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From the Quarterly Review. hide. Briefly, we say, and very imperfectly 1. Diseases of the Human Hair. From the – for hair in an ethnological point of view
French of M. Cazenave, Physician to is itself a very wide subject, and its adequate the Hospital of St. Louis, Paris ; with treatment would require a far longer paper & Description of an Apparatus for than we at present contemplate. Fumigating the Sealp.
By T. H.
Dr. Prichard, in his laborious work on the Burgess, M. D. 1851. 2. Hygiène Complète des Cheveux et de la
different races of mankind, apportions to the Barbe : Basée sur des récentes décou- melanic or dark-haired the greater portion of vertes physiologiques et médicales, in the habitable globe. Europe is the chief seat diquant les meilleures formules pour con- of the xantho-comic or light-haired races ; server la chevelure, arrêter la chute, re- indeed they seem to be almost confined to its tarder le grisonnement, régénérer, les limits, and within those limits to be cooped cheveux perdus depuis long-temps, et combattre enfin toutes les affections du up in certain degrees of north latitude. cuir chevelu. Par A. Debay. Paris,
From Norway and Sweden, following their 1851.
sea-kings, the hardy fair-haired races poured
their piratical hordes down the great overSince the world began hair has been an hanging peninsula, and as if from some yarduniversal vanity. Our young reader will arm thronged and dropped, boarding the great doubtless confess that, as his name is tossed European ship, whose more immediate defendup from landing to landing by imposing flun- ers fled in consternation before them. In this kies, he passes his hands carefully through manner nearly the whole of North Germany his curls to give them the last flowing touch received its prevailing population, and Britain ere he enters the ball-room — while Mr. Lay- in her turn saw her primitive black-haired ard, from out the royal palace buried by the Celts and Cymri driven into the mounsand-storms of thousands of years, has shown tains of Scotland and Wales. The subseus what thorough “prigs were the remote quent seizures and settlements made by the Assyrians in the arrangement of their locks Danes on our eastern coast did not in any and beards. What applies to the male sex way interfere with the flood of fair-haired does so with double force to the women ; and people in possession, as they were of the we have not the slightest doubt that Alcibi- same blond type ; and the Norman invasion ades fumed at the waste of many a half-hour - in whatever proportion actually dark whilst his mistress was putting her hair would, in point of aggregate numbers, have tidy,” or arranging the golden grasshopper. been far too limited to affect it. The indigeNot only as a means of ornament has the nous tribes, on the whole, seem to have been hair been seized upon by all classes and gene- about as completely eaten out by the fierce rations of our kind, but it has been converted fair-haired men of the North, whenever they into an index, as it were, of their religious came in contact, as were the small black rats, and social opinions. The difference between once common to our island and some portions the freeman and the slave was of old indicated of the continent, by the more powerful gray by the length of the hair. In later times rodent of Norway. we all know how the Puritan rejoiced in a The chief features of the ethnological map “polled " head, whilst the Cavalier flaunted of Europe were settled before the tenth cenabout in exuberant curls ; so at the present tury, and, especially as regards the disposition moment no tub-thumper would venture to ad- of the dark and light-haired races, it remains dress his “ dearly beloved brethren" without in the mass pretty much the same as then. having previously plastered his hair into pen- Nevertheless, certain intermixtures have been dant candle-ends. The fact of its being the only at work shading off the original differences. part of the body a man can shape and carve At the present moment the fairest-haired inaccording to his fancy is sufficient to account habitants of the earth are to be found north for the constancy with which he has adopted of the parallel 48 ; this line cuts off England, it as his ensign of party and doctrine, and Belgium, the whole of Northern Germany, also for the multitudinous modes in which he and a great portion of Russia. Between the has worn it. Leaving this part of the sub- parallels 48 and 45 there seems to be a deject for a time, however, we will briefly con- bateable land of dark brown hair, which in sider those characteristics of hair which, cludes northern France, Switzerland, and part taken broadly, art cannot modify nor fashion of Piedmont, passes through Bohemia and
Austria Proper, and touches the Georgian and necklace round the world, we find a dozen Circassian provinces of the Czar's empire. nations threaded upon it like so many partiBelow this line again, Spain, Naples, and colored beads. The European portion of the Turkey, forming the southern extremity of necklace is light-haired — whereas the Tarthe map, exhibit the genuine dark-haired tars, northern Mongols, and aboriginal
So that, in fact, taking Europe broad- American Indians have black straight hair ly from north to south, its peoples present in and Canada breaks the chain once more with the color of their hair a perfect gradation the blond tresses of the Saxon. the light flaxen of the colder latitudes deep That climate and food have some effect in ening by imperceptible degrees into the blue modifying race, and with it hair as one of its black of the Mediterranean shores. To this most prominent signs, we do not deny ; but regular gradation, however, there are some these disturbing causes must act through a obvious exceptions. We have already noticed very long period of time to produce any marked the dark tribes lingering within our own effect, and certainly within the historical island — the same is true as to the Celtic period we have no proof of a dark-haired majority of the Irish ; and even the Nor- people having become light, or vice versâ of mans, as we now see them, are decidely ranked flowing hair changing into woolly locks – among the black-haired. On the other Tom Moore's capital joke about the Irish nighand, Venice, which is almost southern in gers notwithstanding. latitude, has always been famous for the Having said that race determines the color golden beauty of its hair, beloved so of Titian and quality of the hair, we have said nearly and his school. These isolated cases, how- all that ethnology teaches upon the subject. ever, only prove the rule that race mainly An examination of its structure shows that determines, among other ethnological peculi- the difference of the color is entirely owing to arities, the color and texture of the hair. If the tinct of the fluid, which fills the hollow latitude or temperature affected it materially, tube in each hair. This tinct or pigment Taffy, Paddy, and Donald would by this time shows through the cortical substance in the have been toned down pretty decently to the same manner that it does through the epiderprevailing fair-headed type ; if even there mis of a negro. Hair is in fact but a modihad been much mixture of the Celt with the fication of the skin. The same might be Saxon, we should not see the former breed said of feathers, horns and scales. Not immarked out by such a lump of darkness probably the distinguished lady now honoring amidst the generally fair portion of the Euro- these pages with her attention, will be shocked pean map.
at hearing that her satin-soft shoulder is The effect of the admixture of races is almost chemically identical with the plated evidenced very strongly, we think, by compar- and roughened mail of the crocodile --- and ing the inhabitants of the great capitals with she will hardly perhaps believe us when we the populations of their respective countries. inform her that her bird, when he sets right London, the centre of the world, is neither some erring feather with his beak, is acting fair nor dark-haired, but contains within itself with the same chemically composed instruall shades of color. Even so the Parisian no ment upon the same chemically composed more represents the black-haired Norman or material as Mademoiselle does when she disswart Breton than our cockney does the pure entangles with a comb her charming mis Saxon of the southern and western counties. tress’ softly-flowing tresses. The fond lover Vienna is another example. What went on again, as he kisses some treasured lock, will rapidly in such cities as these, has been pro- doubtless be disgusted when we tell him, that, gressing more slowly in those countries which apart from the sentiment, he might as well form the highways of nations. Thus the impress his fervent lips upon a pig's pettitoe, brown hair of middle Europe is the neutral or even upon the famous Knob Kerry, made tint, which has naturally resulted from the out of the horn of a rhinoceros, carried by admixture of the flaxen-haired races of the the king of hunters, Mr. Roualleyn Gordon north with the old southern population. Cumming
If we open a wider map we only receive The hair, anatomically considered, is comampler proof that race alone determines the posed of three parts - the follicle or tubular color of the hair. Thus, taking the parallel depression in the skin into which the hair is of 51 north, and following it as it runs like a linserted — the bulb or root of the hair — and
the stalk or cortical part filled with pigment. hairs individually ; and, in all probability, A single hair, with its follicle, might be the scalps were pretty equal in weight. It roughly likened to a hyacinth growing from a is to the fineness and multiplicity of hairs that glass — with this difference that the hair is blond tresses owe the rich and silk-like charsupplied with nutriment exclusively from acter of their flow a circumstance which below. The bulb, which rests upon the retic- artists have so loved to dwell upon. ulated bed of capillary vessels of the cutis Shakspeare especially seems to have deand sub-cutaneous tissue, draws its pigment lighted in golden hair. “ Her sunny locks cells or coloring matter directly from the hung on her temples like the golden fleece" blood -- in like manner, the horny sheath is 80 Bassanio describes Portia in the Mersecreted directly from the capillaries 80 chant of Venice. Again, in the two Gentlethat, unlike the hyacinth-plant ; it grows at men of Verona, Julia says of Sylvia and herits root instead of at its free extremity. A self — “Her hair is auburn — mine is perfect hair is not, as it appears, a smooth cylindri- yellow.” Twenty other passages will sugcal tube like a quill; on the contrary, it is gest themselves to every reader. Black hair made up of a vast number of little horny he only mentions twice throughout his entire laminæ ;
– or our reader might realize its plays, clearly showing that he imagined light structure to herself by placing a number of hair to be the peculiar attribute of soft and thiinbles one within the other — and, as she delicate women. A similar partiality for this adds to this column by supplying fresh thim- color, touched with the sun, runs, however, bles below, she might get a good notion of the through the great majority of the poets – manner in which each hair grows, and will old Homer himself for one ; — and the best see that its oldest portion must be its free painters have seized, with the same instinct, extremity.
upon golden tresses. A walk through any The pigment cells have been scrutinized by gallery of old masters will instantly settle Liebig, who finds a considerable difference in this point. There is not a single female head their constitution according to their color. in the National Gallery — beginning with His results may be thus tabularized : those glorious “ Studies of Heads,” the high
Fair Hair. Brown Hair. Black Hair. est ideal of female beauty by such an idealist Carbon
49.345 50-622 49.935 as Correggio, and ending with the full-blown Hydrogen 6.576 6.613
6:631 blondes of the prodigal Rubens : there is not Nitrogen 17.936 17.936 17.936
a single black-haired female head among Oxygen and sulph. 26.143 24.829 25.498
them. From this analysis it would appear that the One is struck, in passing along the streets, beautiful golden hair owes its brightness to an by the curiosities one sees in those armories excess of sulphur and oxygen with a defi- of Venus, the hairdressers' windows. Whence ciency of carbon, whilst black hair owes its come those magnificent head-dresses which the jetty aspect to an excess of carbon and
de- waxen dummies slowly display as they ficiency of sulphur and oxygen. Vauquelin revolve? From what source issue those pentraces an oxide of iron in the latter, and also dant tresses gleaming in the background, with in red hair. The coloring matter, however, which the blooming belle, aptly entangling forms but one portion of the difference exist- their snaky coil with her own, tempts our ing between the soft, luxuriant tangles of the eligible Adams ? Who are they that denude Saxon girl and the coarse blue-black locks of themselves of coal-black locks, that she who the North American squaw. The size and can afford a price may shore up her tottering quality of each hair, and the manner in beauty ? Alas! free-trading England, even which it is planted, tell powerfully in deter- for her hair, has to depend upon the foreignmining the line between the two races.
Among the many curious occupations of Another eminent German has undergone the metropolis is that of the human-hair the enormous labor of counting the number merchant. Of these there are many, and of hairs in heads of four different colors. In they import between them upwards of five a blond one he found 140,400 hairs ; in a tons annually. Black hair comes mainly from brown, 109,440 ; in a black, 102,962 ; and Brittany and the South of France, where it in a red one, 88,740. What the red and is collected principally by one adventurous black heads wanted in number of hairs, was virtuoso, who travels from fair to fair, and made up, however, in the greater bulk of the / buys up and shears the crops of the neighboring
damsels. Mr. Francis Trollope, in his Sum- tury, and that the great intercourse since the mer in Brittany, gives a lively description of war with southern nations has deepened by the manner in which the young girls of the many tints the predominating Saxon blond of country bring this singular commodity to our forefathers. The same intelligent prompmarket, as regularly as peas or cabbages. ter assured us that any one accustoined to Staring his fill at a fair in Collenée, he says deal in hair could tell by smell alone the dif
ference between German and French hairWhat surprised me more than all, by the singularity and novelty of the thing, were the oper- could discriminate between Irish, Scotch,
that he himself “ when his nose was in"
nay, ations of the dealers in hair. In various parts of the motley crowd there were three or four dif- Welsh, and English hair! The destination ferent purchasers of this commodity, who travel of the imported article is of course principally the country for the purpose of attending the fairs the boudoirs of our fashionable world, and the and buying the tresses of the peasant girls. They glossy ringlets which the poor pensant girl of have particularly fine hair, and frequently in Tours parted with for a few sous, as a nestthe greatest abundance. I should have thought egg towards her dowry, have doubtless aided that female vanity would have effectually pre-in procuring “ a suitable helpmate" for some vented such a traffic as this being carried to any blue spinster or fast Dowager of Mayfair. extent. But there seemed to be no difficulty in | Wigs of course absorb some portion of the finding possessors of beautiful heads of hair per- spoil — and a cruel suspicion rises in our mind fectly willing to sell. We saw several girls that the Comical artists of this our Babylon sheured, one after the other, like sheep, and as do not confine themselves to the treasured many more standing ready for the shears, with relics intrusted to their care, but that many their caps in their hands, and their long hair combed out, and hanging down to their waists. a sorrowing relative kisses without suspicion Some of the operators were men, and some mementoes eked out from hair that grew not women. By the side of the dealer was placed a upon the head of the beloved one. large basket, into which every successive crop
The pure whiteness of the hair in Albinos of hair, tied up into a wisp by itself, was is owing to the perfect absence of pigment thrown. No doubt the reason of the indifference
absence which extends itself to the to their tresses, on the part of the fair Bretonnes, choroid coat of the eye and also to the iris. is to be found in the invariable “ mode” which This condition of non-development, which covers every head, from childhood upwards, with amounts to a physical defect in man, seems close caps, which entirely prevents any part to be the normal condition of many animals of the hair from being seen, and of course as - such as white bears, white mice, white totally conceals the want of it. The money given rabbits, and wbite weasels — in which the for the hair is about 20 sous, or else a gaudy pink eye denotes a total lack of coloring matcotton handkerchief — they net immense profits ter; whilst white feathers and hairs are very by their trips through the country.
common among birds and animals, and in This hair is the finest and most silken black many of them indeed this color — or rather hair that can be procured. Light hair all negative of color - is constant. comes from Germany, where it is collected by The gray hair of age and debility in the
company of Dutch Farmers, who come over human subject results, it is supposed, from i for orders once a year. It would appear that withdrawal of the pigment cells. We feel either the fashion or the necessity of England that we are now touching upon a part of our has, within a recent period, completely altered subject that becomes personal to not a few of the relative demands from the two countries. our most respected readers. Many a viveur Forty years ago, according to one of the first who has taken no note of time is suddenly in the trade, the light German hair alone was startled by the discovery, as he shaves, of a called for, and he almost raved about a pe- few gray hairs — “pursuivants of Death??culiar giluen tint which was supremely prized, and he eradicates the tell-tales with anything and which his father used to keep very close, but an agreeable sensation. Our Parisian only producing it to favorite customers, in the friends, who seem to be profoundly afflicted same manner that our august sherry-lord, or at the appearance of the first shows of age, hock-herr spares to particular friends — or have organized a diligent army of young girls now and then, it is said, to influential literary to war against decay, and to wrest from Time characters — i tew magnums of some rare the fatal ensigns he plants upon our brow. and renowncú vintage. This treasured arti- The Salons Epilatoires, where youth pays this clo he sold at s.v. an ounce - nearly double little attention to age for an inconceivably the price of si.ver Now all this has passed small sum, usually hang out “ Plus de Chevaway - and thic dün saades of brown from eus Gris” — and indeed of late we observe France are chiruy called for. Our informant, London advertisements beginning with “ No venturing boldly into a subject wherewith more Gray Hairs.” White hair, however, is ethnologists fear to tackle, delivers it as his not necessarily the slow work and certain opinion that the color of the hair of English mark of age. Some persons beconie gray very people has changed within the last half-cen-young; we believe that many in the prime
vigor of life are suddenly blanched from the are oftener bald than other of our heroic deeffect of terror, or some other great mental fenders. disturbance. Marie Antoinette's hair, it Hair, the universal vanity, has of course seems to be allowed, turned gray in the night been seized upon universally by quacks --it preceding her execution. A case came lately has proved to them indeed the true Golden under our own observation, in which a sol- Fleece. Science, as though such a subject dier, in order to escape the service, inalingered were beneath its attention, has left the care in a hospital for three months, feigning rheu- of the inost beautiful ornament of the body matism, and such was his anxiety to keep up in the hands of the grossest charlatans. M. the deception (which was, however, com- Cazenave is the only scientific person who has pletely penetrated by his medical attendant) ever treated at any length of the hair, or has that he turned perfectly gray, although quite shown, by the light of physiology, what art a young man. In these cases of emotion, it is capable of doing, and what it is powerless is supposed that the blood sends some fluid to do, in cases of disease and baldness. Those among the pigment of the hair, which at once who understand how the hair is nourished discharges its color. In some, though very can but smile at the monstrous gullibility of rare instances, persons hare been born with the public in putting such faith in the puffs patches of white hair, and there is at present and extracts of the hair-reviewers. Really, in the Museum of Natural History at Paris a the old joke of the power of a certain preparaportrait of a piebald negro, in which the hair tion to restore the bald places in hair-trunks of the head presents very much the parti-col- and in worn-out boas, has become a popular ored appearance of the wigs exposed in the working belief. There is one fact which every windows, half black and white, as specimens one should know, and which would be sufiof the power of the various hair-dyes. cient to rout at once all the trash with which
Woinen are quite as often gray as men, but people load their heads. The blood is the from baldness they are almost entirely exempt. only Macassar of the hair, the only oil which This is owing in a great measure to the larger can with truth be said to " insinuate its baldeposit of fut in the female scalp, which al- samic properties into the pores of the head,” lows of a freer circulation in the capillaries of &c. &c. Oils and pomades may for a time the skin. Eunuchs, who possess much sub-moisten and clog the hair, but over its growth cutaneous fat in this part, are never bald. or nourishment they are absolutely powerless. The scalp of a bald man is singularly smooth The fine network of vessels on which the and ivory-like in texture ; a fact which Chau- bulbs of the hair rest is alone capable of maincer noticed in the Frinr — " His crown it taining its healthy existence. Io a sluggishshon like any glass." This denseness of tex- ness in the capillary circulation baldness is ture in the skin is owing to the destruction mainly due ; when this sluggishness is the of the bulbs of the hair and the closure of the result of a general failure of the system, confollicles; any attempt to reproduce the natu- sequent upon age, as we have said before, no ral covering of the head on such surfaces will art will avail — the inevitable Deliah proprove quite hopeless. From some cause or ceeds unchallenged with her noiseless shears. other, baldness seems to befall much younger When, on the contrary, baldness proceeds men now than it did thirty or forty years ago. from any temporary cause — when the bulb A very observant hatter informed us, a short still remains intact slight friction with a time since, that he imagined much of it was rough towel or a brush, aided by some gently owing to the common use of silk hats, which, irritating pomade, is the only course to be from their impermeability to the air, keep the pursued. Dupuytren, who made baldness the head at a much higher temperature than the subject of a chapter in his great work op Skin old beaver structures, which, he also informed Diseases, gires the following receipt, which us, went out principally because we had used seems to us calculated to produce the desired up all the beavers in the Hudson's Bay Com- result — to promote capillary circulation, and pany's territories. The adoption of silk hats a consequent secretion of the materials of has, however, given them time, it seems, to hair-growth : – replenish the breed. This fact affords a sin
R. Purified beef-tallow 3 viij. gular instance of the influence of fashion upon
Acetate of lead
3j. the aniinals of a remote continent. It would
Peruvian balsam 3 iij. be more singular still if the silk-hat theory of
3j. baldness has any truth in it, as it would then
Tinct. of cantharides, turn out that we were sacrificing our own
cloves, and canella · áá uxv. natural nap in order that the beaver might
Mix. recover his. Without endorsing the specu We do not see why internal applications lative opinion of our hatter, we inay, we be- should not be tricd, and we are not at all cerliere, state it as a well ascertained circum- tain that gelatine soups and pills made of the stance that soldiers in helmetted regiments ashes of burnt hair might not be effectual in CCCCLXIX. LIVING AGE.