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vided, that justices of the peace shall try no person, except as a court of inquiry, for any offence punishable with imprisonment or death, or fine above one hundred dollars.
11. No person shall, for the same offence, be twice put in jeopardy of his life or limb; nor shall any man's property be taken or applied to public use without the consent of his representatives in the general assembly, nor without just compensation being made to him.
12. Every person within this state ought to find a certain remedy in the laws for all injuries or wrongs which he may receive in his person, property, or character; he ought to obtain right and justice freely, and without being obliged to purchase it, completely and without denial, promptly and without delay, conformably to the laws.
13. That all persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, unless for capital offences where the proof is evident or the presumption great; and the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless, when in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.
14. All penalties shall be proportioned to the nature of the offence; the true design of all punishment being to reform, not to exterminate mankind.
15. No person shall be imprisoned for debt, unless upon refusal to deliver up his estate for the benefit of his creditors, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law, or in cases where there is strong presumption of fraud.
16. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in this state, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.
17. No ex post facto law, nor any law impairing the obligation of contracts, shall ever be made: and no conviction shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate.
18. That no person shall be liable to be transported out of this state for any offence committed within the same.
19. That a frequent recurrence to the fundamental principles of civil government is absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty.
20. The military shall be in strict subordination to the civil power.
21. That the people have a right to assemble together in a peaceable manner to consult for their common good, to instruct their representatives, and to apply to the general assembly for redress of grievances.
22. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, except in manner prescribed by law.
23. The printing-presses shall be free to every person who undertakes to examine the proceedings of the general assembly, or of any branch of government; and no law shall ever be made to restrain the right thereof. The free communication of thoughts and opinions is one of the invaluable rights of man; and every citizen may freely speak, write, and print, on any subject, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.
24. In prosecutions for the publication of papers investigating the official conduct of officers, or of men acting in a public capacity, or when the matter published is proper for public information, the truth thereof may be given in evidence; and in all indictments for libels, the jury shall have the right of determining both the law and the fact, under the direction of the court, as in other cases.
25. Any person who shall, after the adoption of this constitution, fight a duel, or send or accept a challenge for that purpose, or be aider or abettor in fighting a duel, shall be deprived of the right of holding any office of honor or profit in this state, and shall be punished otherwise, in such manner as is or may be prescribed by law.
26. That from and after the adoption of this constitution, every person who shall be elected or appointed to any office of profit, trust, or emolument, civil or military, legislative, executive, or judicial, under the government of this state, shall, before he enters upon the duties of his office, in addition to the oath prescribed in this constitution, take the following oath: "I do solemnly swear [or affirm, as the case may be] that I have not fought a duel, nor sent or accepted a challenge to fight a duel, the probable issue of which might have been the death of either party, nor been a second to either party, nor in any manner aided or assisted in such duel, nor been knowingly the bearer of such challenge or acceptance, since the adoption of the constitution; and that I will not be so engaged or concerned, directly or indirectly, in or about any such duel, during my continuance in office. So help me, God."
ARTICLE XIV.-Public Debt.
There shall be annually assessed and collected, in the same manner as other state revenue may be assessed and collected, a tax of two mills upon each dollar's worth of taxable property, in addition to all other taxes, to be applied as follows, to wit: The fund so created shall be kept separate, and shall annually, on the first day of January, be apportioned and paid over, pro rata, upon all such state indebtedness, other than the canal and school indebtedness, as may, for that purpose, be presented by the holders of the same, to be entered as credits upon, and, to that extent, in extinguishment of the principal of said indebtedness.
Joel A. Mattison (manufacturer), of Will county, Governor, and ex officio Land Commissioner. Term ends, second Monday in January, 1857. Salary, $1500.
Gustavus Korner (lawyer), of St. Clair county, Lieutenant-Governor. Salary, $3 a day during session, and 10 cents a mile travel.
Alexander Starne (merchant), of Pike county, Secretary of State. Term ends, January, 1857. Salary, fees and $800.*
Thomas H. Campbell (lawyer), of Springfield, Auditor. Term ends, January, 1857. Salary, $1000.*
John Moore (farmer), of Randolph's Grove, Treasurer. Term ends, Jannary, 1857. Salary, $800.*
Ninian W. Edwards, of Sangamon county, State Superintendent of Common Schools. Term ends, January, 1857. Salary, $1500.
J. G. Norwood, M. D., of Sangamon county, State Geologist.
Moses K. Anderson, of Sangamon county, Adjutant-General.
Thomas J. Turner, of Stephenson, Speaker of the House. Salary, $3 a day during the session.
E. T. Bridges, of La Salle, Clerk.
George T. Brown, of Madison, Secretary of Senate.
The sessions of the Legislature are biennial. The nineteenth session commenced in January, 1855.
First Division.-Walter B. Scates, of Jefferson county, Chief Justice. Term ends, June, 1861. Salary, $1200. Noah Johnson, of Jefferson county, Clerk. Fees.
Second Division.-Onias C. Skinner, of Quincy, Judge. Term ends, June, 1858. Salary, $1200. Wm. A. Turney, of Springfield, Clerk. Term ends, June, 1861. Fees.
Exclusive of clerk hire.
Third Division.-J. Deane Catton, of Ottawa, Judge. Term ends, June, 1864. Salary, $1200. Lorenzo Leland, of Ottawa, Clerk. Term ends, June, 1861.
Ebenezer Peck, of Chicago, Reporter.
This Court holds one session in each division of the State each year. The terms are: first division, at Mt. Vernon, Jefferson county, on the second Monday in November; second division, at Springfield, on the third Monday in December; third division, at Ottawa, La Salle county, on the first Monday in February.
Cook County Common Pleas.—John M. Wilson, Judge. Term ends, 1857. Salary, $1000 and fees. Walter Kimball, Clerk. Recorder's Court of the City of Chicago.. - Robert S. Wilson, Judge. Term ends, 1858. Salary, $2200 and fees. Daniel McIlroy, Prosecuting Attorney. Term ends, 1856. Salary, $500 and fees. Philip A. Hoyne, Clerk. Term ends, 1858. Fees.
These Courts have concurrent jurisdiction in the county and city, respectively, with the Circuit Court and Common Pleas, in all civil cases, and in all criminal cases, except murder and treason. Each county has a County Court, with jurisdiction to the same amount as Justices of the Peace, but their business is chiefly probate matters.
* The term of office of the several judges ends in June. 1861; of the prosecuting attorneys. November, 1856.
The debt of the State, principal and interest, was, January 1, 1855, $13,994,615. During the two years ending November 30, 1854, there has been paid of the public debt, in addition to $1,200,000 paid on account of accruing interest, the sum of $2,750,038, making a total of $3,950,038 paid during this time, on account of the public debt. If the present rate of taxation is continued, and the present method of reducing the State debt followed, it will be eventually extinguished in 1866.
The receipts into the treasury for ordinary revenue,
for the two years ending November 30, 1854,*
chiefly from taxes, were..........
Add balance in the treasury, Dec. 1, 1852,
The expenditures for the same period, were:
Special appropriations and expenditures,........
Balance in the treasury, Dec. 1, 1854,.....
Amount of interest fund tax received for the same period, including balance, was..................
Amount of warrants issued for payment of interest cancelled, ...
The total assessed value of property in the State in 1852, was $149,294,805; in 1853, $225,159,633. Rate of taxation on each $100 in 1852, 60 cents; in 1853, 49 cents. During the two
* The following letter of the State Treasurer to the Chicago Tribune, gives the total amount paid by the people into the treasury in 1855:
TREASURER'S OFFICE, Springfield, Dec. 14, 1855. Editors of the Tribune :-Agreeably to your request, I send you the amount of payments into the treasury, from 1st January to 30th November, 1855, upon the assessment of 1854, alone, as follows: