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ful to profess. As to many of the principal ries of many other noblemen and gentlemen by points of personal morality the tone of both whom I have been employed during the last people is low; but in one great distinction, brief sketch of the process employed. Formerly

thirty years. It now only remains to give a the Osmanlis have a most undoubted superi- I made an accurate tracing from the original ority :— the Christians, whether Greeks or leaf, and afterwards retraced it on to the inlaid Russians, seem to have no sense of or regard leaf by means of a paper blackened on one side ; for truth, - the Turks are honorable and this produced an outline lettered page, which, by reliable in all their transactions.

being gone over carefully and imitating the

original, produced the desired leaf. This process The not very brilliant success of the one was found to take up much time, and was consekingdom, which has been already established quently expensive, but it was the method I by the dismemberment of the Ottoman Em- adopted while employed by Mr. Whittaker ; and

he, to carry out the deception still further, had pire, has scarcely been of a nature to encour

two sets of tools cut of the large and small letters age as to further experiments of that nature. generally used by Caxton, with which he has Greece has now had an independent existence often been at the trouble to go over the pages of twenty years under the guarantee and after my work was done, to give the appearance guardianship of the Great Powers ; yet what terwards adopted by me was to make the tracing

of the indentation of the type. The process afinternal improvements have marked her in a soft ink, to transfer the same to a thin pa course ? what prosperity has accrued from per, and to re-transfer on to the intended leaf; her independence ? what worth or honesty by this means I saved one third, or one tracing

of the work, which was a great saving both in has signalized her dealings with foreigners

time and expense. I pursued this process for even with her benefactors ? Little enough, some years, but I have within the last ten or as we all know, to our cost. It may well be twelve years had recourse to lithography, prothat the Turkish Power is not destined to a ducing the tracing on to the stone, and finishing perpetual duration ;- but at least let her not up the letters on to the same ; this has been bene be cut short while she is actually struggling wanted; but I occasionally find even this process

ficial, particularly when more than one copy was for improvement and civilization at least irksome and uncertain, and frequently at this let her be maintained till she can be super- present time have recourse to my own. - Jury Beded by something indisputably better. Reports of the Great Exhibition.

So much for the morality and higher considerations involved in the case : the question of mere policy and expediency must be dis DECIMAL CURRENCY. — The Times says: cussed separately.

“ The Liverpool Chamber of Commerce have issued a Report on Decimal Currency by a Committee of their own body appointed to consider a

variety of plans submitted to them on the subFAC-SIMILES of Old Books. — Mr. Harris soject. After referring to the great advantage well known for his extraordinary productions of that would be derived by the community at fac-similes of old books, restoration of defective large from the introduction of the decimal leaves, &c., favored the jury of the Great Exhi- system, they submit two methods either of which bition with the following description of the means could easily be adopted, inasmuch as they would he employs : - “It was about the year 1815 interfere only in a very slight degree with the that I was first employed by the late Mr. John present arrangements and values. Circulars Whittaker of Westminster, an eminent book- have been forwarded to the President of the binder of that period ; and I believe the idea of Board of Trade, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, having ancient books of the early printers, &c., the Chairman of the Board of Inland Revenue, perfected by fac-similes, was first suggested to and the Governor of the Bank of England with him by the late Earl Spencer, for whom many the hope that the matter may be taken up books were so done ; and numerous specimens

The aversion of the idle and ignorant to are preserved of some of the rarest productions being forced to conform to any improvement of the press in the library at Althorpe. Speci- that would require even but a few hours' thought mens are also to be seen in the King's Library, is such that the change could not be made withwhich were done in the lifetime of George the out an outcry, although all the intelligent classes Third, the art of imitation by fac-similes being might desire it, and it could likewise be demonpatronized by him, also by the late Earl Fitz- strated to be beneficial to everybody. After william, the Hon. T. Grenville, and many others. its adoption, and the consequent compulsion to I continued to work for Mr. Whittaker till about conform to it, even its opponents in a few weeks 1820, when I was sent for by Lord Spencer, for would be astonished how they could ever have whom I completed a Pentateuch in Hebrew and gone on in the old way. But this ordeal would Chaldee, and several other works ; also I was have to be met ; and none but a minister who, employed by the late Mr. Grenville, in whose recognizing a great national object to be gained, library are numerous specimens of various works could withstand a month or two of noisy oomcompleted by me, as there are also in the libra- plaint, would ever be likely to undertake it.”


From the Examiner, 12th March. The young Austrian Emperor would fain, TURKS AND CHRISTIANS.

therefore, ape his great prototype of the North

in all this, and get himself acknowledged WHEN wolves are hungry and lambs con- protector of the Catholic Christians of Bosnia. venient, lupine logic is always fertile in find- But we really cannot bring ourselves to being out causes of provocation to justify their lieve, notwithstanding the telegraphic de. satisfying what is after all but a very natural spatches forwarded from Vienna, that 80 taste. Thus the young Emperor of Austria, monstrous a claim has been as yet in any who is a bigot as well as a despotic master respect formally admitted.

Could Austria of an expensive army ravenous for glory, finds thus establish a right to mix in the internal a thousand reasons for interfering with Tur- affairs of these provinces, it would soon be key ; now that her provinces are in revolt, looked up to by the people generally as a her finances in disorder, and her ministry the protector, would be appealed to in all their worst and weakest she has had for many grievances, and might easily prepare the years. As we have already said, he has no country to fall ere long into its grasp a ready more wish or interest than the Sultan him- and a willing prey. self that Montenegro, or any other province Now we would not be misunderstood. We of Turkey, should become really free and in- are no extraordinary admirers of Turkey, nor dependent, for this would very inaterially en- are we disposed to sacrifice the interests of danger the possession of some of his own civilization for the maintenance of any power provinces, of similar race and religion. Nor or any dynasty. If the provinces of Turkey is he desirous to attempt their conquest him- are desirous of establishing their independself, for he knows that neither France nor ence, let them do it; but do not let it be England are quite so well disposed towards made a means of revenging a noble and genhim at the present moment as to render such erous action, and at the same time of agan attempt safe or advisable. But it would grandizing a power less liberal both in civil and suit him exceedingly well to be considered religious government than Turkey itself. No the protector of the Christians — particularly country in Europe, as we observed last week, the Catholics of the Turkish provinces south has carried out the principle of self-govern of the Save, as Russia is of those in Walla- ment to so great an extent as Turkey, and it chia and Moldavia. And it is to promote this is for this reason that, in spite of its weakness object that the insurrection in Montenegro has externally, the Turkish empire still internally been fostered, and the military demonstrations shows signs of life and vigor. As long as the made.

taxes are duly paid, the Porte allows the Ever since the liberation of M. Kossuth, people to assess them as they will, and to Austrian intrigue has been continually at work collect them by their own officers. In many among the Catholics of Bosnia ; and when of the villages in Turkey — and, if we are not their attempt at insurrection was put down, mistaken, in Bosnia itself — a Turkish officer there were no calumnies the Austrian journals is not allowed to enter the village unless the did not spread as to the cruelties exercised tax is refused, and there are many in which against them. Austria sent a considerable no such person has been seen for years. It is suin of money to aid such as had suffered from notorious that Turkey is moro tolerant in the destruction of their property, and in religious matters than half the Christian various ways showed her 'syinpathy for the states of Europe, and no one who has visited insurgents. The Pope even - that friend of Rome and Constantinople will doubt in which toleration and liberty — invoked the aid of city religious liberality finds itself least a the young emperor in favor of the persecuted stranger. Ask the Bible Society whether Catholics, although persecuted for revolt and their agents are expelled from Turkey as they not for Catholicism. "It should be recollected have lately been from Austria ; whether they that formerly Servia, Bosnia, and Turkish ever heard of Turks being cast into prison for Croatia were fiefs the Crown of Hungary ; reading the Bible, as Italians are at Florence ; and although the Emperor of Austria spurns and whether they ever understood that the every obligation to which he is bound as Sultan allowed his muftis to drive out the King of Hungary, he is by no means disin- population of a whole district for their relig; clined to claim all the advantages which at- ious opinions, as the Emperor of Austria did tach to the title. With smaller claims than the Tyrolese Protestants some few years these Russia has succeeded, on this same plea since ? The humanity with which Omer of protecting.co-religionists, in acquiring such Pasha has treated the insurgent Montenegrins an influence in the Danubian provinces that who have fallen into his hands, is not only a they may be considered to all intents and striking contrast to the cruelty of his savage purposes a part of the Russian Empire. And opponents, but to the conduct of the Austri. now a Russian envoy is bullying and intrigu- ans, who impudently claim to have frightened ing at Constantinople to extend that infuence him into clemency. Haynau hung and shot under cover of protecting the Holy Shrines. the Hungarians by scores for defending by

arms the liberties bequeathed to them from saying these things, he has authenticated the their fathers, and confirmed by their kings. essential parts of the information already beOmer Pasha treats with kindness men who fore the public, and has given an official stamp have revolted with the intention not only to the usual anticipations on the subject. of gaining their own freedom, but of con- This authentic information is very important, spiring against the safety of the empire it- in telling us what we have to expect, and self

. When within reach of victory, the Turk thus relieving us from distracting our attenoffers peace, religious liberty, and the freest tion with useless calculations having no basis political action. The Christian refused to in probability. Meanwhile, Lord John RusI treat with rebels ;" and, when victorious sell, though speaking in very inoderate lanwith others' arms, he robbed the country of guage, has placed this country in a position every right it had possessed, and every privi- intelligible and firm. lege his ancestors had sworn to maintain. Lord Palmerston has not been equally frank

Let us beware, then, how we grant our on the subject of the demands emanating from sympathies in such a cause or to such advo- Austria, France, and Prussia, calling upon cates. Because a horde of robbers and mur- Queen Victoria's government to exercise some derers, excited by the love of plunder and the kind of compulsion or control over the inovepromise of support, descend from their moun-ments of foreign refugees residing in England. tains and surprise a fort or plunder a village, In reply to Lord Dudley Stuart, Lord Palmerdo not let us fancy that the Turkish empire ston said that “no such communications had must fall before them. Because those liberal been received :" a statement which may be and tolerant sovereigns, the Emperor of Rus- literally true, but it is one by no means insia, the Pope, and the Emperor of Austria, compatible with the previous, reiterated, and have expressed their sympathy for their suf- uncontradicted statement of the Times, that fering brethren“ in partibus in fidelibus," do such demands were to be made by Austria, not let us at once conclude that the Turks and that the other powers were to join in a have departed from their usual policy of re- note upon the subject. Lord Dudley Stuart ligious toleration.

may have erred in the matter of dates or

otherwise, and thus saved Lord Palmerston From the Spectator, 6th March. from that which diplomacy abhors, a direct The course of events on the Continent is answer. But Lord Palmerston did not scruple such that our ministers have been obliged to to declare what this government would do if take a distinct position, and to declare that such demands were made — it would refuse position in Parliament. Foreign relations compliance. The British government will have thus become, if not the most important, enforce the law against any who shall atat least the prominent and stirring event of tempt to break it, whether British or foreign the week within the walls of the Legislature. subjects, but it will not give up the refuge The whole question of “the balance of power" which it has affyrded to political unfortuwas raised by Lord Dudley Stuart, in moving nates. for copies of the communications between the Ministers have had to maintain their posigovernments of Austria and Turkey on the tion in colonial affairs against a rally of the subject of Montenegro. Lord John Russell Tory party, headed by Lord Derby; who encourteously declined to give the papers, but deavored to show that the relinquishment of very frankly stated the actual position of this the Clergy Reserves to the Canadian Legislacountry in the matter. The almost local dis- ture was an abandonment of trust in the impepute raised by the people of Montenegro, in rial government towards the Protestant Estabstretching the independence that they have lished Churches. If Lord Derby were able to enjoyed upon sufferance, has called in ques- attain any success at all, which we doubt, it tion the tenure of the Turkish government in can only be in embarrassing the government. regard to its own Christian subjects and the That he can arrest the transfer of authority great Christian states conterminous with its on local affairs from the imperial government territory; and while Lord John Russell in- to the colonial government, is impossible ; forms us that the immediate dispute has been for that transfer is registered in the decrees hushed up for the time, in great part through of fate, and it only awaits final fulfilment. the good offices of this country to maintain That he can sustain the Church of England in the status quo, he holds out no hope of main- Cavada by the will of the imperial governtaining it for long. The interest of this coun- ment, and by compulsory exactions from the try requires that we should maintain the inhabitants, is a still wilder dream : any atstatus quo, while our honor forbids that we tempt of the sort could only draw upon Lord should share in any partition ; the fall of the Derby's own Church a truly American hatred, Turkish rule through its inherent weakness is and would combine the colonists for the de imminent; and Lord John cannot conceive a struction of it as an alien monopolist. It is readjustment of the Turkish territory without only through freedom and equality, and conthe greatest chance of an European war. In 'sequent absence of the motives to ill-will, that

any'Church, whether of England or Scotland, that there should be any“ question” with a caň maintain its stand in Canada amongst great ally about such trumpery things as this other persuasions, as in the United States. King of the Swamp and all its vermin. Lord Derby could but sacrifice the church of his creed to a canting manæuvre and an antiministerial success.


On the 26th of February, a deputation from The newest news from abroad once more

the Peace Conference waited upon Lord Aberdirects attention to “ Gery's folly,” the illus- deen and presented to him a memorial agreed trious “ kingdom of Mosquitia ;" for the new-to at the meeting recently held at Manchesest events on the European Continent belong ter. Mr. Milner Gibson, Mr. Cobden, Mr. to a familiar series. Louis Napoleon is Hume, and Mr. Samuel Gurney, addressed “ warning" the ingenious journalists who the premier in support of the memorial ; manage to discuss him in metaphors. Paris which, citing former speeches by Lord Aberand Vienna are gossiping over the sturdy Eng- deen and Sir Robert Peel against the rivalry lish articles in the Times declaring that

of states in augmenting their forces, recom

political refugees will not be given up. The mended the intervention of diplomacy to efEmperor Francis Joseph is getting better and fect a pro rata reduction of armaments on the his wound is healing; yet anxiety for his part of England and France. According to a health evidently increases,

and an alter ego" report which appeared to have been furnished is allotted to him to perform some of his auto- to several journals at once, Lord Aberdeen cratic functions. At Milan, Radetzky is fol- said he had never met any deputation with lowing up punishment and fines with whole- whose objects he more completely agreed – sale confiscations. And the Turks are fight No one could more earnestly, he might sny ing while negotiations proceed. But there is more passionately, desire the attainment of these no decided turn in the course of affairs save objects as a security for the peace of Europe, that already noted in Parliament.

than he did ; and he believed that by no other General Cathcart has achieved another means could any government more effectually damaging victory over the border Blacks of the promote the happiness of mankind and bring real Cape ; and a revolution in Ava has secured glory to this nation. These opinions he had not General Godwin a holyday.

adopted recently. They had often formed the The true variety for the season is this new eminent friend, Sir Robert Peel; but at that

subject of discussion ten years ago with his late question about the empire of the Midge Mon- period the state of Europe was perhaps more arch in the swamps of Central America. Eng- favorable than it now is for carrying out the land proposes to the United States to abandon plans proposed. Admitting, as he had done, the the British protectorate, and leave Greytown duty of the government, they must consider the as a free city, with a neutrality guaranteed subject in a practical point of view. Strongly by both powers.

How far Greytown is in it- desiring the attainment of this most important self competent for such a post, we may judge object, they must look at the measures of a pracby the facts. The natives are a wretched tical nature by which it must be carried out mongrel set of Indians, degenerated rather First, there was the influence of their own exthan ennobled by a stray infusion of Spanish ample ; and he might say, on this point, that the and perhaps Negro blood. They dispute a military measures into which the government boundary with the American-Spanish state of had entered (whether those measures were right Nicaragua. The Warwick who set up the fence ; and he thought they were not inconsistent

or wrong) were entirely on the principle of deking was a Mr. Patrick Walker, secretary or with his views formerly expressed in Parliament. clerk, years back, under the Superintendent What he meant to say was, that if a country of Honduras, who obtained the patronage of kept an army of 300,000 or 400,000 men, there Sir Charles Grey and Lord Grey. The king was great danger lest they might be disposed to is a cipher in his own capital : his port regula- indulge the taste in which such forces originated. tions are administered by a nominee of the But the arrangements here were not at all of an English consul or resident; his internal aggressive character. There had existed in the government is administered by a council of country, as had been remarked, a strong feeling five, elected by the inhabitants - the five of alarm, and had the government desired it they councillors being Americans. Here are ele- might easily have availed themselves of this feel. ments for an American Hamburg! If the ing and have greatly increased the armaments. government at Washington should agree to But, whatever difference of opinion might exist the “independence” of Greytown, probably they were fairly open to criticism — their sincere

as to the wisdom of the measures adopted — and it would be with the recollection that Texas desire had been to do nothing more than way was made “independent” as a preliminary to necessary, according to the opinion of competent her joining the Union : but imagine Mosquitia judges in such matters. He admitted that the as a “state” represented in the star-spangled danger of aggression had been enormously exagbanner! It is derogatory to our government gerated ; yet he thought that a great country

like ours ought not to be left at the mercy of even | Emperor Napoleon could assure us that the the most pacific nation. With respect to the reduction had really been made. Are we to definite measure proposed by the deputation, he take him at his word, or are we to appoint doubted whether, in the present state of Europe, English commissioners to visit the dockyards, such proposals would be listened to as favorably barracks, and camps of France, for the puras they might have been ten years ago; but he again assured the deputation, that, whether their pose of ascertaining the reduction ? We can object was attained or not, it would not be for scarcely expect that the latter process would the want of an inclination on his part to promote be permitted by the French government; 80 it. He would keep the subject constantly in view, that we must reduce our own establishments and no one could more earnestly desire so happy on the faith of Emperor Napoleon's word. a result than himself.

Mr. Cobden “ thought it would allay all the irritation, if it were publicly known that the

two governments were in friendly communiAs Lord Aberdeen has seen fit to entertain cation on the subject.” He states that he the proposition laid before him by the deputa- " is in constant communication with parties tion from the Peace Conference lately assem- in France in whom he has the most implicit bled at Manchester, and more particularly as confidence, and he is satisfied that there is no he has departed from the usual ministerial foundation for the fear of aggression from that reserve in using language calculated to raise country; but if the government were to enter hopes on the part of those very sanguine into diplomatic relations with France, they persons, it may have become worth while to would be in a position to contradict such consider what would be the effect of their alarming rumors authoritatively.” So says proposition if it were carried out.

Mr. Cobden ; who must possess very peculiar The proposition formally conveyed to Lord notions on the subject of guarantees, and cerAberdeen by Mr. Milner Gibson, Mr. Cobden, tainly few would be so easily satisfied as he and other exclusive friends of peace, is that professes to be. In the first place, we ought he should " invite the various governments of to know who are the “parties” with whom Europe to enter simultaneously upon a he is in constant correspondence, and whether reduction of those oppressive military estab- they speak on authority or not. Even, howlishments ;” and Lord Aberdeen declares, ever, if we had the highest authority, that of that “if their object were not attained it the emperor himself, it would little avail us. would not be for the want of any inclination on Ought we to rely upon the continuance of his part to promote it.” We do not indeed peace because Louis Napoleon is to assure us understand Lord Aberdeen to have conveyed that he has no intention of committing war the slightest hint that while he applauded the after we have seen him subvert by a midnight object, the disarmament, he accepted the conspiracy a constitution which he had sworn means, the mission; but to avow, so marked a to maintain, and which, but a few hours sympathy with the object, to listen to the before, he declared himself pledged to maincitation of his own words painfully resembling tain? Upon the self-same assurance, Mr. the new project, and not at the same time to Cobden ought to have relied for the maintenmeet the impracticable proposal by an un- ance of the republic in France ; and if he can equivocal dissent, was, we make free to think, have seen that republic subverted, and still an official indiscretion. Now, let us sup- rely upon the same assurance from the same pose him promoting it, and proceeding at lips, he must possess a degree of credulity unonce to our nearest neighbor, who possesses an known to the most simple of his countrymen. army of more than three hundred thousand The assurances of Napoleon are to be conmen, with a transport fleet in the highest sidered ominous, not auspicious. state of efficiency for immediate embarkation If Louis Napoleon were perfectly sincero, and transhipment. Let us suppose Lord his answer most likely would be, not that he Aberdeen going to the Emperor Napoleon III. would reduce his establishment, but that, if and asking him to reduce that oppressive he were as much inclined to do so as Lord military establishment. To take a very Aberdeen himself, he would be unable. He favorable case, we might suppose that his might say -"I have no intention of attackimperial majesty would reply by declaring ing England: but I have Algiers to maintain ; that nothing was more near his heart, and I have French interests to support in the that he would at once proceed with the pro- Eastern Mediterranean; I have, if not to conposed reduction : our British forces of course quer the frontier of the Rhine, to defend the to be reduced pari passu. Evidently, we integrity of France at her present boundary ; could not ask him to reduce without doing as I have my throne to uphold, and the people much ourselves; and supposing that he took have not yet acquired so much knowledge of off a hundred thousand men from his army, the benefit which my reign is to bring that I we of course must do no less. But then arise can calculate upon my throne without an important questions. The first is, how the army." This would be a reasonable reply

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