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meetings, Sunday-school labors, domestic sol- and peasants, even humble maids with workitude and unsuciality, and untimely vigils. aday fingers round their pens, and thousands Such a day was never drawn from the Old of dumb, but prayerful dwellers in palaces Testament, and nobody ever pretended to and in huts " where poor men lie,” have come draw it from the New. To listen to the re- forward with their strong protest against the reading of the well-known law, to tell the rapid and insidious changing of the old Engoft-told tale of Egypt and the wilderness, were lish and Scottish Sabbath into a Pagan Sunquieting, and easy exercises, alike to priest day, no better than the Roman Merry-Anand people, to parents and children. By all drew's holiday of giddy France, or of wicked means, let the Sabbath be maintained as “a Austria and her cruel allies in belated Italy. day of holy convocation," as it certainly was most prominent by parliamentary position, from the very commencement of the Mosaic equal to any in the depth of the principle era ; but let it also be remembered and kept that quickened him, foremost in persistive holy as a day of much passivity and real re- constancy, and the favorite butt of popular as pose, for such was its other, and, indeed, its of polished scorn, stood and fell, in the thick primary use from the beginning

of this unprosperous cause, the late Sir An-But we must stop midway in this a drew Agnew, the principled and steadfast posteriori or afterhand discussion of the claims member for Wigtonshire, during seven ses of the Christian Sunday on the attention and sions of Parliainent. Conceiving that his observance of the world. The adverse reader nature has been much misunderstood, and in must understand, however, as the friendly order to come a little nearer the actual Sunone knows full well, that this is not a hun- day-question as it stands in the everyday dredth part of what has to be said ; and the world of London and Edinburgh, it may be an purpose of this article will be abundantly act of justice to inquire, in these pages, desubserved, if it drive the former to the more voted by a North British Review to this upsecret and legitimate study of so national and gent social and scientific, as well as religious, womentous a subject. Even the little that subject of Sunday in the nineteenth century, has been advanced on the present occasion, what manner of man the arch-sabbatarian of has been put forth in a peculiar style, of set this century of Sabbath-loving Christianity purpose ; the commoner strain of argument really was. For a full-sized image of the has been avoided, or only alluded to; and man, the well-written and hearty biography there has rather been presented the individ- by M'Crie must be referred to by the more ual view of a particular mind, living much curious student; - a work already in its secaloof from others, than anything like the ond edition, and too well known and apgoneric plea of ever so catholic a party. It is proved for a regular review at this time of the humble contribution of a private student day. to the common cause. Such as it is, it is a The scion of a long-ascending, line of distant and unfinished approximation to the baronets, constables, knights, untitled Sootadequate expression of one mode of thought tish barons, and Norman soldiers of fortune in concerning this patriarchal, Mosaic, and right England and Ireland, a race remarkable for Christian institute of the Sabbath-day; - an keeping to the purpose of their heart even in institute thoroughly paganized and vilified in Scotland, the land of pertinacity, this obstinate the territories of the Greek and Roman and unflinching Sabbatarian was born at churches already, and grievously imperilled Kingsale in Ireland, just sixty years ago, the in our own land at last. Last century there only child of a poor young father who died arose amongst doubters and unbelievers, this before the birth of this genuine Agnew. oentury there has actually arisen among pro- From the showing of his congenial biographer, fesring Christians and well-wishers, a spirit of one might well suppose that the old and indifference and hostility to our most patriotic aboriginal Agneaus must have been so-called and politic, as well as world-old and sanc- (like Kirke 's Lambs) on the principle of contioned day of rest. Excitement cannot stop, traries. Yet combative, aggressive, and selfpleasure cannot be stayed, cupidity will not providing soldiers and constables as it behoved withhold from gain, public and popular tyr- them to be (in order to suit the times, we Andy must and will have unrested slaves; fancy), they seem to have early displayed a the senses grudge the soul a day. Yet this religious turn of mind; and that quite com reverted and fateful current of apathy, frivol- patible spirit could not fail to show itself inity, and dissipation has by no means been domitable, valiant, dogmatic, and ready alike suffered to run unstemmed. True-hearted for coercion or martyrdom, in such a race. men of every class of our composite society Taken all in all, this ancient family of the bave lifted up their voices, and put forth their Agnews seem to have approved themselves hands. Bishops and divines, noblemen and as soldierlike, loyal, steadfast, kindly, and gentlemen, clergymen and scholars, physi- prudent a house as any in the land ; at onog gians and men of science, preachers and teach- proud and homely, brave yet wary, pious, but arx, book-reading and book-writing artisans by no means suffering their proper goods to

be spoiled, more capable of deep conviction | tion was getting in readiness to try his mettle. than of wide toleration, and much more tena- Parliament was besieged in 1831 with peticious than ready to render a reason.

tions about the Sabbath. The out-of-doors On the other hand the De Courcys, those leaders of the movement eventually fixed on old Earls of Ulster, with the head of whom the him as their parliamentary chief; and a stout first authentically recorded Agneau planted and obstinate battle he fought of it, in the himself in Ireland (whence à descendant house and on the platform, before both open eventually crossed in the reign of David II. to and exclusive meetings, in season and out of Wigton, and acquired Lochnaw, formerly ait, till he died in the cause. The man beroyal castle), probably underwent the soften- came possessed by tho idea of our blessed ing, light-hearted, sprightlier, and less earnest Sabbath ; and that to such a pitch of inspirainfluences of the Green Isle. Be this as it tion that, if the age had not been at once may, it is curious to find these long-parted averse to repose and incredulous of good, or lineages coming together again near the close even (with such fearful odds against him) ir of last century, in the marriage of Lieutenant he had been as logical, imperious, and eloAgnew to the Honorable Martha de Courcy, quent as he was otherwise able and heroic, he eldest daughter of John, twenty-sixth Lord must have won the day. Yet this gallant Kingsale, premier baron of Ireland ; a loving, and unyielding soldier of the Law and the sensitive, and most excellent woman, who Testimony wanted no laurels. It was his would assuredly have been frightened out of rare distinction to be indifferent to popular her wits among the old Scottish Agnews. applause and not afraid of popular obloquy. Their son Andrew and his sweet inother Here, said he, is the last new ballad just sung resided chiefly at Kingsale, under the guardian- under my windows : send it down to the ship of the maternal grandfather, until the North. When the Zanies were mocking death of Sir Stair in 1879, when he was sum- Copernicus on the public stage, he said the moned to take possession at Lochnaw. Then same :-Let them have their fun : the things he was handed over to Edinburgh, Oxford, I know give no pleasure to the people, and I Cheltenham, and glorious London, for a season. do not know the things that give them pleasA young baronet, of an uncommonly high and ure. For more than twenty years Sir Andrew delicate spirit, elegant, accomplished (for that waged a thankless and unproinising and (sooth he was—especially in heraldry), and as amia- to say) a little successful warfare, never fearble as his mother, though as stanch as old ing the face of clay, nor covetous of admiraSir Stair, this must have been a perilous time tion and sweet voices, but trusting his convicfor the future friend of the workman ; - and tions, and true to his secret God. We quescertes, that gay youth was actually getting tion whether any public character of recent ready to be the workman-like friend of all who times has done his stroke of work from such toil, us of the horny hand, and us also of the a depth of conviction, so unsustained by knitted brow! Well-principled and, what is adventitious circumstances, even Clarkson, equally to the purpose, well-natured, he es- and certainly Wilberforce, not excepted. In caped the dangers of youth and fashion. Nay, the last result, this is his proper glory-to the steadfast and self-preserving blood of the have been capable of doing without commenAgnews moved easily and at once in his heart surate success and without applause! Yet to the music of ideas more remote and fasci- Sir Andrew had respect unto the recompense nating than those of prudence and honor. The of reward : he would scarcely have been a accents of antique gospel-lore fell on his ear true Agnew if he had not. But he neared like no foreign tongue. Such glowing oracles the goal before he died. “ It is dangerous, as Gerard Noel, M'Crie the historian, and he said in that great hour,“ to speak of Chalmers, had only to speak, that so prepared what we have done.” “The instrument is a spirit might hear and understand the sign; nothing : God is all in all.” It is what they and in an Agnew to understand was to obey, all say, the good men and true, in one dialect when the subject matter of intelligence was or in another :-Not unto us, O Lord, not the saving of one's soul alive. In short, Sir unto us! Andrew solidified with the advance of manhood Such is a faint image of the great Scottish into an Evangelical Protestant, with a natural Sabbatarian. The cause is left with us who preference for episcopacy and the Church of remain, now that he has joined the majority England, derived from habit and early associ- at last, but we want a chief. In the meanations, but sturdily Scottish and Presbyterian while, this were a proper time and place to at the core ; and, in fact, he eventually review the past procedure of the case in the identified himself heart and hand with what spirit of searching and inexorable criticism, to is called the Free Church of Scotland. see if it were not defeated or deferred by the

In 1830 Sir Andrew was sent to Parliament errors of its friends; and also to discuss the by the county of Wigton, and after some broader and more politic principles on which reluctance he went with the Reform Bill. the standard should be advanced anew. But But another sort of task, and a deeper Reforma- these practical questions must be deferred till

another opportunity. The lawyers have de- connected with political economy; a few being cided that the People's Palace, as it is fondly original, but the majority revised and corrected called by the Proprietors, cannot be opened reprints. The direct treatises embrace some of a Sunday ; and the recent ministerial and of the most important questions with which parliamentary changes render it unlikely that political economy is concerned-money, exå special bill will be soon presented. After change, the letting and occupation of land, all, moreover, the true beginning of a Nation- interest and usury laws, with the celebrated al Reformation were the radical self-reform paradox on Irish absenteeism. The essays at of the friendly. Above everything, let the once historical and economical treat of the professing Sabbatarian, whether "Jew or Gen-commerce of the ancient world and the middle tile, whether Popish or Protestant, Evangeli- ages; the rise, progress, and decline of the cal or Formularian, cease from mere opinion trade of Holland ; the causes which created and denunciation, and begin to be a Sabbata- the Hanseatic League and subsequently derian in right earnest. That is to say, let him stroyed its power; the origin of the compass, see that he really work like an honest man the progress of maritime law, and the colonial during the six days of the week; for no sost systems of the ancients. The notices are and sighing do-nothing, no minion of ease biographical sketches of Quesnay, Adam and pietistic self-enjoyment, no idle busybody Smith, and Ricardo. A goodly variety of subwhose soul has lost its original sense of the jects, involving various knowledge and various comeliness of industry, is obedient to the accomplishments, and furnishing the means of First Part of that most noble Fourth Com- considering the character of their author as a mandment, or can even try to obey the political economist. Second. He must then make sure that, sup Natural qualities of mind may be stimulated posing him to have been faithful to the prime by circumstances or improved by culture, sal pledge of honest labor, he really and truly but cản never be supplied by art or effort. rest on the Seventh Day, and all his house- The sound common sense, the penetrating hold, nay, and all the world in so far as he is sagacity, and the wide sympathy, though concerned. He must be no party to the over- rather perhaps of the understanding than of tasking of ministers and teachers, any more the feelings, which distinguished the great than to the muleting of household or street founder of political economy, were the gift of servants of ever so small a part of their one nature. Adam Smith's education at Oxford, day of rest, and freedom, and Christianlike his employment at Edinburgh as a lecturer on self-disposal. In short, he must irremissibly Rhetoric and the Belles Lettres, his engagedetermine that not only himself, but also ment at Glasgow, however brief, as Professor every other man of woman born however of Logic, and his subsequent elevation to the humble (to the extent, that is, that he can chair of Moral Philosophy, which originated help or withhold from hindering) shall actu- the theory of Moral Sentiments, gave him that ally be a gentleman of the grand old type of close and extensive knowledge of history, of the Garden of Eden, at least for fifty-two days, man, and of man's feelings and doings, withor seven weeks and a half, of the Christian out which he never could have produced the year. What an altered world it were, even Wealth of Nations. That unerring sagacity in a secular point of view, if such a consum- which never failed bim when he had sufficient mation could only be brought about! Then data in the form of facts to deduce his conin very deed might the gentle poor man, a clusions--the power of analysis, at once keen far nobler being than the poor gentleman of and profound, which enabled him not merely " the ignorant present time," look down to lay down the laws conducing to the wealth without reserve into the welcoming eye of his of nations, but to present his reader with the loftiest brother man, were it a burdened essential principles of the defence of nations, prophet, a laurelled poet, a crowned discov- of public expenditure, and other subjects of erer, or a king sitting on his serviceable government - the wisdom applied alike to the throne.

history of society and to the most trivial

individual expenditure--would all have been From the Spectator--Parts of an article.

comparatively useless but for his vast and

varied learning, and the attention he bestowed M'CULLOCH'S WRITINGS ON POLITICAL upon pursuits which his age avowed to be, and ECONOMY. *

this age without avowing considers to be

vulgar. This volume consists of treatises, essays, of the many successors of Adam Smith, and biographical notices on men or matters M'Culloch comes the nearest to him in his

variety of knowledge and his various sympaTreatises and Essays on Subjects connected with thies; for although

Mill had as varied knowl, Quesnay, Adam Smith, and Ricardo. By J. R. edge, and perhaps deeper learning, his rigid M'Culloch, Esq., Member of the Institute of France. logic and dryness of mind discarded from a Published by A. and C. Black, Edinburgh. subject everything which did not mathematiCCCCLXIY.

6

LIVING AGE.

VOL. I.

sense.

cally belong to it. The sympathy of M'Cul-summary reviews of commerce, from its origin loch, however, is even more decidedly of the with (80 far as we know) the Phoenicians, head than that of the great master, and might till about the close of the last century, is not perhaps more properly be called interest. He only the most attractive but really the best has none of the pervading pleasantry which portion of this volume. animates the style of Smith, and brings the minds of the philosopher and the pupil into

On the subject of the relations of the free press fellowship; but M'Culloch's style is plain and forcible — the latter quality, notwithstanding first spirited answer that we have seen from any

to the new French Empire, we put on record the his hammerlike blow, being, somewhat too foreign power to the demand impudently made uniform. His knowledge of what others have for a general literary proscription in Europe — advanced on political economy is very great, all the more willingly as this rebuke comes from not only extending to modern economists, but an inferior power in the immediate vicinity of to old and obscure writers. He is greater as France. In his zeal to prevent Europe from an expounder than as an original inquirer. reading the passionate denunciation of M. Victor In fact, from some deficiency of inventive Hugo, “ Napoléon le Petit,” the new Emperor, logic, conjoined with a want of (to speak has caused his minister to complain of the mulphrenologically) the “ organ

of cautiousness,''

"tiplication of copies “ by the clandestine presses" his own opinions are often questionable, if not of Berne, and to demand the suppression of these heretical." Such we consider are his theories presses and the prosecution of the printers. The on Irish absenteeism, the impossibility of Department of Justice and Police of the canton gluts, and on there being no such thing as un

reply with great spirit — that “ according to the productive expenditure in the economical existing laws, neither a patent nor an authoriza

tion of the police is required to establish a printThe same want of cautiousness which ing-office in the canton of Berne ; from which induces him to push originality into paradox it follows that the expression, clandestine printalso induces him to state a paradox in the ing-office,' has no meaning in law. It must, bebroadest and extremest manner. It is said sides, be mentioned,” they add, as putting the that Queen Elizabeth insisted on having no case beyond the jurisdiction of the court, “ that, shadow in her portrait ; in like manner, Mr. according to the existing laws, the cantonal auM'Culloch will allow of no hesitation or thorities cannot officially prosecute a publication question about his views, either to himself or offensive to a foreign government when sold or others. What he sees he sees with wonder- even printed in the canton.” - Atheneum. ful distinctness ; but he cannot, or he will not, Boe much at once, and he is too apt to require CURIOUS MARRIAGE LEASE. — An assault case everybody else not only to see as he sees, but came before the Birmingham magistrates last not to see anything else, either more or less. week, which, like the majority of matrimonial The endless shades and neutral tints which squabbles, would have been simply interesting are found in nature are overlooked in the in the eyes of those immediately concerned, but presentations of our limner ; everything there for a legal curiosity which was brought to light is not only distinct but "stark staring. " in the course of the hearing. A young fellow Neither is he very tolerant of those who differ named William Charles Capas was charged with from him even on difficult or abstruse subjects. assaulting his wife. In giving her evidence, Indeed, it is perhaps his manner of urging Mrs. Capas mentioned that her husband was not paradoxes, as inuch as the actual paradoxes, living with her, but was “ leased” to a young that raised up so many opponents, and for woman named Hickson. This being a species of some years brought discredit on political inquiry into the matter was made, when it was

contract unknown to the magistrates, further economy itself

. Even when he cannot resist elicited that a regular legal document had been an argument, he is apt to deny its importance drawn up, by which Capas and Hickson bound, or extent, on his mere ipse dixit.

or, as they termed it, « leased” themselves to As an expounder or enforcer of established each other for the term of their natural lives

. truth, Mr. M'Culloch is very eminent. His The “ lease” was produced in court and read. peculiarity of genius renders him less certain The girl Hickson was present at the time of the as an applier of economical science - as wit- alleged assault. On being asked about the ness some of his lato propositions for the lease,” she admitted that she signed it, and management of our fiscal system. His lead- stated that it was drawn up by Mr. Campbell, ing pursuit, his varied knowledge, and in a the lawyer, who told her at the time she signed certain sense his catholic range of mind, would put in that paper as evidence. She,

it that if Capas' wife gave her any annoyance he together with his literary acquirements, render him eminent as an economical historian; office, and that she believed Mr. Campbell

moreover, said that the paper was signed at his for he combines, and in a high degree, that charged 11. 15s. for drawing it up. The magis, special knowledge which is not always found trates fined Capas 2s. 6d. for the assault, and in the historical inquirer, with the various commented in very strong terms on the document reading in which the mere economist is very which had that day been brought before them. often deficient. Hence, we think that the Stamford Mercury.

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From the Gentleman's Magazine. (deep in Lethe when men will be still addressTHE BARONESS D’OBERKIRCH AND CITI- ing themselves with pleasure to the pages of

Citizen Mercier.
ZEN MERCIER.

Louis Sebastian Mercier was a Parisian, If it were possible that the vexed spirit of born in the year 1740. He had not yet atthe above-named illustrious lady could be tained his majority when he opened his literconscious that her very noble name could ary, career by poetical compositions in the have been mingled with that of a common style of Pope's " Heloise to Abelard.” Upon bourgeois her indignation would be most in- poets, however, he soon looked as he subsetense. Had she ever reflected that her keep- quently did upon kings, and speedily ading a diary would have made of her a member dressed himself exclusively to works in prose. of the republic of letters, she would have died Racine and Boileau, according to him, had rather than have belonged to such a common- ruined the harmony of French verse, and he wealth. The baroness was one of a class henceforward considered that if such' harmowhose numbers were great and whose in- ny were to be found at all, it was in his own Ouence was unbounded. Their sympathies prose. He became Professor of Rhetoric in were given only to aristocratic sufferers ; roy- the college at Bordeaux, and was rather a alty they adored; the democracy they de- prolific than a successful dramatic author. spised ; and the very fine ladies of the ass in He threw the blame ike on the vitiated question would, generally speaking, have pre- taste of actors and public, and, shaking the ferred a faux pas with a prince to contracting dust off his sandals against theatres and honest marriage with an inferior.

capital, he hastened to Rheims, with the inThe Baroness D'Oberkirch is a type rather tention of practising the law, in order to be of the follies than of the vices of the class, for better enabled to apply its rigors against having made her a member of which she the stage managers who had deprived him of prettily offered her best compliments to Hear- bis “ free-admissions.” In 1771 he printed

She was the daughter of a poor Alsatian his “ L'An 2440, ou Rève s'il en fut jamais,' baron, whose shield had more quarterings a rather clever piece of extravagance, which than it is worth while to remember. Early was imitated in England, half a century later, in life she married a noble gentleman, old by the author of “ The Mummy.' În 1781 enough to be her father, and her best years he published anonymously the first two volwere consumed in performing the functions of umes of his famous Tableau de Paris. He lady-in-waiting at the court of the Duke of was disappointed that his labor was not deemed Wurtemberg at Monibeliard, in visiting the worthy of notice by the police authorities, diore attractive court at Versailles, and in and he retired, somewhat in disgust, to chronicling what she saw, and registering Switzerland, where he completed a work which what she thought.

has been far more highly esteemed abroad The diary which she kept, and subsequently than in France, and which even there enjoyed enlarged, has been recently submitted to the a greater reputation in the provinces than in public. It introduces us to the court and Paris. In it he showed himself a better capital of France during the closing years of sketcher of what lay before him than a disthe reign of Louis XVI. It is interesting, as cerner of what was beneath the surface; and showing us both how the court acted and how he spoke of the impossibility of a revolution the capital thereon commented; how the in France only a year before that revolution lady profoundly admired all the former did, broke out. When the storm burst in fury he and as profoundly despised all the thought claimed the honors due to a magician who devoted thereto by the canaille, who had no had provoked the tempest. He wrote vigorclaim to stand upon red-heeled shoes, or to sit ously on the popular side, but — and to his down on a tabouret in the face of royalty. lasting honor be it spoken -- he broke with

Now while this illustrious lady was taking the Jacobins, when he found that they hoped notes, which her grandson has printed, a citi- to walk to liberty through a pathway of zen was similarly occupied ; and, had the blood. He voted in the Convention for savCountess been aware of the circumstance, ing the life of Louis XVI., and this and other the impertinence of the commoner would have offences against the sons of freedom, whose been soundly rated by the lady-in-waiting. abiding-place was the Mountain, caused him The notes of the bourgeois were committed to be arrested, and would have led to his exto the press three quarters of a century ago ; ecution but that his enemies were carried those of the “ Baroness-Countess” have only thither before him. At a later period he just seen the light.* The evidence of two was a member of the Council of Five Hundred, such opposite witnesses is worth comparing; and made himself remarkable by opposing but the book of the lady will be ten fathom the claims set up for Descartes for admission

into the French Pantheon ; and he also gained • The Baroness d’Oberkirch's Memoirs. London, the approbation of all rightly-thinking men 1852. 3 vols. 8vo.

for taking the same adverse course against

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