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can be now peacefully and with wise foresight introduced and gradually extended over the world.

Many would-be-philosophers, and some who The obstacles to be removed, to prepare the forget their own difficulties in their first attempts way for these changes, are the errors of all re- to introduce a knowledge of electricity, magnetligions, and the uncharitable feelings which each ism, mesmerism, and clairvoyance, as well as necessarily creates against the members of all those of others in introducing any new great other religions.

improvements who do not know what has been And the error of all existing governments, attained and proved in other countries, and who respecting the fundamental principle which can have not calmly and perseveringly investigated alone cultivate and stimulate the natural fac- the facts long since ascertained as undeniable ulties of man, to unity, charity, truth, love or will hastily decide that these new manifestations, real goodness, among the human race, from the although apparently mere extensions of animal birth to the death of each.

magnetism, are cunningly devised deceptions. These obstacles are to be now removed, not Against any such crude and premature conby violence, or abusive language, or in an un- clusions I strongly protest, knowing how long kind spirit ; but with patience, forbearance, per- these same objectors have opposed the introducseverance, and love for mankind, regardless of tion of the system which I have for half a century color, clime, country, class, sect, or party, or advocated - a system based solely ou self-evident difference of race or condition.

facts, and built up on self-evident deductions All are to be made happy, or none can be from those facts — a system having in view made to be substantially and permanently so. solely the permanent good of all from birth to

The means by which to effect this, the greatest death - a system, and the oniy system, calcuof all changes in human existence, are, like all |lated to compel all from their birth to become the operations of nature to attain general im- gradually as good, wise and happy, as their portant results, simple in principle and easy in organization, given to them by the Great Crepractice.

ating Power of the universe, or God, will admit. All that is requisite is, to supersede, without I protest against the conclusions of these violence, the false fundamental principle on would-be-thought wise philosophers, because I which alone human affairs have been until now have patiently, with first impressions strongly constructed and governed, and the characters of against the truthfulness of these manifestations, all have been cultivated and formed from birth. investigated their history and the proceedings And in practice, to abandon the evil course of connected with them in the United States — have creating inferior and injurious conditions, now read the most autheuticated works for and universal throughout all countries, neces- against them, with much desire to disbeliere sarily making those within them inferior and those in their favor — and, although against injurious to themselves and others. And, instead strong evidence, I long continued to doubt, and of these evil proceedings, to commence the thought the whole a delusion (but in many practice of creating good and superior con cases I was obliged to admit it must be an honest ditions only, in which from birth to place all of delusion), I have been compelled to come to a the human race. And then, from necessity, all very different conclusion. will become good and superior, and gradually, by While in doubt upon this subject I heard of this new education, very good and very superior. the media in this country, and was casunlly in

Were it not for these new and most extraordi- troduced to Mrs. Hayden, an American medium, nary manifestations, there would arise a conflict without having any intention to ask a question between the evil spirits of democracy and aris- respecting the spirits ; my object being to purtocracy, which would deluge the world with chase a book which Mrs. Hayden had for sale, blood, and would create universal violence and written by a valued and most truthful friend of slaughter among all nations. But these mani- mine in America — Adin Ballou, who has written festations appear to be made at this period, to a plain, practical, common-sense history of this prepare the world for universal peace, and new revelation to the human race. to infuse into all the spirit of charity, forbearance While conversing with Mrs. Hayden, and and love.

while we were both standing before the fire, and These new and extraordinary manifestations talking of our mutual friends, suddenly raps have not changed my confidence in the truth of were heard on a table at some distance from us, the principles which I have so long advocated, no one being near to it. I was surprised, and nor my assurance of the benefits to be derived as the raps continued and appeared to indicate from their universal application to practice. On a strong desire to attract attention, I asked the contrary, the certainty of the immense per- what was the meaning of the sounds. Mrs. manent advantnges to be insured by the adoption Hayden said they were spirits anxious to comof this system by the human race, has been con- municate with some one, and she would inquire firmed to me by the spirits of Jefferson, Benjamin who they were. They replied to her, by the Franklin, the Duke of Kent, and Grace Fletcher. alphabet, that they were friends of mine who

Those who are wise, and who are not opposed were desirous to communicate with me. Mrs. to the universal happiness of mankind, will Hayden then gave me the alphabet and pencil, mark, learn, and inwardly digest these things. and I found, according to their own statements,

ROBERT OWEN. that the spirits were those of my Mother and London, March 30th, 1853.

Father. I tested their truth by various ques

tions, and their answers, all correct, surprised | are the best calculated to make all good, wise me exceedingly. I have since had twelve seances, and happy? A. “ Yes.” some of long continuance, and during which I have Q. What spirit, or spirits, can and will assist asked a considerable number of questions ; to all and advise me in accomplishing this change of which, with one exception, I have had prompt A. “All will.” and true answers so far as the past, and present, and very rational replies as to the future ; but At this period of the sitting, as I found Mr. these last have to be tested by time. The ex- Smith could hear the raps more easily than I ception was my own afterwards discovered error. could, I gave him the pencil, and requested he

In mixed societies, with conflicting minds, I would take down the answers. And the follow have seen very confused answers given ; but I ing are copied from his notes. believe, in all these cases, the errors have arisen

Q. Have I, as has been said, some particular froin the state of mind of the inquirer. The following are some of the answers which I

guardian angels ? A. “Yes." have had from the invisible agents, said by “Mary Owen,” “ Anne Caroline Owen” (my

Q. Will you name them by the Alphabet ? A theniselves to be the spirits of departed friends, daughters deceased); “ Robert Owen " (my and from others whom I never saw, but whom I

father's name) ; “ Anne Williams'' (my mother's wished to consult.

maiden name); At one Sitting.

Q. Have I been assisted in my writings for

the public by any particular spirit? A. “Yes” Q. Are there many spirits present? A. "No."

Q. What spirit ? A. “Gon."
Q. How many ? A. “ Two."
Q. Who are they, and will you name them by

[This reply was made in such a manner as to the alphabet ? A.Wife,” and “ Mary Owen”, create a peculiarly awful impression on those (my youngest daughter).

present.] Q. What object have the spirits at this period, Q. Shall I continue to be assisted by the same in thus manifesting themselves to us? A. “ To spirit ? A. “ Yes." reform the world." Q. Can I materially promote this object? A. but I have had twelve or thirteen other sittings,

Space will not admit of more in this number ; “ You can assist in promoting it.” Q. Shall I be aided by the spirits to enable with the declared spirit of His Royal Highness

and some of them of deep interest ; especially me to succeed ? A. “ Yes."

Q. Shall I devote the remainder of my life to the late Duke of Kent and Strathearn. But he this mission ? A. “ Yes."

has requested me not to publish his communicaQ. Shall I hold a public meeting to announce tions until a time which he will state to me.

RODERT OWEN. to the world these proceedings, or shall they be made known through the British Parliament?

London, 5th April, 1853. A. “ Through the British Parliament.

Q. Shall I also apply for an investigation of Browne's Ascent of Mont Blanc.* this subject to the Congress of the United States ?

This large paper-bound folio is the work of A. “ Yes."

Mr. J. D. H. Browne, one of the gentlemen who Q. Through the present American ambassador ? achieved last summer the most recent ascent of A. Yes."

Mont Blanc. It is a curiosity, and an interesting Q. When shall I next hear from my family in one. The designs are not mere reminiscences, but America ? A. Next week.” This answer has are completed from sketches made on the spot ; the proved to be correct.

author having enjoyed exemption to an unusual At another sitting, soon after its commence

degree from the knocking-up effects of the adment, Mr. Smith, Editor of the “ Family Her

Here we follow the two Englishmen ald,” and a gentleman unknown to me, came in, and their nine guides in their ladder-ascent of and I was about to desist in my inquiries and to the glaciers before the Grands Mulets ; their leave them ; but Mr. Smith, whom I had long encampment on the Grands Mulets ; their searchknown, was very urgent that I should proceed ing for the passage of the Crevasse du Dôme, in asking the questions I intended, and I there by lantern-light amid fathomless precipices, fore proceeded.

ghost-white glaciers, and black night; their Previous to their entrance, on its being an

perilous crossing of the crevasse ; their breaknounced that a spirit was present, I had asked

fast on the Grand Plateau, within view of the

summit ; the first use of the axe in hewing away Q. What spirit is present?.. A. By the Al- the higher ice ; the view of the Italian side of the phabet, “ Benjamin Franklin."

mountain ; the scaling of la Côte ; the final rest Q. How shall I know you from other spirits, upon the loftiest peak of Mont Blanc ; and the or that you are truly the spirit of Benjamin stumbling, slipping, precipitating descent. Spite Franklin ? A. “I will give three distinct raps.' of some artistic deficiencies, the designs are charAnd three very distinct raps were given. acteristic and life-like ; and the verbal narrative

Q. Is it true that conditions can be created, is graphic enough to atone for occasional flightithrough man's agency, by which all may be

Spectator. made to become good, wise, and happy? A. "Yes.'

* Ten Scenes of the last Ascent of Mont Blanc, Q. Are the conditions which I have had 80 including Five Views from the Summit. Published long in my mind for this purpose, those which by M'Lean.



From the Gentleman's Magazine. natural or animal body, and the sout 792417THE DEAD, AS DESCRIBED BY HOMER: xóv, a spiritual body; (1 Cor. xv.) and the

same thing is implied in other passages of COLLECTED FROM DR. JORTIN'S SIXTH DISSERTA- Scripture. (See Dan. xii. 23. Wisdom, iïi. 7.)



The subject of the condition of the human

It retains the lineaments of the man, and apsoul after death forms with us a part of the pears in the same dress that the man wore in his domain of religion; and it is very rarely lifetime. — (Dissert., p. 217.) that theology permits the intrusion of poetry In proof of this Dr. Jortin cites a passage within the limits which she calls her own. from the eleventh Odyssey, but there is one Among the Greeks, the poets were the oldest in the twenty-third Ilias singularly appusite. and most accepted theologians. It was the opinion of Herodotus, that the objects of

*няв й ілі фuxй Пzтекля:с дилгio

Πάντ' αυτώ, κ. τ. λ.Greek worship owed their forms and their

—(Line 65.) very names to Homer and Hesiod.

6. These When, lo! the shade, before his closing eyes, were they (he says) who made the Greeks a Of sad Patroclus rose, or seemed to rise ; theogony, and gave names to the gods, dis In the same robe he living wore he came, tinguished their honors and occupations, and In stature, voice, and pleasing look the same. determined their forms."* The state of the

(Pope.) disembodied spirit in that future world to Jeremias is described when he appeared to which mankind instinctively looks forward, Judas as “a man with gray hairs and excel though with shrinking and half-averted gaze, lent majesty.” (2. Maccab. xv. 13.) The was à subject which could not but exercise a belief has been universal ; 80 the ghost in inysterious influence upon the imagination of " Hamlet." men who were looked upon not only as poets

MARCELLUS. but as seers, and upon whose rhapsodies their countrymen depended for all their notions Look where it comes again. upon the most mysterious and important matters. The subject was an attractive one, not

BERNARDO. only as presenting a wide and suggestive field In the same figure, like the King that's dead. to the imagination, but also as involving questions in the solution of which every

HORATIO. human being was personally and vitally inter Such was the very armor he had on ested. In what way did the Greek poets When he the ambitious Norway combated ; satisfy the cravings. of their countrymen for So frowned he once. information concerning the spiritual world ? We have thought it would not be uninterest- And of his beard, ing, taking Dr. Jortin's Dissertation for our

It was as I have seen it in his lifetime, text, to collect some passages from ancient

A sable, silvered. writers upon this topic.

It is obvious to observe that a spirit's assum

ing the likeness of its former bodily shape The Soul of Man, separated from the body, is seeing a necessary consequence of its appear material

, or clothed with a material covering or ing at all. vehicle, but of so thin a contexture that it cannot be felt or handled ; it resembles a shadow or

It retains the passions, affections, sentiments, a dream. — (Dissert., p. 216.)

and dispositions that it had in the body. - (DisThis was the ancient Pythagorean and Pla- sert., p. 218.) tonic philosophy: την ημετέραν ψυχήν τόδε μεν There is a fine passage in the eleventh σώμα καταλείψειν

, ου πάντη δε έξω σώματος ίσισθαι; Odyssey illustrative of the above, where the -our soul, though it leave ihis body, yet shall shade of Achilles exults on hearing of his never be disunited from all body. (See Cud

son's military glory, worth's Intell. System, ii. 784.) This future body was supposed to be a sort of airy or va

Φοίτα, μακρά βιβάσα, κατ' άσφιδελόν λειμώνα, porous body, σώμα αυγοειδές, ουράνιον, αιθέριον,

17 @coúra, ö oi viò ion àgodrízetey sires. a luciform, celestial, ethereal body. The Rab

(L. 537.) bins also ascribe to the soul, after its separation from the present body, another subtile

-The shade with transport glowed, one, which they call the scabbard of the soul.

Rose in his majesty and nobler trod. — (Pope.) This is all agreeable to the Christian doctrine. That the same affections and sentiments are St. Paul says, there is the course fuxixor, a continued in another state, was taught by * Herodotus, ii. 53.

our Saviour in the story of Dives and Lazarus;



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for, although it should only be regarded as a | ance of Samuel was regarded as a real trangparable, it still necessarily shadowed forth the action by the author of Ecclesiasticus, for be true state of things.

says, By his faithfulness he was found a true prophet, and by his word he was known

to be faithful in vision ; for after his death he Although it cannot be handled, it may be seen showed the king his end, and lift up his voice and heard, and it can converse with other shades from the earth in prophecy.” (Eccles. xlvi.). and with men. - (Dissert., p. 218.)

The Rabbins say that the woman was the

mother of Abner ; she is said to have had The spirit, however, could only reäppear the spirit of Ob, which, Dean Milman has during the interval between death and the remarked, is singularly similar in sound to rites of sepulture, in the hundred years in the name of the Obeah women in the West which the unburied wandered on the banks Indies. Herodotus also mentions Thesprotia, of the Styx. Thus Patroclus,

in Epirus, as the place where Periander evoked

the spirit of his wife Melissa, whom he had Θιπτι όττι τάχιστα πύλας αίδιο περήσω. .

murdered (Lib. v. c. 92.) Τηλέ με «ίργουσι ψυχαι. κ. τ. λ.

(Il. xxiii. 71.)

It was a very general opinion that demons

had power over the souls of the dead, until Which Pope translates, somewhat para- them from the thrall of the Prince of Dark

Christ descended into Hades, and delivered phrustically,

The dead were sometimes raised by Let my pale corse the rites of burial know ; those who did not possess a familiar spirit. And give me entrance to the realms below; These consulters repaired to the grave at Till then the spirit finds no resting place ; night, and there lying down repeated certain But here and there th’unburied spectres chase words in a low, muttering tone, and the spirit The vagrant dead around the dark abode, thus summoned appeared : “And thou shalt Fated to cross th' irremeable flood,

bo brought down, and shalt spenk out of the Now give thy hand ; for to the farther shore


and thy speech shall be low out of the When once we pass the soul returns no more. When once the last funereal fames ascend,

dust, and thy voice shall be as one that hath a No more shall meet Achilles and his friend.

familiar spirit, out of the ground, and thy speech shall whisper out of the dust." (Isaiah xxix. 4. See also Id. viii. 19.) Eurip

ides refers also to necromancy. It may be raised with proper sacrifices and evocations, by permission of the deities who pre

ADMETUS. side over the dead. But it is a dangerous thing to have recourse to these methods ; for, if those

όρα γε μή τι φάσμα νεοτέρων του και; surly gods should be offended, they may send a Gorgon, a formidable monster, to terrify and

HERCULES. perhaps destroy the bold adventurer. (Dis ου ψυχαγωγών τόνδ' έποιήσω ξένον. . sert., p. 218.)

(Alcestis, 1127.) The subject of necromancy is curious. It Ad. — See ! is not this some spectre from the was practised before the time of Moses ; for

dead ? one of his laws is directed against it. There HER. — No dead-invoker for thy guest hast shall not be found among you - a charmer, or

thou. a consulter with familiar spirits, or a wizard, Seneca describes the spirits of the dead as or a necromancer. (Deut. xviii. 10.) Diodo- being evoked by the Psychagogos in a cave, rus Siculus mentions an oracle near Lake Avernus, where the dead were raised, as

rendered gloomy and as dark as night by the Hercules. (Liv. iv. c. 22.) Plutarch, in his recollection the incantation scene in “Machaving been in existence before the age of cypress, Jaurel, and other like trees. (Ed. life of Cimon, relates that Pausanias, in his beth,” where the apparition of the arıned distress, applied to the Psychagogi or Dead- head, &c, is evoked in a dark cave, with erokers, at Heraclea, to call up the spirit of characteristic ceremonies. (Act iv. sc. 1.) Cleonice (whose injured apparition haunted Claudian refers to the same superstition, him incessantly), in order that he might (See Rufin. i. 155.) And Lucan (Phars. vi. entreat her forgiveness. She appeared aocordingly, and informed him that, on his 670), where Erictho recalls a spirit to animate return to Sparta, he would be delivered from much in accordance with the taste of that

the body it had left, by horrid ceremonies, all his sorrows; meaning by death. This

writer. So Tibullus, was five hundred years before Christ; and the story resembles that of the apparition of Hæc cantn finditque solum, manesque sepulchris Samuel - To-morrow shalt thou and thy sons Elicit, et tepido devocat ossa toro. be with me. (1 Sam. xxxviii.) The appear

(Lib., i., El. ii. 45.)



A good account of necromancy may be found

HORAT. in the learned and curious work of L. Ch. What if it tempt you tow'rd the flood, my Lord, Frid. Garmannus, “ De Miraculis Mortu- Or to the dreadful summit of the cliff orum ;" see the tenth chapter of the Second That beetles o'er his base into the sea ? Book, which treats De Spectris Cadaverum. And there assume some other horrible form He also speaks of another kind of invocation, which might deprive your sovereignty of reason, that of calling back to their own country the And draw you into madness. (Act 1, sc. 4.) souls of those who died abroad. He


that the dead were also sometimes invoked, that Constantine, by one of his laws, made penal the surviving relatives might be assured of such magic arts as were calculated to injure their still living in the other world. Julian others, but permitted those which might be the Apostate secretly practised this art, in a beneficial. In James the First's time persons retired part of his palace, cutting up for the practising magic were hanged. purpose the bodies of virgins and boys — if we inay credit two Christian bishops (Gregory Nazianzen and Chrysostom), who, we are told, The ghost likes to approach the sacrifices, and could relate such tales “ without a smile, and drink of the blood of the victims. — (Dissert., p. without a blush.” Bodinus mentions similar 220.) ceremonies. (See De Magorum Dæmonomania, Lib. ii., c. ii. iii.) Evocation was

Porphyry, who wrote in the early part of practised by the northern nations, as may be the third century, speaking of dæmons, says, seen in (Gray's translation of the Ode from the oύτοι οι χαίροντες λοιβή τε, κνίσση τε διών αυτών το Norse tongue, preserved in the Latin version σωματικών και πνευματικών πιαίνεται: ζη γάρ τούτο by Bartholinus, entitled " The descent of arucis urà avagy pedigenot. These are they who Odin,” that is, to the drear abode of Helas, sacrifices, wherewith their corporeal and spiritual

take pleasure in incense, fumes, and nidours of the goddess of death. The answers of the prophetic maid are with difficulty extorted part is fattened. Celsus and St. Basil mention

the same thing. (See Cudworth, vol. ii., p. from her.

810, 811.) Milton has an allusion to this, FATIDICA. Quisnam Hominum

the night-hag, when called Mihi ignotorum

In secret, riding through the air she comes,
Mihi facere præsumit

Lured by the smell of infants' blood, to dance
Tristem animum ?
With Lapland witches.

(P. L.) Garmannus observes that the Egyptian hieroInvita hæc dixi,

glyphic for the soul was it hawk, because it Jamque silebo.

never drinks water, but only blood, with And in the poem from the Hervara Saga, pub- which the Egyptians believed the spirits of the lished by Olaus Verelius, Hervor calls up by departed were nourished. (Lib. ii., Tit. x. c. enchantments the apparition of her father 60, 61.). It appears from Homer also that Angantyr —

before the spirit tasted the sacrificial blood,

it had no recollection of its former life ; and Hervor ! daughter !

sometimes did not speak, or possess the proFull of' spells to raise the dead,

phetic power.

Tiresias says to Ulysses,
Why dost thou call me thus ?

(MS. translation.) αλλ' αποχίσου βόθρου άπισχε δέ φί σγανον οξύ, Ile then predicts her future fate. The appa

αίματος όφρα πίω, και του νημερτία ειπω.

(Od. xi. 94.) rition of Samuel complains also. Why hast thou disquieted me to bring me up? The Remove from the foss, and sheathe your sharp Druids claimed the same power ; and Picart, sword, that I may quaff the blood, and utter on the religion of the Banians, states that the true words. The sense of which passage, it Tunquinese believe their witches maintain a may be observed, is entirely lost in Pope's correspondence with the evil spirit, and have translation. As soon as Ulysses obeyed, the a perfect knowledge of the state of the soul in ghost, the other world, and that they evoke the spirit with the sound of drums, which appears,

πίεν αίμα κελαινόν, and gives the answers demanded. (Relig med Tóto do pe' iriwei agoonide pártec ipúzcom. Ceremon., vol. ii. 108.)

(Ib.) With respect to the danger attending the Eager he quaffed the gore, and then expressed raising of the dead, as noticed by Dr. Jortin, Dark things to come, the counsels of his breast. lest a formidable monster should be sent to

(Pope.) terrify or destroy the adventurer, the

superstition seems alluded to by Shakspeare, in It was for this reason that the shade of his " Hamlet."

mother stood in silence before him, without

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