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tionalism, pursue and complete their quest in France, even in Paris, or from meeting and of intolerance by asking the republicans on communicating at every corner of every street, the other side of the Atlantic also to rob their and in every saloon which has a door to open country of its right to be the asylum of the or to close, this he cannot do. He could only persecuted and the unfortunate?' If they do effect such a purpose by massacring one half not this, they do nothing, for the dreaded of the French people. All the materials of conspirators will even there still be within ten conspiracy are therefore in France, under the days' sail of Europe.
very nose of the French emperor; and that But all such diplomatic efforts may be similar materials should exist in England canspared. There is fortunately no enactment at not add to the danger. Napoleon the Third present in force that gives an English Gov- has chosen a volcano for his throne; and erament the power to send away the exile having done so, he really cannot ask us to put from its shores ; nor is there a man of influ- out our household fires and extinguish our ence in Parliament inclined to ask for any hospitable virtues, lest a spark from them such power. If any government had a right should fly over and ignite the mass of comto complain or take offence at the governments bustibles on which he has chosen to repose. of other countries for giving asylum to political exiles driven from its dominion, it would certainly be Russia, whose ministers have seen,
From Household Words. ever since 1830, fugitive Poles tolerated in
PERFIDIOUS PATMOS. England and more than tolerated in France. With what face can Austria and France now The natural place of refuge for a hunted come forward to demand from England a vio- man is an island. None but those who have lation of that very privilege of offering asylum, known what it is to be pursued from place to which both France and England have deter-place, who have been aware of such and such minedly refused to Russia during a long series blood-hounds' upon their track, of such and of years?
such scouts waiting at given points to lead Absurd and untenable as such pretensions them down to death or captivity, can form an are on the part of Austria, coming from a idea of the feeling of security engendered by ruler of France, and such a ruler as the pres- the knowledge that there is between them and ent, they are as monstrous as ridiculous. their enemies a bulwark far more impregnable We will not dwell on the fact of the emperor, than any gabion, glacis, bastion, or counterwhen he was M. Louis Bonaparte, enjoying scarp, that Vauban ever dreamed of, in the an asylum in this country, and profiting by it shape of a ring of blue water. So islands to make bandit forays against France. Ex- have been, in all ages and circumstances, the amples adduced from his past life have little chosen places of refuge to men who could find weight on his decisions at present. But let no rest elsewhere for the soles of their feet. us consider his position. He holds supreme Patmos was the elected asylum of St. John power by having come in between the death the Apostle. In Malta, the last Christian struggle of two opposed parties and classes, knights of Palestine, driven froin their first and he keeps power by virtue of their en- island refuge – Rhodes — found a haven of during enmity. Both, however, are at bot- safety, and founded a city of strength against tom decided enemies of his, and no doubt the infidels. The expiring embers of the they will do their utmost to overthrow him. Druidical priesthood smouldered away in the Both, let us add, taken together, make the impenetrable groves of the island of Anglesey. better part of France. They comprise all the The isles of Greece were the eyries of poetry, upper and intellectual class of society, and and art, and liberty, when the mainland all that is energetic or distinguished in the groaned beneath the despotism of the thirty lower. To carry out his demands upon us, tyrants. The Greeks located their paradise in therefore, Napoleon the Third must require the islands of the blest. Madeira spread forth, of England to punish and banish every French- pitying, protecting arms to two fugitive lovers. man who belongs to these classes. Such Charles Edward hid in Skye. Once within wholesale proscription on our part would be the pleasant valleys of Pitcairn's Island, Jack in the first place impossible, and in the next Adams and the mutineers of the Bounty felt place would be useless. France abounds with secure and safe froin courts-martial and yardthe political enemies of the emperor, those of arms. There is a hiding-place for the pursued the upper class, and those of the lower; get of sheriffs in the island of Jersey and in the rid of them he cannot; for every second man Isle of Man ; in which latter insular refuge he meets is in one category or the other. He Charlotte de la Tremouille, Countess of Derby, may forbid association ; he may render com- sheltered the last rembants of the cause of the munication by post unsafe ; he may call his Stuarts against Oliver Cromwell. The dogs police to arrest every gentleman, and every of Constantinople found protection from the artisan, who utters a hasty ejaculation in the sticks and stones of the men of Stamboul in an street; but prevent his enemies from living island in the Bosphorus. The last of the
London marshes staunchly defy drainage from Germans to become tailors and boot-makers ; the strongholds of the Isle of Dogs ; and there and the Swiss, valets, house-porters, and is a wall of strength for the choicest London waiters. More so than the United States, fevers, and the dirtiest London lodging-houses, whose only considerable feed-pipes of emiagainst Inspectors Reason and Humanity and gration are Irish, English and Germang. their whole force, in and about the mud There is in London the foreign artistic popuembankments of Jacob's Island.
lation, among which I will comprise Franch, But, chief and preëlect of islands on which and Swiss, and German governesses,
French camps of refuge have been built, is the one we painters, actors, singers and cooks ; Italian are happy enough to live in, the Island of singers and musicians ; French hairdressers, England. There are other islands in the milliners, dressmakers, clear-starchers and pro world, far more isolated, geographically speak- fessors of legerdemain, with countless teaching, far more distant from hostile continents, ers of every known language, and professors far more remote from the shores of despotism. of every imaginable musical instrument. Yet to these chalky cliffs of Albion, to this There is the immense foreigu servile populaRefugemisnamed the Perfidious, come refugees tion; French and Italian valets and shopmen, from all quarters of the world, and of charac- and German nurses and nursery-maids. There ters, antecedents, and opinions, pointing to is the foreign commercial population, a whole every quarter of the political compass. The colony of Greek merchants in Finsbury, of oppressor and the oppressed, the absolutist Germans in the Minories, of Frenchmen round and the patriot, the butcher and the victim, Austin Friars, of Moorish Jews in White. the wolf and the lamb, the legitimist as white chapel, and of foreign shopkeepers at the west as snow and the montagnard as red as blood, end of the town. There is the foreign the doctrinaire and the socialist - men of mechanical, or laboring population ; French, views so dissimilar that they would (and do) Swiss, and German watch-makers, French and toar each other to pieces in their own lands, German lithographers, Italian plaster-cast find a common refuge in this country, and live makers and German sugar-bakers, brewers, in common harmony here. The very climate and leather-dressers. There is the foreign seems to have a soothing and mollifying in- mendicant population ; German and Alsatian fluence on the most savage foreign natures. buy-a-brooun girls, Italian hurdy-gurdy grindSouth American dictators, who have shot, ers, French begging-letter writers (of whose slaughtered, and outraged hecatombs of their astonishing numbers, those good associations countrymen in the parched-up plains of Buenos " La Société Française de Bienfaisance à LonAyres and Montevideo, roar you as mildly as dres,” and “ The Friends of Foreigners in any sucking doves as soon as they are in the Distress," could tell some curious tales may Southampton water — make pets of their be), Lascar street-sweepers and tom-tom physicians, and give their barbers silver pounders. There is the foreign maritime shaving-dishes ; pachas of three tails, terrible population ; an enormous one, as all men who fellows for bowstringing, impaling, and basti- have seen Jack alive in London can vouch nadoing in their Asiatic dominions, here caper for. There is the foreign respectable populanimbly in ladies' chambers to the twangling tion, composed of strangers well to do, who of lutės ; hangers of men and scourgers of prefer English living and English customs to women forego blood-thirstiness ; demagogues those of their own country. There is the forget to howl for heads; and red republicans, foreign swindling population; aliens who live who were as roaring lions in the lands they on their own wits and on the want thereof in came from, submit to have their claws cut, their neighbors ; sham counts, barons, and and their inanes trimmed, drink penny cups chevaliers ; farmers of German lotteries, specof coffee, and deliver pacific lectures in Me- ulators in German university degrees, forgers chanics’ Institutes.
of Russian bank-notes, bonnets at gaming England, then, is the Patmos of foreign houses, touts and spungers to foreign hotels fugitives — a collection of Patmoses, rather; and on foreign visitors, bilkers of English alunost every seaport and provincial town of taverns and boarding houses, and getters-up any note having a little inland island of of fictitious concerts and exhibitions. There refuge of its own; but London being the great is the foreign visiting or sight-seeing populachamp d'asile, the monster isle of safety, a tion, who come from Dover to the Hôtel de Cave of Adullam for the whole world. It is l'Europe, and go from thence, with a cicewith this Patmos that I have principally to rone, to St. Paul's, Windsor, and Richmond, do.
and thence back again to France, Germany, Years ago, Doctor Johnson called London or Spain. Lastly, there is the refugee popula“ the common sewer of Paris and of Rome ;" tion; and these be mine to descant upon. but at the present day it is a reservoir, a giant The Patmos of London I may describe as an vat, into which How countless streains of con- island bounded by four squares ; on the north tinental immigration. More so than Paris, by that of Suho, on the south by that of where the English only go for pleasure ; thé Leicester, on the east by the quadrangle of
Lincoln's Inn Fields (for the purlieus of Long | Russia, and Baden - all these contributed to Acre and Seven Dials are all Patmos), and on swell the number of Herr Lurleibeg's custhe west by Golden Square.
tomers a hundred fold, and to fill Patmos to The trapezium of streets enclosed within overflowing. The sweetstuff and dolls disapthis boundary are not, by any means, of an peared “right away," and the coffee cups and aristocratic description. A maze of sorry saucers multiplied exceedingly. In addition thoroughfares, a second-rate butcher's meat to this, the Herr caused to be stretched across and vegetable market, two modellodging the single window a canvas blind, on which houses, a dingy parish church, and some his name, and the style and title of his estab"brick barns” of dissent are within its bound- lishment, were painted in painfully attenuated aries. No lords or squires of high degree letters, with which not yet content, he incited live in this political Alsatia. The houses are young Fritz Schiftmahl, the artist, with daz. distinguished by a plurality of bell-pulls in- zling prospects of a carte blanche fur coffee and Berted in the door-jambs, and by a plurality tobacco, to depict beneath, in real oil colors, of little brass name-plates, bearing the names the counterfeit presentments of a Pole, a Hanof in-dwelling artisans. Everybody (of nubile garian, and a German embracing each other age and English) seems to be married, and to in a fraternal accolade, all smoking like volhave a great many children, whose education canoes; the legend setting forth that true, seems to be conducted chiefly on the extra- universal, and political brotherhood are only domal or out-door principle.
to be found at Albrecht Lurleibeg's. As an uninterested stranger, and without a In the Herr's back parlor - he once deguide, you might, perambulating these shabby signed in the flush of increased business to genteel streets, see in them nothing which enlarge it by knocking it into the back yard, would peculiarly distinguish them from that till warned, by a wary neighbor, of the horclass of London streets known inelegantly, but rible pains and penalties (only second to preexpressively, as " back slums.". At the first munire) incurred by meddling with a wall in glance you see nothing but dingy houses teem- England - in this dirty back parlor, with rings ing with that sallow, cabbage-stalk and fried made by coffee-cups on the rickety Pembroke fish sort of population, indigenous to back tables, on the coarsely papered, slatternlyslums. The pinafored children are squabbling printed foreign newspapers and periodicals, or playing in the gutters; while from distant are a crowd of men in every variety of beard courts come faintly and fitfully threats of Jane and moustache and head-dress, in every imto tell Ann's mother ; together with that un- aginable phase of attire more or less dirty meaning, monotonous chant or dirge which and picturesque. Figures such as, were you street-children sing, why, or with what object, to see them in the drawings of Leech, or I know not. Grave dogs sit on door-steps — Daumier, or Gavarni, you would pronounce their heads patiently cocked on one side, wait- exaggerated and untrue to nature; hooded, ing for the door to be opened, as, in this region tasselled, and braided garments of unheard-of of perpetual beer-fetching - they know must fashion ; hats of shapes to make you wonder soon be the case. The beer itself, in vases of to what a stage the art of squeezability had strangely-diversified patterns, and borne by arrived ; trousers with unaumbered plaits ; Ganymedes of as diversified appearance, is in- boots made as boots were never made before ; cessantly threading the needle through narrow finger and thumb-rings of fantastic fashion ; courts and alleys. The public house doors marvellous gestures, Babel-like tongues ; are always on the swing; the bakers' shops voices anything but (Englishly) human; the (they mostly sell 6 seconds”) are always full; smoke as of a thousand brick-kílns; the clatBo are the cookshops, so are the coffee shops ; ter as of a thousand spoons : such are the step into one, and you shall have a phase of characteristics of this in-door Patmos. Patmos before you incontinent.
Here are Frenchmen -ex-representatives Albrecht Lurleibeg, who keeps this humble of the people, ex-ministers, prefects and relittle Deutsche Caffee und Gasthof, as he calls publican commissaries, Prolétaires, Fourierit, commenced business five years ago with a ists, Phalansterians, disciples of Proudhon, single coff:e-pot and two cups and saucers. Pierre le Roux and Cahagnet, professors of That was a little before February, 1848. barricade building; men yet young, but two Some few foreigners dropt in to visit him thirds of whose lives have been spent in prison occasionally ; but he was fain to eke out his or in exile. Here are political gaol-birds who Blender earnings by selling sweetstuff, penny have been caged in every state prison of Eudolls, and cheap Sunday newspapers. After rope ; the citadels of France, the cachots of the first three months' saturnalia of revolution Mont St. Michel, the secrets of the Concierin '48, however, exiles began to populate gerie, the piombi of Venice, the gloomy fastPatmos pretty thickly. First, Barbès and Al- nesses of Ehrenbreitstein and Breslau and bert's unsuccessful riot; then the escapade of Pilnitz, the oubliettes of the Spielberg and SalzLedru-Rollin and Louis Blanc; then the whole- burg. Here are young men boys almostsale proscriptions of Hungary, Italy, Austria, lof good families and high hopes, blasted by
the sirocco of civil war. Here are German for, at least, do not taste by any means like philosophic democrats ---scientific conspirators foreign dishes. Cookery, like the amor patriæ, - who, between Greek roots and algebraical is indigenous. It cannot be transplanted. It quantities, tobacco smoke and heavy folios in cannot flourish on a foreign soil. I question German text upon international law, have if the black broth of Sparta would have agreed somehow found themselves upon barricades with the Lacedæmonian palate if consumed in and in danger of the fate of Robert Blum. an English à la mode beef shop. Here are simple-minded German workmen - Patmos is likewise studded with small forBuch honest-faced, tawny-bearded young fel- eign tobacco shops. Limited to the sale of lows as you see in the beer cellars of Berlin tobacco mostly, for the cigar is a luxury in -who have shaken off their dreams of Ger- most cases beyond the reach of the exile. man unity to find themselves in this back slum You must remember that abroad you may obPatmos far away from home and friends. tain a cigar as large as an Epping sausage Here are swarthy Italians, eying the Tedeschi (and as damp), as strong as brandy and as (though friendly ones) askance, cursing Ra- fiery as a red-hot poker, for a matter of two detzky and Gyulay, and telling with wild ges- sous : - in some parts of Belgium and Gerticulations how Novara was fought and Rome many for one sous ; and that in England defended. Here, and in great numbers, are the smallest Cuba, of Minories manufacture, the poor, betrayed, cozened Hungarians, with smoked in a minute and of no particular flaglossy beards, and small embroidered caps and vor, costs three half-pence: a sum! There braided coats. They are more woe-begone, is, to be sure, a harmless, milk-mild little roll more scared and wild-looking than the rest, of dark brown color, the component parts of for they are come from the uttermost corners which, I believe, are brown paper, hay, and of Europe, and have little fellowship save aromatic herbs, vended at the charge of one that of misfortune, with their continental penny. But what would be the use of one of neighbors. Lastly, here are the Poles, those those smoke-toys to an exile who is accushistorical exiles who have been so long fugi- tonied to wrap himself in smoke as in a mantives from their country that they have tle ; to smoke by the apertures of his mouth, adopted Patmos with a will, have many of nostrils, eyes and ears ; to eat cigars, so to them entered into and succeeded in business, speak? Thus Patmos solaces itself with cut but would, I think, succeed better if the per- tobacco (which is good and cheap in Engsons with whom they have commercial trans- land), which it puffs from meerschaums or actions were able to pronounce their names short clays, or rolls up into fragments of forthose jaw-breaking strings of dissonant letters eign newspapers and makes cigarettes of. in which the vowels are so few that the con If there exista peculiarity of Patmos which sonants seem to have compassed them round I could not, without injustice, avoid advertabout, like fortifications, to prevent their slip- ing to, it is the pleasure its inhabitants seem ping out.
to feel in reading letters. See, as we saunter There are many of these poor refugees (I down one of Patmos' back streets, a German speak of them in general) who sit in coffee- exile, in a pair of trousers like a bifurcated shops similar to Herr Lurleibeg's, from early carpet-bag, stops a braided Hungarian with a morning till late at night, to save the modi- halt quartern loaf under his arın. A sallow cum of fire and candle they would otherwise Italian (one of Garibaldi's men) enters speedily be compelled to consume at home (if home unto them, and the three fall greedily to the their garrets can be called), and which God perusal of a large sheet of tissue paper, crossed knows they can ill spare. About one o'clock and re-crossed in red, and black, and blue ink, in the day, those who are rich enough con- patchworked outside with postage marks of gregate in the English cook-shops, and regale continental frontiers and government stamps. themselves with the cheap cag-mag there Few of these missives reach their destination offered for sale. Towards four or five the without some curious little scissor marks about foreign eating-houses, of which there are the seal, some suspicious little hot-water blismany in Patmos of a fifth or sixth rate order ters about the wafers, hinting that glazed of excellence, are resorted to by those who cocked hats, and jack-boots, and police spies yet adhere to the gastronomic traditions of the have had something to do with their letters land they have been driven from ; and there between their postage and their delivery. Inthey vainly attempt to delude themselves into deed, so well is this paternal solicitude on the the belief that they are consuming the fric- part of foreign governments to know whether assées and ragouts, the suet puddings and their corresponding subjects write and spell sauerkraut, the maccaroni and stuffato of correctly, known among the refugees, that France or Germany or Italy - all the delight- some wary exiles have their letters from ful messes on which foreigners feed with such abroad addressed to " Mr. Simpson Brown," extreme gusto and satisfaction. But, alas! or “Mr. Thomas Williams," such and such a these dishes, though compounded from foreign street, London; and as foreign governments recipes and cooked by foreign hands, are not, I are rather cautious as to how they meddle
with the families of the Browns and the Wil- / yet picking up an honest livelihood somehow, liams who grow refractory sometimes and His wife has turned her artistic talent, and post their letters in the paddle-boxes of war his eldest daughter her taste for embroidery, steamers — the Brown and Williams letters to account; his son Mithridates copies music reach London untampered with.
for the orchestra in a theatre, for living is More exiles reading letters. One nearly dear in London, and those helpless little ones falls over a dog's-meat cart, so absorbed is he among the card-board boxes must be looked in his correspondence; another, bearded like after. He has been an exile for five years. the pard, and with a fur cap like an Armenian The holy father was good enough to connivo Calpack, is shedding hot tears on his out- at his escape, and to confer all his confiscated stretched paper, utterly unconscious of the estates on a Dominican convent. astonishment of two town-made little boys, knows what the politique, which has been his who have stopped in the very middle of a ruin, exactly was; nor, I am inclined to think, “cartwheel” to stare at the “furriner a cry- does the good man know very clearly himself. ing.'
Poor fellows ! poor broken men ! poor “We got away from Rome,” he tells you bunted wayfarers! If you, brother Briton, mildly, " with a few hundred scudi, and our well clothed, well fed, well cared for — with plate and a picture or two, and went to MarX 90 well paid to guard you — with houses seilles ; but when we had eaten? (avevamo for the sale of law by retail on every side, mangiati) what we had brought with us, we where you can call for your half-pint of habeas came to England. It was very hard at first; corpus, or your Magna Charta, cold without, for we had no friends, and could speak nothing at any hour in the day - if you were in a but French and Italian, and the English are strange land, proscribed, attainted, poor, un- a suspicious people, whose first impulse, when friended, dogged even in your Patmos by they see a foreigner for the first time, is to spies; would you warrant yourself not to shed button up their pockets as if he must necsome scalding tears, even in a fierce fur cap, essarily be a thief." But the marquis went over a letter from the home you are never to to work manfully, forgot his coronet, and is see more?
now doing a very good fancy cominission busiMy pencil may limn a few individual por- ness. He has an invention (nearly all reftraits in the perfidious refuge, and then I must ugees have inventions) for curing smoky chimneeds row my bark away to other shores. neys, which, when he has money enough to Stop at forty-six Levant Street, if you please, patent it, he expects will bring him a fortune. over against Leg-bail Court.
In the days of his utterest and most dire disUp four flights of crazy stairs, knocking at tress, he always managed to pay three sbilą rickety door, you enter a suite of three lings every Sunday for the sittings of himself, musty attics. They are very scantily fur- his wife, and daughter, at a foreign Catholic pished, but crowded with articles of the most chapel, and to wear every day the cleanest of heterogeneous description; mes marchandises, white neckcloths, fastened no man knows as the proprietor calls thein. Variegated how, for no man ever saw the tie thereof. shades for lamps, fancy stationery, bon-bon Within these sorry streets — these dingy boxes, lithographic prints, toys, cigar-cases, slums--are swept together the dead leaves, the nicknacks of every description are strewn rotten branches, the withered fruits from the upon the chairs and table, and cumber the tree of European liberty. The autumn blast very foor ; at one window a dark-eyed, mild- of despotism has eddied them about from the looking lady, in a dark merino dress, is pain- remotest corners of Europe, has chased them fully elaborating a drawing on a lithographic froin land to land, has wasted thein at last instone ; at another a slender girl is bending to this perfidious Patmos, where there is libover a tambour frame ; at a desk a round- erty to act, and think, and breathe, but also, headed little boy is copying music, while in alas! liberty to starve. an adjoining apartment —even more denuded 0 England, happily unconscious of the of furniture and littered with marchandises oppressions and exasperations that have driven are two or three little children tumbling among these men here, try sometimes to spare some the cardboard boxes. All these movables, little modicum of substantial relief, some animate and inanimate, belong to a Roman crumbs of comfort, some fragile straws of Marquis - the Marchese del Pifferare. He assistance to the poor drowning exiles ! Their and his have been reared in luxury. Time miseries are appalling. They cannot dig (for was he possessed the most beautiful villa, the few, if any, Englishmen will call a foreigner's finest equipages, the most valuable Rafaelles spade into requisition), to beg they are nobly in the Campagna of Rome; but la politique, ashamed. They do not beg, nor rob, nor as he tells you with a smile, has brought him extort. They starve in silence. The French down to the level of a species of unlicensed and Hungarian refugees suffer more, perhaps, þawker, going with his wares (to sell on than those of other nations. The former commission) from fancy warehouse to fancy have by no means an aptitude for acquiring warehouse, often rebutted, often insulted; I the English language, and are, besides, men