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From Chambers' Journal. and to make the others fear and obey them. A FEW STATISTICS OF AMERICAN
It is said that their influence over their fel
low-servants would not be credited by persons SLAVERY.
unacquainted with the superstitious mind of WHILE American novelists have been draw- the negro. Intelligent negroes believe in coning paper pictures of " Uncle Tom's Cabin," juration, though they are ashamed to ac" Aunt Phillis’ Cabin," and innumerable knowledge it. The effect of such a superstiother competitive cabins of this character, tion-a firm belief that he is poisoned or the planters of the south have been visited conjured - upon the patient's mind, already with a sort of philanthropic mania for erect- in a morbid state, and his health affected from ing“ improved dwellings” for their negroes, hard usage, overtasking, or exposure, want and introducing “scientific culture " into of wholesome food, good clothing, comfortable their cotton-fields. They have been holding lodging, with the distressing idea that he is conventions to promote industrial progress, an object of dislike both to his master and his collecting statistics, supporting commercial fellow-slaves, and has no one to befriend journals, and contributing personal experi- him, tends directly to generate that erythism ence, in the shape of essays and letters, a of mind which is the essential cause of negro vast mass of which had been recently pub- consumption. This complaint often causes lished in an encyclopedic work on the Indus- a depraved appetite for earth, chalk, lime, trial Resources of the Southern and Western and such indigestible substances — natural States.* We have read these papers with instinct leading the patient to absorbents to much interest, for though they are animated correct the state of the stomach. with an intense southern spirit, they are full Contrary to the received opinion, a northern of valuable information, much of which can- climate, though not so favorable to the physnot elsewhere be met with. They have the ical health, is the most favorable to the inteladvantage, too, of not having been written lectual development of the negroes; those of for any other purpose than the mutual benefit Missouri, Kentucky, and the colder parts of and instruction of the planters themselves, Virginia and Maryland, having much more and are, therefore, more unreserved and more mental energy, being more bold and ungovworthy of confidence than if they had been ernable than in the southern lowlands ; a originally intended for permanent publication dense atmosphere causing a better ventilation in å form which would bring them before of their blood. A northern climate remedies, European readers. The contributors are to a considerable degree, their naturally inplanters, lawyers and physicians, each illus- dolent disposition ; but they are more healthy trating his own department of the subject. and long-lived in a tropical climate, provided
The medical reports are occupied with the they can be induced to labor. So sensitive diseases and physical peculiarities of the ne- are they to cold, and so little are they affected groes; but of these only a few points may by that fell destroyer of the white race, malaengage our attention.
ria, which kills more than war and famine, One of the most formidable ailments among that they suffer, in the southern states, more negroes, more fatal than any other, is conges- from diseases of winter than those of sumtion of the lungs. Except when the body is mer. “They are,” says Dr. Nott, of Mobile, warmed by exercise, the negro's lungs are " exempt from the violent congestive fevers very sensitive to the impressions of cold air. of our interior districts, and other violent When not working, they are eager to crowd forms of marsh fever ; and so exempt are they around a fire, even in comparatively warm from yellow fever, that I am now attending weather, and seem to take a positive pleasure my first case of this disease in a full-blooded in breathing heated air and warm smoke. If negro. In fact, it would seem that negro they sleep beside a fire, they turn their heads blood is an antidote against yellow fever, for to it.
the smallest admixture of it with the white Consumption is a common disease, and will protect against this disease, even though presents peculiar features. Its seat is not in the subject come from a healthy northern latthe lungs, stomach, liver, or any organ of the itude in the midst of an epidemic." body, but in the mind; and its cause is stated Physiologically, negroes resemble children, to be cruelty on the part of the master, and in whom the nervous system predominates, superstition or dissatisfaction on the part of and whose temperament is lymphatic. Goodthe negro. On almost every large planta- nature is decidedly a prevalent charaction, one or more negroes are to be found who teristic of the negro race, but it is associated are ambitious to be considered in the charac- with irritability; and, considering their treatter of conjurers, in order to gain influence, ment, this last peculiarity can excite no sur
* The Industrial Resources, fc., of the Southern and prise. One of the greatest mysteries to those Western States. By J. D. B. De Bow, Professor of unacquainted with the negro character, is the Political Economy in the University of Louisiana. facility with which 200 or 300 able-bodied ne3 vols. 1852.
grocs are held in subjection by one white inan,
who sleeps in perfect security among them, says:
6. The increase of deaths comes from with doors and windows open. Another blacks. This increase of mortality is found mystery is the undoubted fact of the love they in the fact, that those colored inmates from bear to a kind master. It is not arbitrary the county of Philadelphia are so constituauthority over them that they dread, but cru- tionally diseased, as under any and all cirelty, and the petty tyranny and imposition cumstances to be short-lived, from their charof one another. All this is accounted for by acter and habits. They die of constitutional their physiological constitution. The slave- and chronic disorders, which are general holder, of course, makes this an argument for among their order, owing to the privations slavery. But if, in these respects, his negroes they undergo, and the want of proper attenare like his children, what should he do with tion in infancy, and their peculiar mode of the latter? The facts are undoubted, but living." Mr. Bevan concludes : “ Indulging they might suggest a very different course of in the use of ardent spirits, subjected to a treatment for the negroes.
prejudice, which bids defiance to any successThe vital statistics of slavery are not suffi- ful attempt to improve their physical or ciently copious and accurate to furnish data inoral condition, from youth to manhood, sowfor very sweeping conclusions. But increased ing the seeds of disease in their constituattention has been directed to the subject, in tions, and at last becoming inmates of prisconsequence of the introduction of life insur-ons. ance in connection with the slaves. This would The southern planters, of course, point to be a powerful prop to the system, and a these facts with exultation, and contrast their source of increased cruelty to its victims. own treatment of the blacks with great adAnd herein is the great obstacle to its success. vantage. It would indeed appear from sevWhen a company insures the life of a free eral papers in these volumes (De Bow), and man, it has the best of all guarantees against it is not an unlikely thing to occur as an foul play – namely, the innate love of life of epochal phenomenon, that a scientific spirit the insured party. But the master's self- is gaining ground among the slave-owners, interest is the sole law in the treatment of which extends not merely to improved cotton negroes; and as soon as a slave became un culture, but also to improved negro managesound, and worth less than the amount insured, ment. Some of the contributions of this what would be the result? The tender mer- character are both interesting and amusing. cies of his master would be very small; and The suggestions about “improved dwellit is a singular fact that the negroes who will ings, sanitary regulations,” and “water nurse their master with untiring devotion and supply,” not to mention provisions of a more kindness, night and day, are utterly regard- spiritual character, would do credit to Lord less of each other's wants in sickness. Shaftesbury, or Prince Albert himself. Evi
The future statistics of negro life-insurance dently, these planters consider themselves no will be very important. Insurance companies mean philanthropists. will know what they are about; and if they
very sensible and practical writer' refuse to insure negroes, it will be in vain gives a description of his plantation, which for the planters to say, that the charge of would tempt any man to become a slave for cruelty brought against them is false; while, the pleasure of living on it. His quarter" on the other hand, if the insurance system has been selected on scientific principles, become general, the south must be credited“ well protected by the shade of forest-trees, with more humanity than is commonly attrib- sufficiently thinned out to admit a free ciruted to it. Statistics sometimes tell curious culation of air, so situated as to be free from tales.
the impurities of stagnant water;" and on The report of the Prison Dicipline Associa- this he has erected "comfortable houses, made tion for 1845 throws some light on the mor- of hewn post oak, covered with cypress, 16 als, as well as the longevity, of negroes in the by 18, with close plank floors and good chimnorth. After giving the bills of mortality for neys, and elevated two feet from the ground. the black and white population in the city The ground under and around the houses is and penitentiary of Philadelphia, the report swept every month, and the houses, both says : “ Out of 1000 of each color residing in inside and out, whitewashed twice a year.' the city, 196 blacks die for every 100 whites; Then there are " good cisterns, providing an and for every 1000 of each color in the peni- ample supply of pure water," and "ample tentiary, the astonishing 'number of 316 clothing for their beds, with a henhouse for blacks to every 100 whites. Returns from each, so that he may have “his chickens and the Philadelphia County Prison, for the last eggs for his evening and morning meals to ten years, show that out of 101 deaths in that suit himself," besides gardens for every fam. establishment, 54 died of consumption. Of ily, in which “ they raise such vegetables and these, 40 were colored, and 14 white." fruits as they take a fancy to.". The beauty
In 1845, Mathew L. Bevan, president of of this description would be lost, were it the Eastern Penitentiary of Pennsylvania, / regarded as drawn for European readers. It
was written for a local magazine as a bona with a suitable number of properly located fide essay on the scientific management of water-closets," which, in addition to other negroes. This gentleman's treatment of his ends, may “serve the much more important negroes is as precise as if he were conducting purpose of cultivating feelings of delicacy.” an hospital or superintending a nursery: The pro-slavery romancers, who have been “ Their dinners are cooked for them, and paying back Mrs. Stowe in her own coin, will carried to the field, always with vegetables, here find ample corroboration of their pleasaccording to the season. There are two ant and pathetic pictures of negro-life. hours, set apart at mid-day for resting, eat There is another point to which we must ing, and sleeping, if they desire it (always con- advert before closing this paper. It appears sulting their wishes), and they retire to one that the slave population of America has been of the weather-sheds or the grove to pass this doubled within the last thirty years. In time, not being permitted to remain in the 1860, the slaves will number four millions ; hot sun while at rest.” A species of Har- at the end of the next thirty years, they will mony Hall has been erected for the children, number six millions and a half; and at the “where all are taken at daylight, and placed commencement of the next century, they will under the charge of a careful and experienced not fall far short of thirteen millions. The woman.". Moreover, continues our philan- question presents itself — what is to be done thropic planter, “ I have a large and comfort- with this rapidly increasing population ? able hospital provided for my negroes when The south says to the north, "Let us enlarge they are sick; to this is attached a nurse's our slave territory:" The north refuses ; room ; and when a negro complains of being whereupon the south retaliates by a threat to too unwell to work, he is at once sent to the employ slave-labor in the manufacture of hospital."
such articles as are now made almost excluNor are either lighter or weightier matters sively, in the northern states. At present, it overlooked. Besides passing a “ liquor-law” is said that free-labor is cheaper than slavefor his plantation, which secures sobriety, labor for manufacturing purposes ; but it “ I must not omit to mention,” he says, will be different as the latter is multiplied. “that I have a good fiddler, and keep him The subject is seriously discussed by the well supplied with catgut; and I make it his planters. Already there are factories in duty to play for the negroes every Saturday South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia, night until twelve o'clock. They are exceed- where negro-labor has been successfully emingly punctual in their attendance at the ployed. In 1850, there were ninety-three ball, while Charley's fiddle is always accom- factories in these states. It has been ascerpanied with Herod on the triangle, and Sam tained that the negroes are quite equal to the to pat !'”
work, and that it suits their habits. Some Better still : “I also employ a good writers also contend that they are ready now preacher, who regularly preaches to them on to compete with the north, and with all the the Sabbath-day, and it is made the duty of world, as regards the quality and price of every one to come up clean and decent to the what they can manufacture ; and that time place of worship. As Father Garritt regu- alone is wanted to render the south the greatfarly calls on Brother Abram to close the ex- est seat of manufactures in the world. ercises, he gives out and sings his hymn with We give these statistics, because we believe much unction, and always cocks his eye at they exhibit the subject in new aspects, and Charley the fiddler, as much as to say old indicate that new elements are about to be fellow, you had your time last night; now introduced into the slave problem. Southern it is mine.'"
labor will press upon the north ; and to perNeither the preaching nor the prayers have plex the problemstill further, northern lamuch effect on their morality, for the writer bor threatens to press upon the south, as admits that they are very licentious. He at- will appear from the following extract from tempted to improve them “ for many years Cist's Cincinnati in 1851 :*_* The time conby preaching virtue and decency, encouraging sumed in seeding, tending, and havesting the marriages, and by punishing, with some cereal crops, embraces about one half the severity, departures from marital obligations ; year: if not in idleness, then, during the but it was all in vain.?
remainder of it, the laborer has to seek other Another contributor to the science of " ne- employments than on the land. The grain gro management,” says : “ In no case should crop is sown and gathered during the months two families be allowed to occupy the same of April, May, June, July, August, Septemhouse. The crowding a number into one ber, and part of October; this includes corn, house is unhealthy. It breeds contention; The cotton crop is seeded in the spring, and is destructive of delicacy of feeling ; and it gathered during the late fall and winter promotes immorality between the sexes. In addition to their dwellings, where there aro * Quoted in Freidley's Treatise on Business, p. a number of negroes, they should be provided | 20 (1852).
months. Now, let the great reduction take ladies. They were now become grandmothplace which I predict in the cost of locomo-ers, and many visits were exchanged in contion ; let the passage between this city and sequence of the important events that had Charleston come down, as I predict it will, occurred in their families. Some time had to five dollars, and to intermediate points in passed over, the young mothers were again in the same proportion ; and let the time con- perfect health, when a serious dispute arose sumed in the trip be within my estimate between them. The daughter's child was a say, thirty-six hours to Charleston — who girl, that of the daughter-in-law a boy. The will gather the cotton crop? What becomes former maintained that the boy was hers, and of slavery and slave-labor when these north- had been taken from her, and given to her ern hordes shall descend upon the fair fields of sister-in-law. The woman accused of havthe sunny south? No conflicts, no interfer- ing stolen the boy denied the charge, and she ence with southern institutions need be ap- was supported in her declaration by her husprehended; the unemployed northern laborer band's mother. The strife became serious, will simply underwork the slave during the and the contending parties brought the affair winter months, and, when the crop is gath- before the judge. This magistrate, who was ered, return to his home. It is known that no Solomon, not being able to elicit the truth, the labor required to gather the cotton crop, dismissed the complainants. The latter as compared with that to plant and tend it, were not satisfied, and appealed to the high is as about four to one that is, one man court, in which General Avitabelli presided. can plant and tend as much as four can gather.” The case was brought before hiin as he sat in
It would appear, then, that the “ peculiar the divan. Public curiosity was strained to institutions' of the south will not remain the highest pitch, and each eagerly asked his unaffected by the general progress of the neighbor : " How will the judge decide ?" world. And from another quarter a blow is The statements on both sides having been threatened, wbich will set Jonathan to calcu- gone through, General Avitabelli ordered two late again whether his slaves will be any goats to be brought, one having a male, the profit to him. We allude to cotton cultiva- other a female kid. This being done, he sent tion in Australia, not to speak of India. In for two sheep that had each a lamb, one a the course of last summer, Dr. Lang, of Syd- male, the other a female. In like manner, ney, addressed a series of letters to the Daily he commanded two cows to be brought, of News, in which he presented a very plausible which one had a male, the other a female " demonstration,” as he calls it, of his con-calf. These different quadrupeds being inviction, “ that cotton of the finest quality for troduced, he ordered that the goats, the the home-market can be grown by means of sheep, and the cows should be milked, and British free-labor to any conceivable extent the milk of each animal placed in a separate on the coast of Australia ; that the growth vessel, which should be marked. “Now," of that article, of indispensable necessity for said the General," let this milk be examined, the manufactures of this country, will prove and it will be found that that which belongs a highly remunerative employment for tens of to the animals which have male young is thousands of the industrious and virtuous stronger than the milk which has been taken working classes of this country, provided they from the others.”. Upon inspection, this was can only be carried out and settled in sufi- found to be correct. “ Now,' said the judge, cient numbers along our coast, of which the " bring me some milk from the mothers of climate cannot be surpassed by that of any the children.” The milk was brought, and other country on earth; that there is no diffi- General Avitabelli declared that the milk of culty whatever in the way of our competing, the daughter was stronger than that of the and competing successfully and triumphantly, daughter-in-law, and that, consequently, she in this department of transmarine industry, must be the mother of the boy. -- Schonberg's with the slaveholders of the United States; Travels in India. and that there is a moral certainty of our being enabled, in a very few years hence, and SPRING is coming! Hear the drumming of the in the fair and honorable way of free-trade pheasant, all so pleasant, ’mid the budding of the and open competition, to give its death-blow trees, and the singing of the bees in the distant, to slavery in America.”
quiet wildwood, where the wonted steps of child.
hood seek, in summer's sultry hours, cooling sbades A SECOND SOLOMON.—A certain Mahomedan by the God of nature's hand; where the tiny and
beneath the bowers formed in arches wild and grand woman, of respectable family, resided at the sturdy (if my muse be not too wordy) both unite Peshawur at the time that General Avitabelli in one acclaim, singing on in nature's name, and was governor of the place. This woman had fulfilling each their mission, live, but only in tradià son and daughter. Both married, and the tion. Spring is coming — coming, coming. On daughter and daughter-in-law gave birth, at every side, scattering wide, see the farmer cast the the same time, to two children,
one a boy, the grain, for he knows, as he throws the seed upon the
ground so well prepared around, that, with sunshine other a girl. This circumstance gave a great and with rain, the harvest will appear as in cach deal of occupation to the mothers of the sick former year.
From Tait's Magazine. things for which no reasonable being could HOW A FORTUNE WAS MADE.
have expected a demand, cargoes of winter
clothing which would have been a godsend to You wish me to tell you how, after my es- an Esquimaux, and consignments of Sheffield cape from the horrors and perils of the French skates, were hurried off to a tropical climate Revolution of 1789, I managed to retrieve my with the view of realizing a tremendous profit fortunes, and plaee myself once more in an by their disposal. Infatuation was the order independent position. Well, I will tell you of the day. Everybody who had the means the story as circumstantially as, at the present determined on a venture, and every vessel distance of time, I am able to recollect it. that could be caught up, whatever her sailing
Having escaped with little more than a qualifications or condition as to seaworthiness, whole skin from France at the death of Robes- was chartered and freighted with commodities pierre, and returned to England, I was com- of all descriptions for the South American pelled to seek employment in any occupation market. suited to my qualifications. A knowledge of I cannot boast of having been myself free the French and German tongues, accomplish- from the prevailing mania, and I invested a ments at that time of day not so common as small sum of money in the purchase of weapthey are now, simply perhaps because they ons, which I thought would be at least as were not so much wanted, procured me a re- likely as skates or snow-boots to yield a profitspectable post in a mercantile house of some able return. The house which I served held standing, for whom I did the double duty of aloof from these speculations for a season ; cashier and corresponding clerk. I was but they were bitten at last, and then set hardly more than twenty at the commence- about making up for løst time with a vigor ment of my engagement in the spring of 1795, very different
from their usually cautious and and I remained thus occupied for eleven years, methodical mode of doing business. One occasionally travelling abroad for a month or morning I was surprised, while dressing, by two in the summer, in the execution of con- a citation from the principal of the firm, to fidential commissions intrusted to me by my wait upon him at his breakfast table. During principals. I was still a young man when, the meal he abruptly put the question to me, iņ the year 1806, news arrived in England of " Are you disposed to go on board the Lance the capture of Buenos Ayres by Sir Home as supercargo and agent, and to sail at once ?" Popham, who, without any authority from the Though not very much surprised at the quesBritish government (having settled the busi- tion, I was rather staggered at the suddenness ness of the Dutch bottoms under Jansens, of the requisition. I did not, however, object, and cabbaged the Cape of Good Hope to serve but begged for a day or two to prepare my for a Tom Tiddler's ground for unfledged gov- outfit. A few hours was all that could be ernors to play the fool with), had started allowed. My employers knew my penchant across the Atlantic, picking up reinforcements for travelling, and had rightly calculated that by the way at St. Helena, and, dashing at I should be at their command at any moment. the Spanish capital, had carried it by a coup I was no sailor, and knew but little of the de main.
necessaries required on ship-board, but I If I were to talk for a month of nothing made the best use of the little time allowed else, I should hardly succeed in giving you me - had all my luggage packed snug in the an adequate notion of the effect which the course of the afternoon, and that same night arrival of this news had upon the commercial started in the mail for Liverpool, where the world in England. Whether it be that there vessel lay, waiting only the arrival of the is anything talismanic in the two syllables supercargo to proceed on her voyage. The “South Seas,” I don't pretend to guess ; but Lance was nearly a new vessel of 500 tons the fact once established that Buenos Ayres burden, belonging to our house ; and this was ours, produced an infatuation compara- would be but her third voyage. She was ble to nothing else of the kind which I can freighted with Manchester and woollen goods, recall to mind. It was like & revival of the and, besides a crew of eighteen or twenty Mississippi scheme of Law, and had its effects hands, had a dozen passengers on board, most not been confined to a certain class of the of them carrying small ventures of their own. community, in all probability it would have I had been furnished with a sealed packet of resulted as ruinously. Merchants went mad instructions, and duplicates of the invoices, upon the subject of the South Seas. Manu- and these I took occasion to con over during facturers were forced to work by relays day my journey to the coast. I found myself and night; and enormous consignments of charged with the entire responsibility of the anything and everything which could be pro- cargo, and invested with a discretionary powdused by labor were dispatched headlong er as to its disposal; and from a copy of the without prudence or premeditation for the directions forwarded to the captain of the vesmouth of the Plate. It is a fact consistent sel, which was enclosed, I saw that he was with my own knowledge, that among other I bound to navigate the ship to any part of the