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the Russian language for admission to the gymnasia are particularly severe. The report says, “ that in consequence of these measures parents have their children better instructed in Russian, and the Russian language is studied much more generally than formerly.” In the Baltic (German-speaking) provinces—all comprised in the scholastic district of Dorpat-the authorities have gone to work with more precaution. Of the eleven gymnasia in this district there were ten where not only was Russian not the language of instruction, but where the study of Russian left much to be desired. Most families prefer German, which is their mother tongue and which forms the connecting-link with western civilization. The teachers of Russian are either Germans, who are but very imperfectly acquainted with the language they are to teach, or Russians who have not studied philology. To remedy this defect, which the Russian government considers very deplorable, six free places have been established in the historico-philological institute to educate teachers of Russian for the gymnasia in the district of Dorpat. In Riga a new gymnasium, the Alexander Gymnasium, has been opened, where all branches of study are taught in Russian; and a second gymnasium on the same plan, also to be called Alexander Gymnasium, is shortly to be established in Reval. Both these gymnasia have been richly endowed by the government. It is but natural that the Russian government should endeavor to spread the national language in the provinces inhabited by a foreign population. France has done the same in Alsace and French Flanders and Prussia in the duchy of Posen, but ererything which looks like a persecution of the very natural love of a people for their mother-tongue should be avoided. Compulsory measures are apt to awaken a spirit of resistance and make the process of assimilation exceedingly difficult.


There is one branch of edncation in which Russia does more than many a western country, viz, the education of the daughters of the wealthy classes. With us in Belgium) lyceums and colleges are opened for young men, but the girls receive their instruction in the convents. The result of this is frequently a very serious difference between hus. band and wife, the former being thoroughly imbued with modern, liberal ideas, the latter blindly subject to ultramontane influences. In Russia the government, the provincial and municipal authorities, have established gymnasia and progymnasia for young ladies, where a very high standard of education is aimed at, and in most cases successfully, to judge from the knowledge and general superiority of Russian ladies of the higher class who have been educated in these schools. At Moscow there is one school, the Fisher Gymnasium, where the course of studies is exactly the same as in a gymnasium for boys. A professor of the Moscow University has established higher courses of study for ladies, thus enabling them to acquire a university-education; this is carrying

out M. Duruy's idea, who would have succeeded in France had it not been for the desperate opposition of the bishops. In Russia, as in the United States, ladies have facilities for acquiring a high degree of his. torical, scientific, or philologic knowledge, without running the risk of being excommunicated. The government has increased the annual appropriation for the higher schools for young ladies, in 1873, from 50,000 roubles ($10,000) to 100,000 roubles, ($30,000,) and in 1874 to 150,000 roubles, ($120,000.) At the end of 1871 there were 186 secondary schools for females, with 23,404 scholars, supported at an annual expense of $500,000. The total number of schools of all grades, in January, 1872, was 1,081, with 38,430 scholars, viz, 16,641 boys and 21,789 girls; thus, strange to say, more girls than boys. Nearly all the private schools are at St. Petersburg and at Moscow; 835 of them were primary schools.


Russia has eigut universities, organized on the Gerinan plan. These are: St. Petersburg, Moscow, Charkof, Kasan, Kief, Odessa, Dorpat, and Warsaw. The total number of professors was 512 and that of the students 6,779, of whom 3,247, or almost one-half, or 47 per cent., studied law; medicine was studied by 1,922, or 27 per cent. The number of students studying at the public expense is very considerable; 1,430 are educated entirely free, 2,208 have only to pay half, and 1,732 receive occasional subsidies; thus 80 per cent. are not able to bear their own expenses. This is a curious fact, throwing a peculiar light on Russian society, showing that the wealthier classes do not send their sons to the universities and that the middle classes only do this to a very limited degree. What a contrast to the English universities, attended almost exclusively by the sons of lords and millionaires ! The power of the English aristocracy is based on this circumstance, that young noblemen generally study hard and are early inured to political work and made acquainted with political traditions. Russia has been inuch in want of good professors for the universities, and many professorships have in consequence had to remain vacant for a great length of time. To remedy this, the government has resolved to establish, under its own auspices, a nursery for young professors. An appropriation of $50,000 has been made for educating young men of talent, at home and abroad, with this special object. Another excellent measure in which Russia is ahead of several western nations is this, that at her universities special scientific courses have been established on the German plan and have been liberally provided with buildings, apparatus, and scientific instruments Astronomical observatories have been established at Odessa and at Kief. In 1871 a building was finished specially devoted to chemistry, where students have the very best facilities for making chemical experiments, the necessity for which is more and more acknowledged. During the single year 1871 the government has increased the appropriation for the universities by $105,000.


The Russian and the American governments have on all occasions given proof of the cordial relations existing between them. Private individuals in Russia seem also desirous of rivaling American citizens in their munificence in the cause of education. We give the following instances: M. Naryshkin has founded a normal school at Tambof, provided it with a large and handsome building, and endowed it with a sum of $370,000. The munificent gift of M. Matveïef has greatly increased the histological cabinet of the Moscow University; thanks to the liber. ality of the Countess Maussin-Pushkin, instruction has reached a much higher standard in the Lyceum of Negine; a legacy of M. Botkin, a citizen of Moscow, has enabled the university in that city to found an art-museum and to give a prize for works on national history; at Holdingen the nobility has founded a gymnasium; the normal school at Tver has been founded and is supported at the expense of M. Maximof, a citizen of that place. These examples are selected at random from the reports of only two years, 1871 and 1872, and there are very few coun. tries which can equal this. There are patriotic people in all countries, but there are only few whose patriotism is so enlightened as to find out in which way they can benefit their country most.


The Russian government has recently passed a law making military service compulsory for all citizens of the empire. If it was not for the want of schools, education also would have been made compulsory. The government which imposes barracks on the population ought also to impose schools. It must, no doubt, be regretted that Europe is gradually being transformed into an armed camp, perhaps one day to become an immense battle-field, but this is a necessity to which a nation desir

a ous of maintaining its independence must submit; only, if the state requires every citizen to carry arms for the defense of the country, its first duty is to give in exchange to every one the benefits of education.

Count Tolstoï expresses his opinion on this subject in words which deserve to be quoted here: “ It is an absolute necessity that there should be found everywhere primary schools, with competent teachers and a full supply of text-books and apparatus. One of the best means for obtaining this result would be the gradual introduction of a system of compulsory education. As the example of Prussia and the whole of Germany has shown, there is no doubt that this system is the most powerful means of diffusing education among all classes of society. Several of our provincial assemblies are discussing this question." Count Tolstoï then states that in most of the villages and even the cities there is not a sufficient number of schools. A commencement must therefore be made to establish schools; but in the two chief cities, Moscow and St. Petersburg, nothing prevents the introduction of compulsory education. The minister adds: “ It seems to me that the time has arrived when this system should be applied to the youth of these two cities, who are placed in an exceptionally favorable condition as regards education. Such a measure would accustom to work and study a large number of young people who now spend their time in idleness, and who thus become useless or even dangerous to society." A census of all the children of school-age has been taken with a view of making education compulsory, so that in this matter Russia will have preceded England and France.


In spite of the relatively great progress made during the last few years, which is shown by the reports of the minister of public instruction for 1871 and 1872, Russia must still make enormous sacrifices in order to bring the country up to the standard of the most advanced nations. As M. Anatole Leroy-Beaulieu has recently demonstrated, (Revue des deux mondes, January 15, 1874,) Russia has been retarded in her progress for several centuries by the invasion of the Tartars, which lasted till the end of the Middle Ages, but to-day all the authorities and all the influential classes of the empire seem fully resolved to make up for lost time, and we can but applaud this zeal. The full and free de. velopment of education in this immense eastern empire is of the greatest interest for the whole of the human race. Only through Russia can civilization penetrate the vast regions of Central Asia. We have seen with what success devoted Russian officials organize schools even among the nomadic tribes of Tartars and Kirghise east of the Volga. In the same manner will the pacified principalities of Central Asia be gradually brought within the reach of western civilization. The day will come, for there is nothing to hinder it, when the vast uninhabited por. tions of Siberia and Independent Tartary will be populated and brought under civilizing western influence. The great Slavonian race has not yet been able to fully develop its genius, because it has been broken up in small groups and has sighed under the yoke of slavery. It has not yet given to the civilization of the world as much as the Latin and Ger. manic races. It possesses, however, faculties and institutions of its own which ought not to be lost or led into a wrong channel by a servile imitation of western races. The peculiarly Russian element ought, on

. the contrary, to be respected, giving it scope to develop to its full extent by a general diffusion of knowledge among all classes of the population.

We have not hesitated to give accurate figures and details, because the progress of education in the immense eastern empire is of as much interest for the future of Western Europe as for Russia herself. The words inscribed on a pillar standing on the lava at the foot of Mount Vesuvius, Res nostra agitur, are applicable here. The destinies of European civilization depend in a great measure on the degree of education which Russia will have attained a hundred years hence. Before one or two centuries have elapsed the Russian Empire will be the most powerful state in Europe, because its enormous extent could easily accommodate three hundred millions of inhabitants, while the growth of the other countries will necessarily be limited by the narrow confines of their territory. If the mass of the Russian people remains ignorant, the form of government will inevitably remain a military despotism; and in that case this gigantic empire will, in the hands of an absolute monarch, be a standing menace to the liberty of Europe; for we cannot with certainty count on a constant succession of wise and peaceful sovereigns like the present emperor. Western Europe would then be at the mercy of the whims of a monarch commanding armies of three to four millions of men. If, on the contrary, the light of knowledge is diffused fast enough to allow Russia to change into a free and constitutional state, by the time she is strong enougb to rule Europe the danger to civilization will have disappeared, for a free people has no interest in making conquests or in subjugating other nations. This is so selfevident that it needs no proof. Suppose Russia arrived at the present status of England or the United States; there would be no cause to fear that she would endeavor to extend her boundaries by annexing less civilized countries. The defenders of the old system of European equilibrium will no doubt object to this; but, from a general human point of view, it could not be a matter of regret. Let us wish that the Russian government will not shrink from making the sacrifices which are neces. sary for the spreading of general education. The future of liberty, of European civilization, demands this as much as the true interests of the great Slavonian empire.


Sums expended for educational purposes by the various ministries in 1872-73.

Roubles. Schools under the “Holy Synod”.

1,539, 225= $1,090, 284 37 Ministry of public instruction

13, 168, 125 9, 327,421 87 Ministry of war....

6,026, 356 4, 268, 668 83 Ministry of the navy

449, 922 318,744 33 Ministry of finance.

3, 513, 659 2,488, 841 79 Ministry of domains...

785, 692 556, 531 83 Ministry of the interior....

338, 477 239, 744 54 Ministry of public works

159, 815

113, 202 29 Ministry of justice ..

402, 824 285, 335 33 Ministry of Caucasia

508, 093

359, 899 20 Ministry of foreign affairs

12, 800

9,066 66 Schools under the direction of the Empress Maria.... 1,551, 494 1,098, 974 91 Total.....

28, 455, 482 20, 156, 775 95 Large sums are annually expended for educational purposes by cities, towns, and private individuals, but nothing definite regarding their amount is known. Higher schools.-Universities, 8, (not including the one in Finland,)

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