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In the first year, the Arabs teach the horse are the horses which are best able to endure to be led with the réseun, a sort of bridle. hunger, thirst, and fatigue. The horses of They call him then dejeda, and begin to bridle the Arbâa and of the Oulad-Nayl come next him and to tie him up. When he is become after those of the Hamyan. In the Teli, the teni — that is to say in bis second year — they best horses, in respect to purity of race, statride him for a mile, then two, then a para- ure, and beauty of form, are those of the sange ; and when he is turned of eighteen people of Chelif, particularly those of the months old, they are not afraid of fatiguing Oulad-Sidi-Ben-Abd-Allah (Sidi-el-Aaribi), him. When he is become rebûa telata — that near the Mina, and also those of the Quladis to say, when he enters his third year — Sidi-Hassan, a branch of the Oulad-Sidi-Dahthey tie him up, cease to ride him, cover him hou, who inhabit the mountains of Mascara. with a good djelale (horse-cloth), and make The most rapid in the Hippodrome, and also him fat. On this subject they say : “In the of beautiful shape, are of the tribe of Flitas, first year (djeda) tie him up for fear any of the Oulad-Cherif and the Oulad-Lekreud. accident should happen to him. In the sec- The best to travel over stony ground, without ond year (teni) ride him till his back bends. being shod, are those of the tribe of AssasseIn the third year (rebâa telata) tie him up na, in the Yakoubia. This saying is attrib. again. Then, if he does not suit you, sell uted to Moulaye Ismail, the celebrated Sultan him.'
of Morocco : “ May my horse have been If a horse is not ridden before the third brought up in the Mâz, and led to water in year, it is certain that he will be good for the Biaz!” The Mâz is a place in the counnothing but for running, at most, which there try of the Assassena, and the Biaz is the is no occasion for him to learn ; it is his brook, known by the name of Toufet, which original faculty. The Arabs thus express runs through their territory. The horses of the thought : °El djouad idiri be aaselouh ; the Ouled-Khaled are also renowned for the " The djouad runs according to his breeding.” same qualities. Sidi-Amed-Ben Youssef has (The noble horse has no need to be taught to said on the subject of this tribe, “ Long tresses run.)
and long djelais will be seen amongst you till V. You ask me why, if the offspring par- the day of resurrection ;" praising thus at takes more of the qualities of the male than the same time both their women and their of the female parent, the mares, notwith- horses. standing, sell for higher prices than the VIII. You tell me that people have assured horses.
you that the horses of Algeria are not Arabian The reason is this; he who purchases a horses, but Barbs. mare hopes that all the while he is making This is an opinion which falls back again use of her he will obtain from her a numerous upon its authors. The people of Barbary are progeny ; but he who buys a horse derives of Arab origin. A celebrated author has from it no other benefit than its services for said: “The people of Barbary inhabit the the saddle, as the Arabs never take money Mogheb; they are all song of Kaïs-Benfor the use of their horses, but lend them gra- Ghilan. It is also asserted that they are tuitously.
descended from the two great Hémiatrites VI. You ask whether the Arabs of the tribes, the Senahdja and the Kettama, who Desert keep registers to record the descent of came into the country at the time of the intheir horses?
vasion of Ifrikech-el-Malik." Know that the people of the Algerian According to these two opinions, the peoDesert do not trouble themselves about such ple of Barbary are really Arabs. Moreover, registers, any more than the people of Teli. historians have established the kindred of the The notoriety of the facts is quite sufficient; majority of the tribes of Barbary, and their for the genealogy of the blood-horses is as descent from the Senahdja and the Kettama. universally known as that of their masters. The arrival of these tribes is anterior to IsI have heard say that some families had these lamism ; the number of emigrated Arabs in written genealogies, but I am unable to quote the Mogheb is incalculable. When the Obeithem. But books of the kind are in the din (the Fatémites) were masters of Egypt, imEast, as I have mentioned in the little treatise mense tribes passed into Africa, and amongst which I ain shortly about to address to you. others the Rîahh. They spread from Kaj
VII. You ask which of the Algerian tribes rouan to Merrakech (Morocco.). It is from are the most celebrated for the purity of race these tribes that are descended, in Algeria, of their horses.
the Douaouda, the Aiad, the Mâdid, the Know that the horses of the Hamyan are Oulad-Mad, the Galad-Jakoub-Zerara, the the best horses of the Desert, without excep- Djendal, the Attaf, the Hamis, the Braze, the tion. They have none but excellent horses, Sbéba, and many others. No one doubts that because they never employ them either for the Arabian horses have spread in the Mog. tillage or for carrying burdens. They use heb, in the same way as the Arabian families. them only for travelling and for battle. These In the time of Ifrikech-ben-Kaïf, the capire
of the Arabs was all-powerful ; it extended especially prefer those horses which are modtowards the west, as far as the boundaries of erate eaters, provided they are not weakened the Mogheb, as in the time of Chamar the by their abstinence. “Such a one," they Hémiarite, it extended towards the east as say, " is a priceless treasure." " To give far as China, according to the statement of drink at sunrise, makes the horse lean; to Ben Kouteība in his book entitled El Márif. give him drink in the evening, makes him
It is perfectly true, that if the Algerian fat; to give him drink in the middle of the horses are of Arab race, many of them have day, keeps him in his present condition." fallen from their nobility, because they are During the great heats, which last forty only too frequently employed in tillage, in days (semaïme), the Arabs give their horses carrying burdens, and in doing other similar drink only every other day. It is said that hard work; and also because some of the this custoin has the best effects. In the summares have been associated with asses, which mer, in the autumn, and in the winter, they never happened under the Arabs of old. So give an armful of straw to their horses, but much so, that according to their ideas, it is the ground-work of their diet is barley, in sufficient for a horse to have trodden upon preference to every other sort of food. On ploughed land to diminish his value. On this this subject the Arabs say : “ If we had not subject the following story is told :
seen that horses are foaled by horses, we Å man was riding upon a horse of pure should say that barley produces them.” They race. He was met by his enemy, also mounted say, upon a noble courser. One pursued the other, Ghelid ou chetrih, and he who gave chase was distanced by him Ou chair idjerrih who fled. Despairing to reach him, he then (Look out for a large one, and buy him, shouted out, “ I ask you, in the name of God,
Barley will make him run.) has your horse ever worked on the land ?" “He has worked on the land, for four
They say: “Of forbidden meats, choose days."
the lightest." That is to say, choose a light Very well! mine has never worked. By horse ; the flesh of the horse is forbidden to
Mussulmen, the head of the Prophet, I am sure of catching you."
They say: "It takes many a breakage to He continued the chase. Towards the end make a good rider." of the day, the fugitive began to lose ground
They say: Horses of pure race have no and the pursuer to gain it. He soon succeeded in fighting with the man whom he had given honor of the master.”
They say: “ The horse at the halter is the up all hopes of reaching.
My father — may God receive him in mer They say : “ Horses are birds which have cy! - was accustomed to say, “ No blessing no.wings” upon our country, ever since we have changed
“ For horses, nothing is distant." our coursers into beasts of burden and tillage.
They say: “Nothing is at a distance, for Has not God made the horse for the race, the
horses." ox for the plough, and the camel for the
They say: "He who forgets the beauty of transport of merchandise ? There is nothing horses for the beauty of women, will never gained by changing the ways of God." prosper." IX. You ask me, besides, for our maxims
They say :
" The horse knows his rider." as to the manner of keeping and feeding our him into favor — has also said :
The Saint Ben-el-Abbas — may God take horses.
Know that the master of a horse gives him at first but little barley, successively increas
Love horses, care for them,
Spare no trouble for them, ing his ration by small quantities, and then By them comes honor, by them comes beauty. diminishing it again a trifle, as soon as he If horses are abandoned by men, leaves any, and continuing to supply it at that I make them enter into my family, rate. The best time to give. barley is the I share with them the bread of my children, evening. Except on the road, there is no My wives dress them in their own veils, profit in giving it in the morning. On this and cover themselves with their horsecloths.
I lead them every day point they say, “Morning barley is found
On the field of adventure, again on the dunghill, evening barley in the I fight with the bravest. croup.” The best way of giving barley is to offer it to the horse ready saddled and girthed; I have finished the letter which our brother as the best way of watering a horse is to and companion, the friend of all, the Commake him drink with his bridle on. On this mandant Sidi-Bou-Senna, will forward to you. point it is said, “ The water with the bridle, - Health. and the barley with the saddle.” The Arabs
From the New Monthly Magazine. of course infinitely more popular for the nonce,
or, indeed, AMERICAN AUTHORSHIP.
It may be for years, and it may be forever; No. I. - WASHINGTON IRVING.
but, recurring to that distinction which is Few, it may be reasonably affirmed, will traditional, conrentional, and thus far “ welldemur to the judgment which assigns to Mr. ordered in all things and sure,” Washington Washington Irving the most distinguished Irving holds it. in possession, and that is nine place in American literature. Meaning there- points of the law. by, not the distinction of incomparable genius In effect, he is already installed on the in general, nor of preëminent superiority in shelf as a classic. His sweet, smooth, transany special department of authorship ; but lucent style makes him worthy to be known,
without present reference to his personal and pleasant to be read, of all men. Be his or intrinsic claims, however great — the dis- theme what it may — and in choice of themes tinction of extrinsic, popular renown, the he is comprehensive enough — whether a external evidence of long-established and Dutch “ tea and turnout,” or a "Siege of world-wide recognition. Wherever America Granada ;” a full-length of “ Mahomet,"' or a is known to have a literature at all, she is crayon sketch of “ Jack Tibbetts ;' a biograknown to rejoice in one Geoffrey Crayon, phy of “Goldsmith," or of “ Dolph HeyliGent., as its representative. If an unreading ger; a“ prairie on fire,” or a “ Yorkshire alderman presiding at a public dinner wished | Christmas dioner;" a night on the “ Rocky to couple with a toast in honor of that litera- Mountains," or a morning at“ Abbotsford" ture the name of its most distinguished scion, to each, he brings the same bello stile che, Washington Irving's, we presume, is the as he may say, and has said,* m'ha fatto onore. name he would fix on; not, perhaps, that the His style is indeed charming, so far as it goes. alderman inay have read that author much, That is not, possibly, very far, or at least very but that he has read his brother authors less, deep. For it is not a style to compass proor not at all, and, in short, proposes the toast found or impassioned subjects, or to intone in an easy, conventional, matter-of-fact way, the thrilling notes which sigh upward from as paying a compliinent the legitimacy of the Delphic caves of human life.” It has which will be in peached by no compotator at not, speaking generally and “ organically, the civic board. The alderman's private more than one set of keys, and can give little opinion, he being, “no great things as a meaning to passages demanding diapason granstudent and critic in the belles lettres, may be deur, or trumpet stop. It fluently expresses valued at zero; but his post-prandial propo- ballad and dance music; or even the melliflusition, as the mouthpiece of public opinion, ous cadences of Bellini, and the gliding graces as the syınbol or exponent by which society of Haydn ; but beyond its range are such rates a name now to be toasted with all the complex harmonies as a Sinfonia Eroica, such honors, is of prime significance. There may tumultuous movements as a Hailstone Chobe American writers who, either in the range, rus. And therefore is it not what one someor the depth, of literary power, or in buth times hears it called, a perfect style - unless coinbined, are actually the superiors of the the perfection be relatively interpreted, quoad author of " Rip Van Winkle" and the “ His- rem, which of itself is
pretty considerable" tory of New York.” He may yield in pictu- concession. But in its proper track it is resque reality to Fenimore Cooper — in dra- eminently delightful, and lows on, not in matic animation to Brockden Brown - in serpentine, meandering curves, but straightmeditative calmness to Cullen Bryant — to forward, " unhasting, yet unresting," with Longfellow in philosophic aspiration to musical ripple as of some soft inland murmur. Holines in epigrammatic ease - to Emerson Hence a vast proportion of the favor rouchin independent thought - to Melville in graph- safed to its master, who has made it instruic intensity - to Edgar Poe in witching fancy mental in popularizing subjects in the treat
- to Mayo in lively eccentricity – to Pres- ment of which he had scarcely another adcott in accurate erudition - to Hawthorne in vantage, or even justification. Quiet humor, subtle insight - tu Mitchell in tender senti- gentle pathos, sober judgment, healthy moralment. He may, or he may not, do all this, ity, amiable sentiment, and exemplary proor part of it. But, notwithstanding, his po- fessional industry have done the rest. sition remains, either way, at the top of the That Mr. Irving was eminently endowed tree. Thitherwards he was elevated years with the mytho-pæic faculty — the art of ago, by popular acclamation, when as yet he myth-making — was delightfully evident in stood almost alone in transatlantic literature ; the production of “Knickerbocker's History and thence there has been little disposition to thrust him down, in favor of the many rivals * In the preface to his “ Life of Goldsmith,” to who have since sprung up, and multiplied, whose literary influence over himself he applies and covered the land. Mrs. Beecher Stowe is the address of Dante to Virgil.
of New York." In relation to the infants deep reflection. Golden age of innocence and experiences of the city he depicts, he occupies primitive blessedness! when tea-parties were as notable a position from the positive pole as marked with the utmost propriety and dig. Niebuhr does from the negative; the Ger- nity of deportment - no flirting, or coquetting man's skill in the use of the minus sign, he - no gambling of old ladies, or hoyden chatemulates in dexterous management of the tering and rom ping of young ones – but when plus; whatever fame the one deserves as a de- the demure misses seated themselves for the structive, the other may arrogate as a con- evening in their rush-bottomed chairs, and servative, or rather a creator; the former knit their own woollen stockings, nor ever immortalizes himself because he exhausts old opened their lips, unless to eay ** Yah, Mynworlds, the latter because he imagines new. beer," or “ Yah, ya Vrouw,” to any quesAll honor, then, to the undaunted historian tion that was asked them — while the gentle. of New York, from the Beginning of the men tranquilly" blew a cloud," and seemed, World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty – one and all, lost in contemplation of the blue being the Only Authentic History of the and white tiles of the fireplace, representing, Times that ever bath been published; which perhaps, Tobit and his dog, or Haman swingperemptory “ only,” so far at least as it ex- ing conspicuously on his gibbet, or Jonalı cludes other claimants, is a terse and tidy manfully bouncing out of the whale," like challenge," which nobody can deny.". Equal- harlequin through a barrel of fire." Then ly undeniable is it that, for a historian and comes Williain the Testy - that " universal chronicler, old Knickerbocker is “a jolly good genius" —who would have been a much betfellow ;” and that even Sir Robert Walpole ter governor had be been a less learned man might have been tempted to revoke and recant - who was perpetually experimentalizing at his slander on history at large, had he been the expense of the state, and reducing to familiar with such a dainty dish as this. practice the political schemes he had gathEvery pursuivant of useful knowledge is con- ered froin Solon and Lycurgus, and the reciliated in limine, by the honest man's assur- public of Plato and the Pandects of Justinian ance, that if any one quality preëminently -- who introduced the art of fighting by procdistinguishes his compilation, it is that of lamation (an art worthy of Mr. Cobden* himconscientious, severe, and faithful veracity - self), and wrought out for himself great re“ carefully winnowing away the chaff of hy- nown by a series of mechanical inventions, pothesis, and discarding the tares of fable, such as carts that went before the horses, and which are too apt to spring up and choke the patronized a race of lawyers and bum-bailiffs, seeds of truth and wholesome knowledge." and made his people exceedingly enlightened Inspired by this stern principle, it is beautiful and unhappy. And, lastly, we have Peter the to hear his disclaimer of all records assailable Headstrong - tough, sturdy, valiant, weatherby scepticisin, or vulnerable by critical analy-beaten, leathern-sided, and wooden-legged sis — his sublime rejection of many a pithy a hero of chivalry struck off by the hand of tale and marvellous adventure — his jealous nature at a single heat -- a beautiful relique maintenance of that fidelity, gravity, and dig- of old-fashioned bigotry - a perfect fossil of nity which he accounts indispensable to his effete notions -- a peremptory and pugnacious order. The heroes of the New York mytho- man, who would stamp to and fro about the logical won swagger before us in memorable town, during political" ferment, with a most guise. Good Master Hendrick Hudson, for war-betokening visage, his hands in his pockinstance, with his mastiff mouth, and his broad ets, whistling å low Dutch psalm-tune, which copper nose - supposed (the latter to wit) to bore no small resemblance to the music of a have acquired its fiery hue from the constant north-east wind when a storm is brewing; neighborhood of the tobacco-pipe ; a man re- the very dogs, as they eyed his excellency, markable for always jerking up his breeches and heard his wooden foot-fall, skulking any. when he gave out his orders, and for a voice whither in dismay. It argues a significant which sounded not unlike the brattling of a talent for ironical composition, and easy badtin trumpet, owing to the number of hard inage in Mr. Irving, that he has sustained to nor'-westers swallowed by him in the course the last, in this perhaps over-long history, the of his sea-furing. Walter the Doubter, again,
The fellow-foeling between these two great 80 styled because the magnitude of his ideas
men may be illustrated by the annexed passage kept himn everlastingly in suspense – his head from Knickerbocker :-" The great defect of not being large enough to let him turn them William the Testy's policy was, that though no over and examine them on both sides; an alleged man could be more ready to stand forth in an lineal descendant of the illustrious King Log; hour of emergency, yet he was so intent upon hugely endowed with the divine faculty of guarding the national pocket, that he suffered the silence, and loving to sit with his privy coun- enemy to break its head ; in other words, whatcil for hours together, smoking and dozing was so intent upon rendering it cheap, that ho inover public affairs, without speaking a word to variably rendered it ineffectual.” — " llistory of interrupt that perfect stillness so necessary to New York,” book iv., C. 4.
quaint tone of subdued comedy and simple pices of Sir Walter Scott," and by the agency gravity which marks its opening. It abounds of the prince or booksellers, John Murray. in pungent reflections profitable for later tiines, This Sketch-Book he compares with that of a and likely to remain applicable until the last wayward travelling artist, who, following public quack and parliamentary humbug and the bent of bis vagrant inclination, copies official mountebank shall be no more.
objects in nooks, and corners, and by-places : “ Salmagundi" belongs to the same - the the result being a volume crowded with cotearliest stage in the author's literary ca- tages, and landscapes, and obscure ruins, but reer, and partakes of the same satiric feat- neglectful of St. Peter's, or the Colosseum,
But the satire is good-natured enough the cascade of Terni, or the bay of Naples, in both cases, and indeed comes from too and without a single glacier or volcano in the kindly a heart to be impregnated with any whole collection. This absence of aught very bitter stuff. What Byron calls
volcanic or violent removes the sketches from The royal vices of the age, demand
participation in Diderot's judgment, that A keener weapon and a mightier hand.
* les esquisses ont communément un feu que
le tableau n'a pas. C'est le moment de chaAnd against such it is not Geoffrey Crayon's leur de l'artiste, &c." Look not in these mission to set himself in array.
esquisses for feu or chaleur. They are the Still there are follies e'en for him to chase,
placid, dreamy droppings of a limner's truant And yield, at least, amusement in the race. crayon, wandering over the paper at its own
sweet will. Variety the collection designedly So that, although it is not for him, good has ; the collector's design being that it easy man, full surely,” to confront and ap- should contain something to suit each reader, prehend gigantic vice stalking in the streets, to harmonize with every note in the gamut or to extinguish the “ guilty glare” blazing of taste.
“ Few guests,” argued he, in arfrom what threaten to be “ eternal beacons of consummate crime,” yet he can speak on the down to a varied table with an equal appe
ranging his Miscellany
"few guests sit hint,
tite for every dish. One has an elegant hor'Are there no follies for my pen to purge ? ror of a roasted pig; another holds a cuiry Are there no fools whose backs deserve tho scourge? or a devil in utter abomination ; a third canAnd, albeit, the fools have nine lives, and not tolerate the ancient favor of venison and kind Geoffrey's scourge, or cat, hath only one ; wild fowl; and a fourth, of truly masculine he lays it on with what appetite he may: those knick-knacks here and there dished up
stomach, looks with sovereign contempt on He certainly has the gift "d'apercevoir ridicule, et de le peindre avec grace et for the ladies. Thus each article is condemned gaieté.” And as certainly, he has had no in its turn; and yet, amidst this variety of apsuch evil communications” with a mocking petites, seldom does a dish go away from the spirit* as to corrupt his " good manners,' or
table without being tasted and relished by freeze his warm heart.
some one or other of the guests. Is pathos Hitherto Mr. Irving had catered for the your passion? There is " The Widow and New World. He was now to identify him
her Son," to ope the sacred source of sympaself with the literators of the old, by pub- solitary, destitute, bereaved of her last solace ;
thetic tears — the affliction of a widow, aged, lishing his own words) “ the kind and cordial aus- and there is " The Pride of the Village,'' a
love-tale, and a tale of sorrow unto death * Speaking of the above “sense of the ridicu- prose elegy, most musical, most melancholy, lous," and of the art of painting it with vivacity on as pretty a low-born lass as ever ran on and mirth, Madame de Staël adds : "Ce n'est pas the green sward. Is humor to you a metal là le genre de moquerie dont les suites sont les
more attractive (though every true taste for plus à craindre ; celle qui s'attache aux idées et aux sentimens est la plus funeste de toutes, car
pathos involves a hearty relish for huinor, elle s'insinue dans la source des affections fortes and vice versa)? There is the discursive et dévouées.” — DE L'ALLEMAGNE, IV., § ii. This chapter on “Little Britain”- that heart's ' wise saw,” in its warning against the pervert- core of the city, that stronghold of John Bulling tendencies of satire, reminds us of a “modern ism, as it seemed to Mr. Crayon, looking as instance." Thomas Moore, a man of as gay and usual through colored spectacles, so that he kindly a disposition as the author of " Salma- here recognized a fragment of London as it gundi," had attained a far greater renown as a satirist, and with far greater pretensions to that wus in its better days, with its antiquated “bad eminence,” when, apprehensive of its cor- folks and fashions, where Bourish in great roding power, as well on agent as patient, he wrote preservation many of the holiday games and in his diary (1819) : " Resolvod never to have customs of yore, and where still revisit the anything more to do with satire ; it is a path in glimpses of the moon not a few ghosts in fullwhich one not only strews, but gathers thorns." Bottomed wigs and hanging sleeves, or in laphim to take the same resolution, on the same pets, hoops and brocade. Such a Little Britain grounds.
was hardly to be found in Great Britain when