived, for though well furnished with learning and a successful cultivation of his native language, he has not the least pretensions to genius or invention. He was born in the year 1320, and educated for the law, in which profession he made so favorable a figure, that he was appointed Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. He appears to have been very fond of writing, and laments that by the failure of his sight he was compelled to lay aside his pen. He died in the year 1402. Gower was the author of three volumes entitled “ Speculum Meditantis," “ Vox Clamantis," and " Confessio Amantis:" of these, the first is a moral tract, and relates to conjugal duties: the second is a metrical chronicle concerning the insurrection of the people under Richard II. in elegaic verse: the third, or “ Lover's Confession,” relates to the morals and metaphysics of love. The following gem is a specimen of his fancy in describing the feelings of a lover, in which he approaches the tender gallantry of Petrarch, and to which the description of Milton's music, that “ takes the prisoned soul and laps it in Elysium,” is akin*.

" As the windes of the south

Ben most of alle debonaire :
So whan hir liste to speke faire,
The vertue of hir goodly speche
Is verily myn hertes leche.
And if it so befalle among,
That she carol upon a song,
Whan I it hear I am so fedd,
That I am fro miself so ledd
As though I were in Paradis ;
For certes as to myn avis,
Whan I heare of her voice the steven,
Me thinketh it is a blisse of heven."

Joun WICKLIFFE.-About this period was the celebrated Wickliffe the earliest reformer of religion from Popery. He was born in Yorkshire, in 1324, in a parish from which he takes his name. It would far exceed our limits were we to go into the particulars of his religious life; history has faithfully recorded them, and such of our readers as may desire to know more of this extraordinary man, will find ample amusement and instruction in the perusal. He died on the last day of December, 1384. His most effectual attack on the corruption of religion was his translation of the Bible into English. This occupied many of the latter years of his life, and remains a * Dr. Johnson's History of the English Language.

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