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Lord Mayor and Aldermen for life, with a salary of 2500l.; " he takes place,” says Maitland, “ in councils and in courts before any man that hath not been Lord Mayor: he speaks in the name of the city upon extraordinary occasions; usually reads and presents their addresses to the King; and when seated upon the bench, delivers the sentence of the Court."
Besides these, there are the CHAMBERLAIN, COMMON SERJEANT, CITY REMEMBRANCER, &c. as constituting the other leading city officers. The first mentioned receives and pays all the city monies, and with him are deposited all public securities, for which he accounts to the proper auditors.
I now proceed to mention separately those objects which more immediately attract attention, and commence with
ST. PAUL'S CATHEDR certainly the most magnificent Protestant Church in the world. The outward appearance of this superb building strikes the beholder with wonder and admiration, and carries at once to the mind the conviction that this is one of the finest structures of the kind that any age has produced. The general form of St. Paul's Cathedral is a long cross; the walls are wrought in rustic, and strengthened as well as adorned by two rows of coupled pilasters, one over the other, the lower Corinthian, and the upper Composite. The model is taken from St. Peter's at Rome, and it is built of fine Portland stone. Sir Christopher Wren laid the first stone on the 21st of June, 1675, and completed the design in 1710; but the decorations were not finished till the year 1723. The west front is very noble, and as we advance to the church up Ludgate Hill, its elegant construction, with the vast dome behind, fills the mind with a pleasing astonishment.
At this end a noble flight of steps of black marble extends the whole length of the portico, which consists of twelve lofty Corinthian columns below, and eight pillars of the Composite order above: these are all coupled and fluted, and support a pediment, in which the conversion of St. Paul is cut in bas-relief. The magnificent figure of the great apostle, on the apex of the pediment, with St. Peter on his right and St. James on his left, has a fine effect. The four evangelists, with their proper emblems on the front of the towers, are also worthy of remark : St. Matthew is distinguished, as usual, by an angel; St. Mark, by a lion; St. Luke, by an ox; and St. John, by an eagle.
Twelve semi-circular steps of black marble, form the ascent to the north portico : over its dome, which is supported by six large Corinthian columns, stand five of the apostles very appropriately situated.
The south portico answers to the north, and is placed directly opposite to it; but as the ground is lower on this side, the ascent is by a flight of twenty-five steps. On this side of the building are likewise five statues, which take their situation from that of St. Andrew, on the apex of the last mentioned pediment.
- At the east end of the church is a sweep or circular projection for the altar, finely ornamented with the orders, and with sculpture, particularly a noble piece in honor of King William III.
The dome, which rises in the centre of the whole, bas an extremely grand effect. On the summit of this is an elegant balcony, and from its centre rises the lantern, adorned with Corinthian columns; the whole is terminated by a ball, from which rises a cross, both elegantly gilt; the cross has lately been renewed. This vast and noble fabric, which is 2292 feet in circumference, and 340 feet in height to the top of the cross, is surrounded at a proper distance by a dwarf stone wall, on which is placed the most magnificent balustrade of cast iron, perhaps in the universe, of about five feet six inches in height, exclusive of the wall. In this stately enclosure are seven beautiful iron gates. These, together with the banisters, in number about 2500, weigh two hundred tons and eightyone pounds, which having cost sixpence per pound, with other charges, amounted to 11,2021. It is estimated that the whole expense of building this edifice amounted to 736,7521. 2s. 3d.
A fine statue of Queen Anne, lately renovated, stands in the area of the grand west front. The figures on the base represent Britannia with her spear; Gallia, with a crown in her lap; Hibernia, with her harp; and America, with her bow.
The clock, which here presents itself in the south-west tower, is worthy the stranger's notice, on account of its large dimensions. The pendulum is fourteen feet long, and the weight at the end of it is one cwt. The length of the minute hand is eight feet, and weighs seventy-five pounds; the hour hand is five feet five inches, and weighs forty-four pounds. The diameter of the dial is eighteen feet ten inches, and the length of the hour
figures two feet, two inches, and a-half. The bell has a very fine tone, and weighs four tons and a quarter.
If the interior is not so richly decorated as the exterior, it nevertheless presents to the mind ideas not very easily to be expressed, for on all sides the eye glances at something to create astonishment and delight. The flags which hang over the head in various directions are so many trophies of British valor. The whispering gallery is a great curiosity; the softest whisper is heard at the distance of its diameter, which is one hundred feet. When the door, wbich leads to it, is shut forcibly, it produces a strong reverberation, not unlike thunder. The library is very old, and said to possess a fine collection of books, presented by Bishop Crompton; and the flooring is an object not to be overlooked ; it consists of at least two thousand pieces of oak, The monuments and statues, which are numerous and very fine, will well repay the visitor's inspection. Over the entrance to the choir is a marble slab, with a Latin inscription, which in English reads thus : “ Beneath lies CHRISTOPHER WREN, builder of this church and city; who lived upwards of ninety years, not for himself, but for the public benefit. Reader, do you seek for his monument ?--- Look around.” Among other eminent characters, whose remains lie here, may be mentioned, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Benjamin West, Barry, and Opie, the painters, and John Rennie, the engineer, The perishable remains of Lord Nelson, and of his friend Collingwood, lie in the vault under the central part of the building,
The tax upon visitors, to see the whole interior, amounts to 2s. 6d. or 3s. and must be endured; for no one must say that he has visited London, without having been in St. Paul's.
TO BE CONTINUED.
TO ONE IN ADVERSITY.
THE POWDER OF PRELINPINPIN. The following very amusing conversation with the celebrated Quesnay, the founder of the sect of Economists, well known in France in the last century, has not, we believe, ever appeared in print in this country, at any event not in English. It is extracted from a journal kept by a female attendant of the celebrated Mad. de Pompadour. Amongst the most interesting information to be gleaned from this journal, are various particulars of Quesnay, who, it will be remembered, was a physician of eminence, and had a place at the French Court. Mad. du Hausset, the journalist, was an intimate friend of Quesnay, and both of them lived upon familiar terms with Louis and his mistress. The journal was printed in the original French by Mr. Quintin Crawford, an Englishman resident at Paris, in the year 1817, in a volume entitled, “ Mélanges d'Histoire et de Litterature," but was never published, and its circulation confined to Mr. Crawford's friends. Mad. du Hausset informs us~" I spoke with contempt of some one who was extremely fond of money; and the doctor (Quesday) replied, laughing, ' I had a strange dream last night. I was in the country of the ancient Germans. My house was spacious, and I was possessed of corn in abundance, of numerous flocks of cattle, and immense casks of beer; but I was afflicted with rheumatisın, and could not in any manner contrive to travel fifty leagues from thence to a fountain, the water of which would immediately cure me. It happened, too, to be situate in a foreign country. An enchanter appeared, and said to me, “I am moved by your distress; see! here is a small packet of the powder of Prelinpinpin ; every one to whom you give it, will afford you lodging and nourishment, and will heap upon you all sorts of politeness. I took the powder, and thanked him heartily.—Ah! how I should love the powder of Prelinpinpin,' exclaimed I (Mad. du Hausset): “I wish I had a drawer full of it.' 'Well,' said the doctor, 'this powder is the money you despise. Tell me, of all those who come here, who is it that is best received ? I answered, that I could not tell. "Well,' he continued, it is M. de Montmartel (banker to the court), who comes four or five times every year. Why is he treated with respect? Because he has his coffers filled with Prelinpinpin (then, drawing some Louis from his pocket): every thing that exists is locked up in these little pieces, which can carry you easily all over the world. All inen obey the few who have this powder, and are eager to do them a kindness. To despise money, is to set happiness, liberty, and all the varieties of enjoyment, at nought.' At this moment a knight with his blue riband passed under the window, and I remarked, • That gentleman is much more gratified with his riband, than with thousands and thousands of your coins.' "When I ask a pension from the king,' replied Quesnay, ' it is as if I were to say, Give me the means of obtaining a better dinner---of purchasing a warmer dress ---and a carriage to protect me from the wet, and carry me without fatigue; but he who seeks a riband, if he dared to speak what he thinks, would say, I am vain, and I am anxious when I walk along the streets to observe the people looking at me with a gaze of stupid wonder, and crowding round me; I am anxious when I enter a room to produce a sensation, and draw the attention of people, who perhaps make game of me at my departure ; I am anxious to be called My Lord,' by the multitude. All this is mere vanity. That riband would be of no consequence to him in a foreign country---it would give him no power; but my coins give me every where the means of succouring the distressed. Long life to the all-powerful powder of Prelinpinpin!' At these last words we heard bursts of laughter in an adjoining room, which was separated from us merely by a thin partition. The door being opened, the king entered with Madame (Pompadour) and M. de Gontant. He exclaimed, · Long life to the powder of Prelinpinpin! doctor, can you procure me some of it?' His Majesty had arrived, and had taken a fancy to hear what we were talking about. Madame treated the doctor with great courtesy; and the king, laughing and talking about the powder, took his departure.”
ELOQUENCE. There are some words, the meaning of which every one knows, and which it is, notwithstanding, extremely difficult to define. The word Eloquence is one of this description. Cicero defines it as the art of speaking with copiousness and embellishment; but surely this is not correct; a speech may be copious; may be highly embellished; it may be delivered fuently, and with proper gesture and emphasis; but if to all these is not added a suitableness to the auditory, the address will be as ineffectual as “ sounding brass or a tinkling cymbal.” True eloquence can, indeed, be known only by its effects; and that which would be eloquent when addressed to one class of people, or uttered at one particular time, would be ludicrously misplaced before another assembly, or at a later day. The man would be laughed at who addressed the House of Commons in the style suitable to the hustings, or to a mob; or who introduced there the declamation of the pulpit, or of the stage: all are excellent, all are eloquent, when confined to their proper places; but become ridiculous when transplanted to other soils. Virgil, when illustrating the power of eloquence, compares the quelling of a sedition by a well-timed address to the sudden calming of the ocean at the command of Neptune-a comparison certainly extremely beautiful, and giving a grand idea of the powers of human persuasion. The history of Rome gives an instance of a rebellion allayed in this very manner by an ingenious fable--a circumstance which Shakspeare has rendered familiar to every Englishman, by introducing it into his play of Coriolanus. Many similar instances might be quoted of speeches which produced all the effect of what we usually term
eloquence, without having any of the qualities which we are accus. tomed to include in the idea conveyed by that word. Selden, in his Table Talk, remarks, “ that rhetoric is best which is most seasonable and most catching;" and then goes on to relate, that an old blunt commander at Cadiz shewed himself a good orator, who desiring to make a speech to his soldiers, which he was not accustomed to do, addressed them thus: “ What a shame will it be, you Englishmen, who feed upon good beef and brewess, to let those rascally Spaniards beat you that eat nothing but vranges and lemons !” A similar instance may be quoted, which was related to us by an intelligent Irish friend. We were remarking, how necessary it is for preachers, when addressing extremely ignorant persons, to accommodate their discourses to the capacity of their hearers; and he related to us the following example. A celebrated Roman Catholic preacher, whose fame in Ireland was very great in the last century, and who was no less remarkable for his honest poverty than his eloquence, was addressing his auditory upon the joys of heaven, at a time when it was evidently and palpably necessary that his “outward man" should be accommodated with a new suit of clothes. Unable of himself to purchase them, and no offer of furnishing him having been made by his flock, he thus broached the subject to them. After describing heaven in very glowing terms, the preacher proceeded; “ Och! now, brethren,” in a short time I shall be journeying thitherward myself; and when I shall come to the gate, and Mr. Saint Peter shall see me, will he not say, “Och, Father, -and is it you ? and what have you been doing this long time? And shall I not say to him, ' Mr. Saint Peter, sir, I have been preaching, and I have been praying ; I have walked from town to town, and from village to village.--over bog, and through stream-by night and by day-at sun setting, and lark rising; and I have besought, and intreated, and persuaded the poor deluded wretches, that they would come into your fock.'- And then Mr. Saint Peter will say to me, “And what did they do to you, Father, for all this?" And now, you ill-mannered scoundrels, you, I ask you, what answer shall I make to him? Shall I tell him that you clothed me?' that would be a lie," at the same time holding up his elbows to them, both of which were bare. “Shall I tell him that you gave me wherewithal to clothe myself? that would be untrue," producing to them an empty bag. “ Shall I say that you gathered halfpence for me to cover my nakedness.”—“ Och! It shall be done! It shall be done,” interrupted the voices of his hearers; and the eloquence of the preacher obtained his aim.
Our limits will not allow us to proceed farther with this subject; but these instances sufficiently shew, that before it can be determined whether a speech be eloquent or not, the character of those to whom it was addressed must be considered.