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for the working of them, we dare hardly cal- sion in the exterior of the mound, which could culate at present.
be perceived by an observer from the plain, and A portion of Mr. Layard's present volume the interior vault had been forced through. is devoted to the account of some excavations The remains which it may have contained, on the site of Babylon; but although they probably the embalmed body of the king, with led to a few discoveries of very great impor-value buried with it, had been carried off by
vessels of precious metals and other objects of tance, they were not prosecuted
far because those who had opened the tomb at some remote the quantity of waste labor is much greater period, in search of treasure. They must have at Babylon than at Nineveh. There are at had some clue to the precise position of the Babylon no tablets of carved alabaster, and chamber, or how could they have dug into the very few sculptures found on any kind of mound exactly at the right spot? Had this destone. Stone was not readily obtained by the positary of the dead escaped earlier violation, Babylonians, and their palaces were therefore who can tell with what valuable and important ornamented with glazed brick, with plaster relics of Assyrian art or Assyrian history it work and colors. The buried palace of Neb- might have furnished us ? I explored, with uchadnezzar has for a long series of years, feelings of great disappointment, the empty indeed, provided bricks for all the buildings chamber, and then opened other tunnels, without in the neighborhood : there is scarcely a further results, in the upper parts of the mound. house in Hillah which is not almost entirely ber I have described was the place of deposit for
It was evident that the long gallery or chambuilt with them ; and upon every single brick is stamped the name of the king.
the body of the king, if this were really his tomb. As was the case with Mr. Layard's Nineveh mound only exposed a compact and solid mass of
The tunnels and cuttings in other parts of the and its remains, one great charm of the sun-dried brick masonry." I much doubt, for Nineveh and Babylon lies in the admirable many reasons, whether any sepulchre exists in sketches of the tribes that now move to and the rock beneath the foundations of the tower, fro upon the soil of the Assyrians. The re- though, of course, it is not impossible that such production of the past is heightened in effect may be the case. by being placed in apposition with the present. No traveller - no, not Burckhardt himself- Among other evidence by which the king has ever so completely won the confidence of who built the palace of Kouyunjik is identified Eastern dweller among tents; or has ob- with Sennacherib, is the discovery, among tained, from familiar genial intercourse with the wall sculptures, of a picture of the siege Bedouins and Yezidis, so accurate a knowl- of Lachish. This discovery, which signalized edge of their character. Setting aside alto- the latter part of Mr. Layard's residence at gether the great subject matter of his books, Mosul, has supplied the testimony much there still remains in Mr. Layard's narrative wanted of a perfect identification of one series 80 much of the best spirit of the traveller, of the sculpture subjects with a known event and he has such intimate and kindly knowl- in the reign of Sennacherib. The description edge of the Arab, that he might have achieved of the scene of the siege as thus represented a reputation for his pictures of the present, on the palace wall we should have been glad if he had not made his name immortal in to quote — with many other most striking connexion with discoveries relating to the additions to our former knowledge of these past.
marvellous remains — but we shall probably It is a curious fact that there have been no make a still better use of the limited space tombs discovered on the site of Nineveh, nor at our disposal if we rather extract a few any representation on the sculptures of the passages showing the extent Mr. Layard's mode in which the Assyrians disposed of their influence among the Arabs, and the undoubted dead. Did they, like a good sanitary nation, power that he seems to have acquired oveb burn them all ? At Nimroud, in the high them by the cordial and generous nature of conical mound at the north-west corner, Mr. the intercourse he has kept up. His influLayard discovered the remains of a square ence, we may remark, has been used always tower, in which a narrow gallery was found to promote reconciliation between tribe and vaulted with sun-dried bricks, and blocked up tribe, and to increase everywhere peace and at each end. This may have been a royal good-will; and we may specially commend tomb, but nothing else of the kind was dis- to the reader an illustration of peace advocovered. And, says Mr. Layard
cacy (too long to be quoted, but to be found No remains whatever were found in it, neither with whom "Mr. Layard had to deal — in
at p. 168) highly characteristic of the people fragments of sculpture or inscription, nor any which a raging conflict of mutual plunder smaller relio. There were, however, undoubted traces of its having once been broken into on the between two wild tribes suddenly subsides western side, by digging into the face of the into the pleasanter excitement of a chase after mound after the edifice was in ruins, and conse- Mr. Layard's greyhounds in pursuit of a quently, therefore, long after the fall of the hare. Assyrian empire. There was an evident depres- Here is a delightful sketch of Mr. Layard's Arab workmen moving the lions — opening yielding soil
. An evil eye surely lurked among with a characteristic description, nobly felt the workmen or the bystanders. Search . was and written :
quickly made, and one having been detected upon
whom this curse had alighted, he was ignominiBy the 28th of January, the colossal lions ously driven away with shouts and execrations. forming the portal to the great hall in the north- This impediment having been removed, the cart west palace of Nimroud were ready to be dragged drew nearer to the village, but soon again came to the river-bank. The walls and their sculp- to a stand-still. All the Sheikhs were now sumtured panelling had been removed from both marily degraded from their rank and honors, sides of them, and they stood isolated in the and a weak ragged boy, having been dressed up midst of the ruins. We rode one calm cloudless in tawdry kerchiefs, and invested with a cloak, night to the mound, to look on them for the last was pronounced by Hormuzd to be the only fit time before they were taken from their old rest-chief for such puny men. The craft moved ing-places. The moon was at her full, and as forwards, until the ropes gave way, under the we drew nigh to the edge of the deep wall of new excitement caused by this reflection upon earth rising around them, her soft light was the character of the Arabs. When that had oreeping over the stern features of human heads, subsided, and the presence of the youthful and driving before it the dark shadows which Sheikh no longer encouraged his subjects, he still clothed the lion forms. One by one the was as summarily deposed as he had been elected, limbs of the gigantic sphinxes emerged from the and a graybeard of ninety was raised to the gloom, until the monsters were unveiled before dignity in his stead. He had his turn ; then the us. I shall never forget that night, or the most unpopular of the Sheikhs were compelled emotions which those venerable figures caused to lie down on the ground, that the groaning within me. A few hours more and they were to wheels might pass over them, like the car of stand no longer where they had stood unscathed Juggernaut over its votaries. With yells, shrieks, amidst the wreck of man and his works for and wild antics the cart was drawn within a ages. It seemed almost sacrilege to tear them few inches of the prostrate men. As a last re from their old haunts to make them a mere source I seized a rope myself, and with shouts of wonder-stock to the busy crowd of a new world. defiance between the different tribes, who were They were better suited to the desolation around divided into separate parties and pulled against them ; for they had guarded the palace in its each other, and amidst the deafening tahtel of glory, and it was for them to watch over it in the women, the lion was at length fairly brought its ruin. Sheikh Abd-ur-Rahman, who had to the water's edge. ridden with us to the mound, was troubled with no such reflections. He gazed listlessly at the We add a few quaint sketches of oriental grim images, wondered at the folly of the Franks, character pieked almost at random from a thought the night cold, and turned his mare to- host of others. The first is a tale told by his wards his tent.
Owing to recent heavy people against one of Mr. Layard's friends. rains, which had left in many places deep swamps, we experienced much difficulty in dragging the cart over the plain to the river-side. His excellency dot fostering feelings of the Three days were spent in transporting each most friendly nature towards Namik Pasha, the lion. The men of Naifa and Nimroud again new commander-in-chief of Arabia, who was oame to our help, and the Abou-Salman horse- passing through Mosul on his way to the headmen, with Sheikh Abd-ur-Rahman at their head, quarters of the army at Baghdad, and unwilling encouraged us by their presence. The unwieldy to entertain him, was suddenly taken ill and mass was propelled from behind by enormous retired for the benefit of his health to Baassheiklevers of poplar wood ; and in the costumes of hah. On the morning after his arrival he comthose who worked, as well as in the means plained that the asses by their braying during adopted to move the colossal sculptures, except the night had allowed him no rest ; and the that we used a wheeled cart instead of a sledge, asses were accordingly peremptorily banished the procession closely resembled that which in days from the village. The dawn of the next day of yore transported the same great figures, and was announced, to the great discomfort of his which we see so graphically represented on the excellency, who had no interest in the matter, walls of Kouyunjik. As they had been brought by the cocks ; and the irregular troops who 80 were they taken away.
formed his body-guard were immediately inIt was necessary to humor and excite the cited to a general slaughter of the race. The Arabs to induce them to persevere in the arduous third night his sleep was disturbed by the crying vork of dragging the cart through the deep soft of the children, who, with their mothers, were at soil into which it continually sank. At one once locked up, for the rest of his sojourn, in the time, after many vain efforts to move the cellars. On the fourth he was awoke at dayburied wheels, it was unanimously declared that break by the chirping of sparrows, and every Mr. Cooper, the artist, brought ill-luck, and no gun in the village was ordered to be brought out one would work until he retired. The cumbrous to wage a war of extermination against them. machine crept onwards for a few more yards, But on the fifth morning his rest was sorely bat again all exertions were fruitless. Then broken by the flies, and the enraged Pasha inthe Frank lady would bring good fortune if she sisted upon their instant destruction. The sat on the sculpture. The wheels rolled heavily Kiayah, who, as chief of the village, had the task along, but were soon clogged once more in the of carrying out the governor's orders, now threw
THE SLEEP OF A PASIIA.
TURKISH PERSECUTION OF THE NESTORIANS.
himself at his excellency's feet, exclaiming, and ask for money. The Albanian's occupation “Your highness has seen that all the animals is gone. Even Tafil-Bousi (a celebrated Albahere, praise be to God, obey our Lord the Sultan ; nian condottiere) smokes his pipe, and becomes the infidel flies alone are rebellious to his au- fat like a Turk. It is the will of God. I have thority. I am a man of low degree and small forsworn raki, I believe in the Korau, and I power, and can do nothing against them ; it keep Ramazan.” now behoves a great Vizir like your Highness to
RESULTS OF PROPHECY. enforce the commands of our Lord and master." The Pasha, who relished a joke, forgave the flies,
I gained, as other travellers have done before me, but left the village.
some credit for wisdom and superhuman knowl
edge by predicting, through the aid of an almaKURDISTAN HOSPITALITY.
nack, a partial eclipse of the moon. It duly took At its entrance was a group of girls and an place, to the great dismay of my guests, who well old Kurd baking bread in a hole in the ground, nigh knocked out the bottoms of all my kitchen plastered with clay. “ Have you any bread ?" utensils in their endeavor to frighten away the we asked. “No, by the Prophet!” Any
Jins who had thus laid hold of the planet. buttermilk?" – "No, by my faith !" Any fruit?" “No, by Allah !" the trees were groaning under the weight of figs, pomegran
The pastures and arable lands around their ates, pears, and grapes
. He then asked a string villages had been taken away from them and of questions in his turn : “Whence do you given to their Kurdish tyrants. Taxes had been come?" “ From afar !''
“What is your busi- placed upon every object that could afford them ness ?”-“What God commands !" - Whither food, and upon their mills, their looms, and their are you going?” “ As God wills !” The old hives, even upon the bundles of dried grass for gentleman, having thus satisfied himself as to their cattle, brought with great labor from the our character and intentions, although our an, which they could apply for redress. A deputa
highest mountains. There was no tribunal to were undoubtedly vague enough, and might have been elsewhere considered evasive, tion sent to the Pasha had been ill-treated, and left us without saying a word more, but soon
some of its members were still in prison. There after came back bearing a large bowl of cards, was no one in authority to plead for them. They and a basket filled with the finest fruit. Placing old oppressors, for, as a priest touchingly ra
had even suffered less under the sway of their these dainties before me, he ordered the girls to marked to me," The Kurds took away our lives, bake bread, which they speedily did, bringing but the Turks take away wherewith we hașe to us the hot cakes as they drew them from their
live.” primitive oven.
Little did this primitive old priest imagine THE BEG FROM THE OTHER END OF THE WORLD. he was uttering the speech put by an old
Near Abou-Sheetha is a small village named Christian playwriter into the mouth of a Jew Kaaitli, inhabited by sedentary Arabs, who pay - but what unconscious testimony is thus tribute to the Sheikh. A few tents of the Tai were scattered around it. As we passed by, the given to the genuine orientalism of Shylock ! women came out with their children, and point- horses.
We now gather a note or two about Arab ing to me exclaimet, “ Look, look ! this is the Beg who is come from the other end of the world Whenever a horse falls into the hands of an to dig up the bones of our grandfathers and Arab, his first thought is how to ascertain its grandmothers !"' a sacrilege which they seemed descent. If the owner be dismounted in battle, inclined to resent.
or if he be even about to receive his death-blow from the spear of his enemy, he will frequently
exclaim, " 0 Fellan ! (such a one) the mare that Sented near him on the divan I found my old fate has given to you is of noble blood. She is friend Ismail Agha of Tepelin, who had shown of the breed of Saklawiyah and her dam is ridden me hospitality three years before in the ruined by Awaith, a sheikh of the Fedan” (or as the castle of Amadiyah. He was now in command case may be). Nor will a lie come from the of the Albanian troops forming part of the gar- mouth of a Bedouin as to the race of his mare. rison. A change had come over him since we He is proud of her noble qualities, and will teglast met. The jacket and arms which had once tify to them as he dies. After a battle or a glittered with gold, were now greasy and dull. foray, the tribes who have taken horses from the His face was as worn as his garments. After a enemy will send an envoy to ask their breed, and cordial greeting he made me a long speech on A person so chosen passes from tent to tent unhis fortunes, and on that of Albanian irregulars harmed, hearing from each man, as he eats bis in general. “ Ah! Bey,” said he, “the power bread, the descent and qualities of the animal be and wealth of the Osmanlis is at an end. The may have lost. Sultan has no longer any authority.
The aceursed Tanzimat (Reform) has been the ruin
Again :of all good men. Why see, Bey, I am obliged to On one occasion, when I was amongst the Shamlive upon my pay ; I cannot eat from the treas- mar at Al Hather, an Arab rode into my en ury, nor can I squeeze a piastre — what do I say, campment on a beautiful gray oolt. I was so a piastre? not a miserab!" half-starved fowl-out much struck with the animal, that I at once ex of the villagers, even though they be Christians ! pressed a wish to its rider to purchase it. He Forsooth, they must tall. to me about reform, merely intimated that the sum I named was.
A VICTIM OF TURKISH REFORM.
beneath the value. I increased it, but he only | loads on his mules and the other stows away in shook his head, and rode off. Nevertheless, the the bottom of his ship, that is no business of report spread amongst the tribes that he had mine. But, above all, as to the previous history bargained for the sale of his horse. Although of this city, God only knows the amount of dirt of the best blood, the animal was looked upon and confusion that the infidels may have eaten with suspicion by the Bedouins, and the owner before the coming of the sword of Islam. It were was, some months after, obliged to sell him at a unprofitable for us to inquire into it. lower price than I had bid, to a horse-dealer of Oh, my soul ! oh, my lamb ! seek not after Mosul ! A knowledge of such little prejudices the things which concern thee not. Thou camest and customs is very necessary in dealing with unto us, and we welcomed thee; go in peace. the Arabs of the Desert, who are extremely sen- “Of a truth, thou hast spoken many words ; sitive, and easily offended.
and there is no harm done, for the speaker is one There is a good deal of practical philosophy of thy people thou hast wandered from one place
and the listener is another. After the fashion in the following idea :
to another until thou art happy and content in The Bedouins are acquainted with few medi- none. We (praise be to God) were born here, cines. The desert yields some valuable simples, and never desire to quit it. Is it possible then which are, however, rarely used. Dr. Sandwith that the idea of a general intercourse between hearing from Suttum that the Arabs have no mankind should make any impression on our opiates, asked what they did with one who could understandings ? God forbid ! not sleep. “ Do !” answered the Sheikh, “why, “ Listen, oh, my son! There is no wisdom we make use of him, and set him to watch the equal uuto the belief in God! He created the camels."
world, and shall we liken ourselves unto him in Here is a modern version of an ancient seeking to penetrate into the mysteries of his tale :
creation? Shall we say, behold this star spin
neth round that star, and this other star with a The inscription is called Meher Kapousi, tail goeth and cometh in so many years ? Let it which, according to the people of Wan, means go! He from whose hand it came will guide and the Shepherd's Gate, from a tradition that a direct it. shepherd, having fallen asleep beneath it, was
“But thou wilt say unto me, Stand aside, oh told in a dream the magic word that opened the man, for I am more learned than thou art, spell-bound portal. He awoke and straightway and have seen more things. If thou thinkest tried the talisman. The stone doors flew apart, that thou art in this respect better than I am, disclosing to his wondering eyes a vast hall filled thou art welcome. I praise God that I seek not with inexhaustible treasures ; but as he entered that which I require not. Thou art learned in they shut again behind him. He filled with gold things I care not for ; and as for that which thou the bag in which, as he tended his flocks, he hast seen, I defile it. Will much knowledge carried his daily food. After repeating the magic create thee a double belly, or wilt thou seek Parsummons, he was permitted to issue into the adise with thine eyes ? open air. But he had left his crook, and must
« Oh, my friend! If thon wilt be happy, say, return for it. The doors were once more un- There is no God but God! Do no evil, and thus closed at his bidding. He sought to retrace his wilt thou fear neither man nor death ; for surely steps, but had forgotten the talisman.
His thine hour will come ! faithful dog waited outside until nightfall. As “ The meek in spirit (El Fakir), its master did not come back, it then took up the
“ IMAUM ALI ZADE." bag of gold and carrying it to the shepherd's
How difficult it has been to single out any wife, led her to the gates of the cave. She could hear the cries of her husband, and they are
special passages for quotation from a book in
which heard to this day, but none can give him help.
every page contains matter of value
we need hardly say. Even now we cannot And from oriental fction we may pass, for close the book without directing the reader's our last quotation, to an illustration of orien- particular attention to the descriptive beauty tal notions about fact. To show the uniform of the eleventh chapter — the journey from spirit in which Eastern philosophy and Mus- Mosul to the Khabour. sulman resignation contemplate all the vari- Nor can we close our comments without a ous evidences of ancient greatness and civili- grateful recognition of the spirit and good zation now so suddenly rising up in the midst sense displayed by Mr. Murray, in meeting of modern ignorance and decay, Mr. Layard the wide public demand for Mr. Layard's gives the letter of a Turkish Cadi written in writings, by issuing the work before us at reply to some inquiries as to the commerce, once in a cheap forin. When regard is paid population, and remains of antiquity of an to the amount of type and liberality of illus ancient city, in which dwelt the head of the tration in the volume (both of which are relaw :
markable) it will be evident that full benefit “ My illustrious Friend, and Joy of my Liver !
is given to the public of that certainty of a “ The thing you ask of me is both difficult large sale which is commanded by the interand useless. Although I have passed all my est of Mr. Layard's subject; and by the cheer days in this place, I have neither counted the ful, manly way in which he wins our sympahouses nor have I inquired into the number of thies over the telling of his wondrous tale of the inhabitants ; and as to what one person Nineveh and Babylon.
From Chambers' Journal.
ziones, I never hear or am present at any, MANKIND, FROM A RAILWAY BAR-MAID's and I can hardly believe that such things exist.
I am, indeed, rather at a loss to understand POINT OF VIEW.
how all those things that one hears of in the MANKIND is composed of great herds of newspapers come about. We are told there rough-looking persons, who occasionally rush of statesmen who conduct public affairs, of with frightful impetuosity into our refresh- soldiers who fight gallantly for their country, ment-rooms, calling for cups of coffee, and of great poets and novelists who charm their hot brandy and water, which they tumble into fellow-creatures, and of philosophers and dithemselves scalding, and pay for in furious vines who instruct then. A few will lay haste ; after which they rush out again, with their heads together, and raise a Crystal out exchanging a civil word with anybody. Palace. Some will combine, and throw a Mankind, even of the first class, are dressed tubular bridge across a strait of the sea. queerly in pea-coats, paletôts, cloaks, and These things are a complete mystery to me, caps, with no sort of attention to elegance. for I see nothing of mankind but coarse eatThey indulge much in comforters, and green ing and drinking, and most undignified run and red handkerchiefs, and sometimes little wings off when the bell rings. There must is seen of their visages beyond the mouth and surely be another mankind who do all the fine the point of the nose. While they stand at things. the bar eating or drinking, they look much One detestable thing about the mankind like a set of wild beasts in a menagerie, tak- that comes under my observation, is their ing huge bites and monstrous gulps, and often gluttony. Every two or three hours they glaring wildly askance at each other, as if rush in, demanding new refreshments, and each dreaded that his neighbor would rob him eating them with as much voracity as if they of what he was devouring. It is a very un- had not seen victuals for a week. They eat amiable sight, and has given me a very mean eight times a day on our line, and the last opinion of mankind. They appear to me a train is always the hungriest, besides taking set of beings devoid of courtesy and refine- the most drink. It is a perfect weariness ment. None of them ever takes off hat or cap to me, this constant feed — feed — feeding. when eating, and not one of even those whom What with the quantity they eat, and what I suppose to be clergymen, ever says grace with the baste of the eating, we must send before the meat which I band him. A soup out hundreds of indigestions from our rooms or a sandwich is no better in this respect than every day. a brandy and water. When a lady comes in On account of these shocking habits on the amongst these rude, ungracious animals, un- part of mankind, I have for some time past less she has a husband or other friend to take entertained a great contempt for them, insosome care of her, she is left to forage for her- much, that I almost wish to see them scald self; and I have seen some forlorn examples themselves with my cups of tea, and choke of the sex come very poorly off, while gentle upon my pies. For me to think of narrying men were helping themselves to veal and ham any specimen of so coarse a crew, is entirely pies, and slices of the cold round. I don't out of the question ; so it is quite as well know any difference in mankind for a great that Tom Collard, the guard, left me for Betsy number of years. They are just the same last summer, and that, as yet, no other folmuffled-up, confused-looking, munching, glar- lower has come forward. It will be best fur ing, bolting crew, as when I first became ac- them all to keep their distance - 80 assures quainted with them at the station. They are them their obedient, humble servant, not conversable creatures. They seem to
SOPHIA TANKARD. have no idea of using the mouth and tongue for any purpose but that of eating. They The Principles of Mechanical Philosophy, can only ask for the things they wish to eat applied to Industrial Mechanics ; furming & or drink, and what they have to pay for them. Sequel to the Author's “ Exercises on Mechanics Now and then, I hear some one making a re- and Natural Philosophy." By Thomas Tute, mark to another, but it seldom goes beyond F. R. A. S., of Kneller's Training College, Twick such subjects as the coldness of the night; enham, &c. and this, a curious coincidence, I always
The object of this work is to remove an evil find to be alluded to just before I'am asked pointed out by Professor Moseley in his Report for a tumbler of punch, as if there were a nec-on the Hydraulic Machines of the Great Eshibiessary connection between the two ideas. tion — the frequent sacrifice of capital and of Sometimes a gentleman, when the bell sudden
much mechanical ingenuity, in English machine
ry as compared with French, from the want of a ly rings for seats, and he only begun with his knowledge of mechanical laws. Mr. Tate enuncup of coffee and biscuit, will allow a naughty ciates the principles of his subject, and illustrates expression to escape him. Beyond this, man- them by means of exercises, conducted for the kind are a taciturn, stupid set; for though I most part “on algebraical and mathematical hear of speeches, and lectures, and conversa- principles." —Spectator.