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charge me with breaking the seventh com- come, not only from a criminal, but from a mandment, but, thank Heaven and Cyprian, very dirty head – perhaps from the head of you cannot accuse me of wearing a wig!” one already damned? This was a very hard
No pains were spared to deter women from hit indeed, but it was not nearly so clever a this enormity. St. Jerome holds up the fate stroke at wigs as that dealt by Clemens of of Prætexta as a warning to all ladies addicted | Alexandria. The latter informed the asto the fashion of the world. Prætexta was a tounded wig-wearers that when they knelt at very respectable lady, married to a somewhat church to receive the blessing, they must be paganish husband, Hymetius. Their niece, good enough to recollect that the benediction Eustochia, resided with them. At the insti- remained on the wig, and did not pass through gation of the husband, Prætexta took the shy to the wearer! This was a stumbling-block Eustochia in hand, attired her in a splendid to the people, many of whom, bowever, dress, and covered her fair neck with ring- retained the peruke, and took their chance as lets. Ilaving enjoyed the sight of the modest to the transmission of the blessing. On siinmaiden so attired, Prætexta went to bed. To ilarly obstinate people Tertullian rushed with that bed-side immediately descended an angel, a hasty charge of ill-prepared logic : “ You with wrath upon his brow and billows of were not born with wigs,” said he; “Gud angry sounds roaring from his lips. “ Thou did not give them to you. God not giving hast," said the spirit, “ obeyed thy husband them, you must necessarily have received rather than the Lord; and hast dared to them from the devil!" It was manifest that touch the hair of a virgin consecrated to the so rickety a syllogism was perfectly incapable service of Heaven, and hast made her look like of shaking the lightest“ scratch” from a reaa daughter of earth. For this do I wither up soning Christian skull. thy hands, and bid thee recognize the enor Indeed, the logic of Tertullian, when levmity of thy crime in the amount of thy elled against wigs, is singularly faulty. Men anguish and bodily suffering. But five months of the world he points out as being given to more shalt thou live, and then hell shall be thy over-scrupulous cleanliness. Your saint is portion ; and if thou art bold enough to touch dirty from an impulse of duty. Were he the head of Eustochia again, thy husband and otherwise, he might be too seductive to the thy children shall die even before thee." St. weaker sex! This reminds me of a monk I Jerome pledges himself for the truth of this once heard of when at Prague. He was story, and draws a moral therefrom which is blind, but he had so fine a nose that he boasted exceedingly perplexing and utterly unintel- of being able to tell a saint from a sinner by ligible.
the smell. The ichor distilled by the former The ladies were more difficult of manage- gave forth an odor of sanctity, that was more ment than the clergy. The former were not savory to the blind monks than to worldly men to be terrified by the assurance that breaking content to live cleanly and do their duty in an ordinance of man was a worse crime than that state of life unto which it had pleased breaking one of the commandments of God. God to call them. The hair of the clergy was kept straight by Not only were the Scriptures pressed into decrees of forfeiture of revenues or benefice service against those who wore false hair, or against incumbents who approached the who dyed their own, but zealous Christian altars with curls even of their natural hair. priests quoted even the heathen writers to Pommades and scented waters were denounced shame men out of the custom. It is a as damnable inventions, but anathema was remarkable thing how very well acquainted uttered against the priest guilty of wearing these well-meaning, but somewhat overstrainone single hair coinbed up above its fellows. ing, personages were with the erotic points Every one knows that the present worthy of heathendom. Bishop of Oxford is, in one respect, like " the English ladies do not appear to have adopted curled son of Clinias.” By that resemblance, the fashion of wearing wigs until about the year however, his lordship would have been in the 1550. Junius, in his Commentarium de Conâ, olden time ipso faclo excommunicate, accord says that false hair came into use here about ing to the decree of the Council of Lateran that time, and that such use had never before (Gregory II.), which says, “Quicumque ex been adopted by English matrons. Some clericis comam relaxaverit, anathema sit.” three hundred years before this the Benedic
“ All personal disguise,” says Tertullian, tine monks at Canterbury, who were canons " is adultery before God; all perukes, paint and of the cathedral, very pathetically represented powder are such disguises, and inventions of to Pope Innocent IV. that they were subject the devil : ergo," &c. This zealous individual to catch very bad colds from serving in the appeals to personal as often as to religious wide and chilly cathedral bareheaded. The feeling. If you will not lling away your pontiff gave them solemn permission to guard! false hair, says he, as hateful to Heaven, can- against catarrh, rheum, bronchitis, and not I make it hateful to yourselves by remind- phthisis, by covering their heads with the ing you that the false hair you wear may have hood common to their order, having especial
care, however, to fling back the hood at the down at the entrance to his tent, while Bishop reading of the Gospel and at the elevation of Serron clipped him with the skilful alacrity of the Host. Zealous churchmen have been very a Figaro." Noble after noble submitted to the indignant at the attempts made to prove that same operation; and while these were being the permission of Innocent IV. might be con- docked by the more dignified clergy, a host strued as a concession to priests for wearing of inferior ecclesiastics passed through the wigs, if they were so minded. The question ranks of the grinning soldiers, and cut off hair was settled at the great Council of England enough to have made the fortunes of all the held in London in 1268. That council refused perriwig-builders who rolled in gilded chariots to sanction the wearing by clerics of "quas during the palmy days of the ** Grand Monvulgo coifas vocant," except when they were arque." travelling. In church and in presence of their In what then but in profigate days could bishop, they were ordered to appear bare- wigs have triumphed in England ? Perriwigs headed. If a coif even was profane, a wig to established themselves victoriously - dividing this council would have taken the guise of the even the Church - under Louis XIV. When unpardonable sin. It is, however, well known, a boy that king had such long and beautiful that though Rome forbade a priest to officiate hair that it became the fashion for all classes with covered head, permission to do so was to wear at least an imitation thereof. When purchasable. In fact, the rule of Rome was Louis began to lose his own, he also took to not founded, as it was declared to be, on Scrip- false adornment, and full-bottomed wigs bade ture. Permission was readily granted to the defiance to the canons of the church. Charles Romish priests in China to officiate with covered II. did not bring the fashion with him to heads, as being more agreeable to the native Whitehall. On the contrary he withstood it. idea there of what was seemly. Native senti- He forbade the members of the university to ment nearer home was much less regarded. wear perriwigs, smoke tobacco, or read their Thus, when the Bulgarians complained to sermons. The members did all three, and Pope Nicholas that their priests would not Charles soon found himself doing the first two. permit them to wear during church-time those On the 24 November, 1063, says Pepyshead-wrappers or turbans which it was their " I heard the duke say that he was going to habit never to throw off, the pontiff returned wear a perriwig; and they say the king also an answer which almost took the brief and will. I never till this day," he adds, " oh popular form of “Serve you right!” and the served that the king was so mighty gray." Bulgarians took nothing by their motion. This perhaps was the reason that Charles
Our Anselm of Canterbury was as little stooped to assume what he had before deconceding to the young and long-haired nobles nounced. Pepys himself had ventured upon of his day as was Pope Nicholas to the Bul- the step in the previous May; and what a garians. Eadmer, à monk of Canterbury, business it was for the little man! Hear him : relates that on one occasion (Ash Wednesday) -" 8th. At Mr. Jervas', my old barber. the primate soundly rebuked the hirsute aris- I did try two or three borders and perriwigs, tocracy, put them in penance, and refused meaning to wear one ; and yet I have no them absolution until they had submitted to stomach for it, but that the pains of keeping be close-shorn. The prelate in question would my bair clean is so great. He trimmed me, allow none to enter his cathedral who wore and at last I parted, but my mind was almost either long or false hair. Against both, the altered from any first purpose, from the trouble objection remained for a lengthened period that I foresee will be in wearing them also." insuperable. When Henry I. of England was He took some time to make up his mind, and in France, Serron, Bishop of Seez, told him only in October of the same year does he take that Heaven was disgusted at the aspect of poor Mrs. Pepys to “ my perriwig-maker's, Christians in long hair, or wearing on manly and there showed my wife the perriwig made heads locks that had perhaps come from for me, and she likes it very well.” In April, women's brows; they were as sons of Belial 1665, the wig was in the hands of Jervas under for so offending : " Pervicaces filii Belial cap-repair. In the mean time our old friend took ita sua comis mulierum ornant." The king to his natural hair ; but early in May we find looked grave. The prelate insinuatingly in- him recording that “this day, after I had vited the father of his people, who wore long suffered my own hayre to grow long, in order if not false locks, to set a worthy cxample. to wearing it, I find the convenience of perri“We'll think of it," said the sovereign. "No wiggs is so great that I have cut off all short time like the present," rejoined the prelate, again, and will keep to perriwiggs.". In the who produced a pair of scissors from his epis- autumn, on Sunday the 3d of September, the copal sleeve, and advanced towards Henry, wicked little gallant moralizes thus on “perriprepared to sweep off those honors which the wiggs” and their prospects :--- "Up and put monarch would 'fain have preserved. But on my colored silk suit, very fine, and my what was the sceptre of the prince to the new perriwigg bought a good while since, but forceps of the priest? The former meekly sat 1 durst not wear, because the plague was in
CCCCLXXI, LIVING AGE. VOL. I. 35
Westminster, when I bought it; and it is a quhar in his “Love and a Bottle" (1698), wonder what will be the fashion after the is as infallible a token of wit as the laurel" plague is done as to perriwiggs, for nobody - an assertion which I should never think of will dare to buy any hayre for fear of the in- disputing. Tillotson is the first of our clergy fection, that it had been cut off the heads of represented in a wig, and that a mere substipeople dead of the plague.” The plague and tute for the natural head of hair. “ I can relear thereof were clean forgotten before many member," he says in one of his sermons,“ since inonths had passed, and in June, 1666, Pepys the wearing of the hair below the ears was “ walking in the galleries at Whitehall, I find looked upon as a sin of the first magnitude, the ladies of honor dressed in their riding and when ministers generally, whatever their garbs, with coats and doublets with deep skirts, test was, did either tind or make occasion to just for all the world like mine ; and buttoned reprove the great sin of long hair; and if they their doublets up their breasts, with perriwiggs saw any one in the congregation guilty in that and with hats ; so that, only for a long petti- kind, they would point him out particularly, coat dragging under their men's coats, nobody and let fly at him with great zeal." could take them for women in any point what The victory at Rawilies introduced the ever, which was an odd sight, and a sight did Ramilies wig, with its peculiar, gradually not please me.” The moralist at Whitehall, diminishing plaited tail, and tie consisting of however, could forget his mission when at great bow at top and a smaller one at the “ Mercer's." There, on the 14th of August, bottom. This wig survived till the reign of 1666, the thanksgiving day for the recent naval George III. The maccaronis of 1729 wore a victory, after hearing a piece of the Dean of “ macaw-like toupee and a portentous tail.” Westminster's sermon," dining merrily, en- But when the French Revolution came in conjoying the sport at the Bear Garden, and letting tact with any system — from the Germanic oti fireworks, the perriwigged philosopher, empire to perukes — that system perished in with his wife, Lady Penn, Pegę, and Nan the collision. So perriwigs ceased like the Wright, kept it up at Mrs. Mercer's after mid- dynasty of the Doges of Venice; and all that night — and there mighty merry, smutting remains to remind us of bygone glories in the one another with candlegrease and soot, until former way is to be found in the Ramilies tie, most of us were like devils. And that being which still clings to court coats long after wigs done, then we broke up and to my house ; and had fallen from the head, never again to rise. there I made them drink, and up stairs we Lady Wortley Montague makes a severe rewent, and then fell into dancing, W. Batte- mark in her Letters, less against wigs, indeed, lier dancing well ; and dressing him and I, than their wearers. She is alluding to the aland one Mr. Banister, who with my wife came leged custom in the East of branding every over also with us, like women ; and Mercer convicted liar on the forehead ; and adds, that put on a suit of Tom's, like a hoy — and Mr. if such a custom prevailed in England, the enWright and my wife and Pegg Penn put on tire world of beaux here would have to pull perriewigs; and thus we spent till three or four their perriwigs down to their eyebrows. in the morning, mighty merry" — and in little Tillotson, as I have noticed above, makes trouble with the thought whether the skull reference to the opposition which perukes met which had afforded the hair for such perriwig with from the pulpit. The hostility in that were lying in the pest-fields or not. * By the quarter in England was faint compared with , following year our rising gentleman grows ex- the fiery antagonism which blazed in France. travagant in his outlay for such adornments, In the latter country, the privilege of wearing and he who had been content to wear a wig at long hair belonged, at one time, solely to roy23s., buys now a pair for 41. 108.—“ mighty alty. Lombard, Bishop of Paris, in the middle fine; indeed, too fine, I thought, for me." of the twelfth century, induced rojalty not to And yet amazingly proud was the maccaroni make the privilege common, but to abolish it of his purchase, recording two days afterwards altogether. The French monarchs wore their that he had been“ to church, and with my own hair cut short until the reign of Louis mourning, very handsome, and new perriwig, XIII., who was the first King of France that made a great show."
wore a wig. To the fashion set by him is Doubtless under James II. his perriwigged owing that France ultimately became the parapate made a still greater show, for then had dise of perruquiers. In 1060 they first apwigs become stupendous in their architecture. peared on the heads of a few dandy abbés. As The beaux who stood beneath them carried Ireland in Edward Dwyer or “ Edward of the exquisite combs in their ample pockets, with Wig,” has preserved the memory of the first which, whether in the Mall, at the rout, in the of her sons who took to a perriwig, so France private box, or engaged in the laborious work has handed down the Abbé de la Riviere, who of " making love,'' they ever and anon combed died Bishop of Langres, as the ecclesiastical their perukes, and rendered themselves irre- innovator on whose head first rested a wig, sistible. Wisdom was even then thought to with all the consequences of such guilty outbe under the wig. "A full wig,” says Far-I rage of canonical discipline. The indignation
of strict churchmen was extreme, and, as the scant courtesy as Mr. Gorham or the Lord fashion began to spread among prelates, can- Primate is in the habit of experiencing at the ons, and curés, the Bishop of Toul sat himself hands of a medieval bishop. "If, it was said, a down and wrote a “blast” against perukes, priest must even take off his calotte in presence the wearing of which, he said, unchristianized of a king or pope, how may he dare to wear a those who adopted the fashion. It was even wig before God? Richelieu was the first solemnly announced that a man had better ecclesiastic of his rank in France who wore the not pray at all, than pray with his head so modern calotte; but I very much doubt if he covered. No profanity was intended when ever took it off in the presence of Louis XIII. zealous, close-cropped, and bare-headed eccle- It is known, however, that the French king's siastics reininded their bewigged brethren that ambassador, M. d'Oppeville, found much they were bound to imitate Christ in all things, difficulty in obtaining an audience at Rome. and then asked them if the Saviour were He wore a wig à calotte. The officials delikely to recognize a reseinblance to himself in clared he could not be introduced unless he a priest under a wig !
took off the calotte. He could not do this withNor was this feeling confined to the Romish out taking off his wig also, as he showed the Church in France. The Reformed Church sticklers of court etiquette, and stood before was fully as determined against the new and them with clean shaven head, asking, at the detested fashion. Bordeaux was in a state of same time, “ Would the Pope desire to see me insurrection for no other reason than that the stand before him in such a plight as this? Calvinist pastor there had refused to admit Whom do you take me for?” The pontiff did any of his dock in wigs to the sacrament. And not yield the point without difficulty. Perhaps when Rivius, Protestant professor of theology his Holiness, had he received the ambassador at Leyden, wrote in defence of perukes his under bare poll, would have graciously served “ Libertas Christiana circa Usum Capillitii him as a predecessor had served the Irish Defensa,” the ultra-orthodox in both churches saint Malachi — put his pontifical tiara on the turned
him. The Romanists asked what good man's head, to prevent him from catching could be expected from a Protestant but rank cold ! heresy; and the Protestants disowned a broth But of all the tilters against wigs none was er who defended a fashion that had origin- so serious and chivalresque as “ Jean Baptiste ated with a Romanist! Each party stood by Thiers, docteur entheologie et curé” (that is, the words of Paul to the Corinthians. In vicar, according to our sense of the word), of vain did some suggest that the apostolic in- Champrond. Dr. Thiers, in the year 1990, junction was only local. The ultras would wrote a book of some six hundred pages against heed no such suggestion, and would have in the wearing of wigs by ecclesiastics. He pubsisted on bare heads at both poles. And yet, lished the saine « aus depens de l'auteur," reinarked the wigites, it is common for and high authority pronounced it comfornable preachers to preach in caps. Ay, but, retorted in every respect to the “ Roman, Catholic, the orthodos, that is simply because they are and Apostolic Church." Dr. Thiers wrote a then speaking only in their own name. Read- brief preface to his long work, in which he ining the gospel, or offering up the adorable vokes an abundant visitation of divine peace sacrifice, they are speaking or acting in the and grace on those who read his volume with name of the universal Church. Of course, tranquillity of mind, and who prefer truth to they added, there are occasions when even a fashion. The invocation, I fear, is made in priest may be covered. If a Pope invented vain, for the tediousness of the author slays the baret, a curé may wear a cap. Sylvester all tranquillity of spirit on the part of the readwas the first pontiff who wore a mitre ; but er, who cannot, however, refrain from smiling even that fashion became abused, and in the at seeing the very existence of Christianity year 1000 a Pope was seen with his mitre on made to depend upon the question of perukes. his head during mass — a sight which startled The book is a dull book; but the prevailing the faithful, and a fact which artists would be idea in it, that it is all over with religion if none the worse for remembering. After that perukes be not abolished, is one that might period, bishops took to them so pertinaciously compel a cynic to inextinguishable laughter. that they hardly laid them by on going to bed. Yes, says the doctor, the origin of the tonsure These prelates were somewhat scandalized is to be found in the cutting of Peter's hair by, when the popes granted to certain dukes the the Gentiles to make him ridiculous — theres privilege of wearing the mitre; but when the fore, he who hides the tonsure beneath a. like favor was granted to abbots of a certain peruke insults the prince of the apostles ! : class, the prelatic execration was uttered with species of reasoning anything comparable with a jealous warmth that was perfectly astound- which is probably not to be found in that beak ing: When the moderns brought the question which Rome has honored by condemningback to its simple principles, and asked the Whateley's Logic. sticklers for old customs if wigs were not as The volume, however, affords evidence - of harmless as mitres, they were treated with as the intense excitemont raised in France by
the discussion of the bearing of wigs on city caught in the fact of kissing any of its Christianity. For a season the question in maidens. some degree resembled, in its treatment at Thiers could not see in the wig the uses least, that of baptismal regeneration as now discerned by Cumberland, who says, in his treated among ourselves. No primitively- “ Choleric Man,” “ Believe me, there is much minded prelate would license a curé who pro- good sense in old distinctions. When the law fessed neutrality on the matter of wigs. The lays down its full-bottomed perriwig, you will wearers of these were often turned out of find less wisdom in bald pates than you are their benefices, and then they were welcomed aware of.” The Cure of Champrond says in other dioceses by bishops who were hetero- that the French priests, who spent their thirty doxly given to the mundane comfort of wig- or forty pistoles yearly in wigs, were so gery. Terrible scenes took place in vestries irreligious that they kept their best wig for between wigged priests ready to repair to the the world, and their oldest for God, - wearing altar, and their brethren or superiors, who the first in drawing-rooms, and the latter at sought to prevent them. Chapters suspended church. This was certainly less ingenious such priests from place and profit, Parliament than in the case of the man celebrated in the broke the suspension, and chapters renewed "Connoisseur,” who, having but one peruke, the interdict. Decree was abolished by coun- made it pass for two." It was naturally a ter decree, and the whole Church was split kind of Howing bob, but, by the occasional in twain by the contending parties. Louis addition of two tails, it sometimes passed as XIV. took the conservative side of the question a major." 90 far as it regarded ecclesiastics, and the In France, wigs ended by assuming the Archbishop of Rheims fondly thought he had appearance of nature. In the reign of terror, clearly settled the dispute by decreeing that the modish blonde perukes worn by females wigs might or might not be worn, according were made of hair purchased from the executo circumstances. They were allowed to the tioner, of whom old ladies bought the curls infirm and the aged, but never at the altar. which had clustered about the young necks One consequence was that many priests on ap- that had been severed by the knifě of Samson. proaching the altar used to take off their pe- But after this the fashion ceased among rukes, and deposit them in the hands of women, as it had already done among men, notaries, under protest! Such a talk about beginning to do so with the latter when Frankheads had not kept a whole city in confusion lin appeared in his own hair, and unpowdered, since the days wherein St. Fructuarus, Bishop at the court of Louis XIV. - and from that of Braga, decreed the penalty of entirely period wigs have belonged only to history. shaven crowns against all the monks of that
CARVING OF POULTRY. — In Mr. Soyer's Mod-trussing for table, is explained in the useful ern House wife, a clever and handy work on manual referred to. We are told, that when cookery, will at length be found a solution of roasted, the appearance of poultry is greatly imthat formidable problem — how to carve a fowl proved by this simple operation – looking more with elegance and ease. Soyer explains the plump on account of the sinews having lost their marvel in a way which no one could previously power of contraction. have the slightest idea of; and which, in fact, is nothing else than a piece of legerdemain. Well, STREET Music. — How that simple music afa the way, he says, to carve a fowl neatly is, to fects the listener ! How it recalls lost loves and have nothing to carve - for it really comes to buried friendships, moments of exquisite happithat. Yes, a fowl lies before you at table, to all ness, hours of dreary pining! Whence comes appearance requiring to be anatomized by the the wondrous power of those tones ? It is a simusual desperate process, at least in all but first-ple air, one of the commonest of the common, il rate hands, of wrenching the joints and bones tune that is hacked and ground by every barrelasunder ; but, lo! the thing is done by a mere organ in the kingdom. It is, that there are hidtouch of the knife. Legs, wings, breast-bones, den associations connected therewith, difficult to instead of flying about in all directions, drop trace, eluding one's search. Perchance the words becomingly into the dish. If this be not a dis- had just been spoken that joined two hearts tocovery, we do not know what is. But how is it gether for aye, and those notes blended with the all managed? Here comes the secret : the fowl moment of passionate silence that followed. Or has had all its joints cut by the cook before the deserted one, pining in her loneliness, was dressing, and that without disturbing the outer indulging in a dream of faded hopes, when that skin. To effect this properly, an instrument artless melody rose from the little garden outside requires to be employed called a tendon separa- her window, and associated itself eternally with tor, of which Soyer gives a drawing. Of course, her love and her despair. Some such secret must every one who reads this will get one of these be connected with the mighty power of those instruments, which we should think will not be tones, more potent than that of all the scientific more costly than an ordinary pair of scissors. compositions which the master composers of any The method of using the instrument, and of age have given to the world.