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subjects of the Czar, is carried out, English East Indian policy will doubt less wake up to the fact that it has not taken Russia two centuries to discover the secret ot' final success in the struggle for supremacy in the East.

The summary in regard to Russia is drawn from articles by Professor de Laveleye,* of the University of Liége, a well-known writer upon education.

The article on Turkey, by M. de Salve, is from a French stand-point, and does not treat education exactly as it would be viewed by an American or English observer. But I have thought it all the more important to present it here, as it seems to supplement and confirm the statements already given to American educators in the several reports from this Office. It also contains many facts which have not been brought to the attention of the American public.

Passing to Servia, the reader will be struck with the rapid development of national energy and its intimate connection with the several steps of progress in the educational system.

Turning to Turkey, the facts showing educational effort will indicate whatever there is of national progress, while those pointing to the lack of intelligence will stand as indexes of national decay.

The summary of educational facts in regard to Egypt, presented by an article from the pen of Dr. V. E. Dor, is also a French view, but is believed to have fewer omissions of what other observers would see than the previous paper, and is a monograph of rare merit. Indeed, it is undoubtedly the best statement that has been made iu regard to the present condition of education in Egypt. Both of these papers are supplemented by information gathered by an American traveler, both from our consuls and from his own observations in Egypt and Turkey. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN EATON,

Commissioner. Hon. C. DELANO,

Secretary of the Interior. Approved and publication ordered.

C. DELANO, Secretary of the Interior.

* Émile de Laveleye is a member of the Royal Academy of Belgium, author of the work L'instruction du peuple, (Paris, 1872,) in which he reviews the systems of education in all countries of the world, devoting a large space to the United States, and giving a remarkably fair description of our systems and methods, and of their results. He is also the author of many well-known works on political and rural economy, history, and literature.

192

EDUCATION IN BELGIUM.

193-194

BELGIUM.

[Constitutional monarchy, (kingdom :) Area, 11,313 square miles; population, 5,021,336. Capital, Brussels; population, 314,077. Minister of public instruction, the minister of the interior, Ch. Delcour.]

COMPOSITION OF THE MINISTRY OF THE INTERIOR.

The ministry of the interior is composed of several bureaus, viz: The bureau of accounts and pensions; of communal and provincial affairs; of militia and general statistics; of public instruction ; of sciences, literature, and fine arts; and of agriculture and industry.

The bureau of public instruction has 1 director, 1 honorary director, ? chiefs of division, 2 chiefs of bureau, and 4 clerks. Among the chiefs of burean there is M. Léon Lebon, author of a number of well-known works on educational subjects. There are 4 inspectors of instruction, riz: 3 of intermediate instruction and 1 of primary normal schools. M. A. von Hasselt, a poet and author, who died December 1, 1874, filled the latter position.

PRIMARY INSTRUCTION.

The basis of the present system of primary instruction is the law of September 23, 1842.

The inspection of primary schools, as regards instruction and administration, is in the hands of the communal authorities and of inspectors and, as regards religion and morals, in the hands of men appointed by the heads of the different denominations.

There is in every province a provincial inspector of primary instruction appointed by the King. He inspects at least once a year all the schools of the province. He communicates with the cantonal inspectors, who are subordinate to him.

The provinces are divided into districts, each composed of one or more cantons, each having its inspector, who is appointed for three Fears by the government on the recommendation of the provincial gorernment. The cantonal inspector communicates with the communal administration, visits the schools of his districts at least twice a year, and keeps a diary of his inspections, which must at any time be open to the provincial inspector. The cantonal inspector holds at least once a qnarter a conference of all the teachers of his district, where educational methods, text-books, &c., are discussed. Once a year these confer. ences are presided over by the provincial inspector.

The provincial inspectors assemble once a year under the presidency of the minister of the interior. This assembly is called the central committee of instruction. Each inspector presents the report of his prov. ince, and the assembly discusses new text-books, methods, &c.

Every year a competition is opened in each province between the pupils of the highest class of the primary schools. The number of competitors is at the rate of 1 to 5 pupils, half of them being designated by the teacher and half by casting lot. The examining jury is presided over by the provincial inspector. Stipends of 200 francs each are granted to those pupils who pass the examination satisfactorily, to enable them to pursue their studies in a normal school.

The law provides that every commune must support at least one pri. mary school, where gratuitous instruction to all those children belong. ing to the commune whose parents cannot afford to pay anything, is given in religion, reading, writing, elements of French, Flemish, or German language, (according to the different localities,) arithmetic, and legal system of weights and measures. The communal council appoints the teacher and bas the right to suspend him for three months, during which time the government decides whether the suspension is to be definite or not. The school-age is between 7 and 14.

Schools for adults.—By the law of September 1, 1866, modified by later laws, the communal councils are obliged to establish special schools for adults. These schools are to be kept in the primary-school-house aud by the primary-school-teacher, and are subject to the same inspection as the primary schools. All schools for adults must hare tiro divisions, viz, an elementary and a superior one. Instruction is to be given free of charge in the elementary division in reading; writing; arithmetic; legal system of weights and measures; elements of French, Flemish, or German, (according to the localities;) and in the superior division in French, Flemish, or German; arithmetic; drawing; elements of geography and history, especially of Belgium; the constitution of Belgium; and hygiene. For females, the knowledge of needle-work is substituted in place of the constitution.

Normal schools.-By royal decrees of April 10 and November 20, 1813, two State normal schools have been established, one at Lierre for the Flemish portion of the population, and one at Nivelles for the Walloon portion. By later laws normal sections have been established in connection with a number of primary schools, and by a law of October 25, 1855, the establishment of normal schools for female teachers by private or religious corporations has been sanctioned. Besides these, there are also private normal schools for male teachers.

The course of instruction in the State normal schools occupies three years and embraces the following subjects: Religion and morals; sacred history and church-history; reading; writing; book-keeping; French, Flemish, or German grammar; geography, especially of Belgium; bistory, especially of Belgium; arithmetic, with special regard to commercial transactions; legal system of weights and measures; elements of algebra and geometry; elements of natural sciences as applied to erers.

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