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while it is not sufficient to support him. If this compulsory system is trusted to and relied upon absolutely it will deceive you. We may make use of it, but we want more than that; we want something better than that.

Mr. G. J. LUCKEY, of Pittsburg. I am fully impressed with the importance of the subject which is up before us for discussion. It has been said by our friend from Maryland that he is opposed to the enactment of compulsory laws until the mass of the people are ready for them. If we wait until the people are ready for them, then I may say we will have no use for compulsory laws.

Mr. NEWELL. I object to relying entirely upon compulsory laws; but I stated that, if they were executed as has been reported from Connecticut, I had no fault to find with them.

Mr. LUCKEY. We need compulsory educational laws; and we need them as one of the great safeguards of our republican institutions. I do not suppose that there is a thoughtful person in our country who does not see every day the tendency of the people in large centers of population to override and trample under foot the free institutions of the land and the system of law and order which we claim to have established; and this is to be observed just in proportion as the people are deficient in education and culture. In our country, where our people are intelligent, there is no fear for our republican institutions; but in the States where the great mass of our people are uneducated there is danger that our institutions will be overthrown or impaired. There is such danger always where the masses of the people are ignorant. I would like, therefore, to have this convention give its influence directly in favor of compulsory education. Before we leave this subject, I would like to ask a question of the honorable secretary in regard to the first part of this law of the State of Connecticut, which reads:

All parents, and those who have the care of children, shall bring them up in some honest and lawful calling or employment and shall instruct them or cause them to be instructed in reading, writing, English grammar, geography, and arithmetic. And every parent, guardian, or other person having control and charge of any child between the ages of 8 and 14 years, shall cause such child to attend some public or private dayschool at least three months in each year, six weeks at least of which attendance shall be consecutive, or to be instructed at home at least three months in each year in the branches of education required to be taught in the public schools, unless the physical or mental condition of the child is such as to render such attendance inexpedient or impracticable.

That is one of the best provisions I ever saw in any law. But how is it to be executed? I would like some light on this subject. Perhaps we need a provision of that kind as much as we need a compulsory clause in our school-law.

There is another point to which I would like to call the attention of this convention before this subject is dropped, and that is this: In Prussia they have no free-school-system; every parent is compelled to pay for the education of his child, and yet all are required to be educated.

What provision is made in Prussia for the poor children or in aid of the poor parents? I know that in this country, unless we have some provision enacted with this compulsory law which will enable the very poor parents to furnish their sons and daughters with books and clothing, this compulsory provision will be a nullity. I visited in my own State, the other day, twenty families who were living in one house, and not a shoe nor a stocking upon a child in the house with perhaps five or six exceptions. There were twenty rooms in the house and twenty families. These children had to be provided by the charitably-inclined "school-marms" of the State with shoes and stockings before we could ask them to go to school. I would like to know how it is in those countries—particularly in Prussia-where compulsory education is enforced; what provision is made for the children of the poor? As I said before, they are not only required in Prussia to send their children to school, but they are required to pay tuition. This is more than our people are required to do here. Iam glad that this subject is being discussed as it is; I hope it will be deferred until our next session for further discussion; but I think that in the mean time our friend from Maryland will change his views upon the subject; because he is a good man to have on the right side of a question, and I do not like to see him on the wrong side. I might remark, with regard to his little anecdote about the English farmer attempting to raise corn in Maryland, that it would kill any man to try and raise corn down there. [Great laughter.]

The PRESIDENT. The Chair will be obliged to suspend the discussion at this point, as the time is approaching for our visit to the President of the United States. A communication has been received, directed to the department, from ex-Governor Shepherd, inviting the members to visit him socially at his house, corner of Connecticut avenue and K street, to-morrow evening.

General EATON. I move that the invitation of Governor Shepherd be accepted and that we return him our sincere thanks for his proffered hospitality.

The motion was adopted.

General EATON. From the President's House we will go to the Corco ran Art-Gallery; and from that place we will proceed to listen to a lec ture by Professor Walter Smith, on drawing, before the teachers of this District, which lecture will be delivered at the Jefferson School-Building at 2 o'clock. We will meet here again this evening for business at 15 minutes before 7. At 7 o'clock we will listen to an address by Dr. A. N. Bell, of New York, editor of The Sanitarian, on "Brain-culture in relation to the school-room." Doctor Bell is in the city at present engaged in discussing the subject with other physicians. The committee are unable to proceed in determining any future portion of the programme, as all the gentlemen are not here whose names have been put down in the list of speakers. As far as we can determine, however, we believe that we shall have to-morrow morning, at 11 o'clock, Mr. Wick

ersham's paper on the Centennial.

And it is proposed at some time to have a brief illustrated address from Professor Enthoffer, on the origin of the alphabet. To-morrow evening, at 7 o'clock, we shall expect a lecture from Professor Walter Smith, on drawing, with illustrations. It is proposed that we call upon the Secretary of the Interior to-morrow morning at half-past nine o'clock.

A DELEGATE. Make it 10 o'clock instead of half-past nine.

General EATON. I wish to say to the members present that, as far as the efficiency of the Bureau of Education is concerned, it depends very much on the favor and support given to it by the Secretary of the Inte rior, and it is due to the Secretary to say that this Bureau has always had his cordial co-operation.

It was agreed that the visit of respect to the Secretary of the Interior should be made as suggested by the Chair.

The PRESIDENT. I wish to state that I have received letters from Mr. Binford, of Richmond, and Mr. Apgar, of New Jersey, expressing their regret on account of their inability to attend the department-meeting; and I would state that the Jefferson building, where Mr. Smith will lecture this afternoon, is situated at the corner of Sixth and D streets southwest, toward the river; either line of cars will bring you within a block of the building.

The department then took a recess and proceeded to the Executive Mansion, where they were received by President Grant in his private office.


Mr. J. O. Wilson introduced the delegates to the President, after which he made the following address:

Mr. PRESIDENT: The members of the department of superintendence of the National Educational Association, now in session in this city, have called to pay their respects to you and to say that they highly appreciate the deep interest you feel in education, to which you have given such emphatic expression in your messages to Congress.


The President responded as follows:

I feel that the advancement of the cause of education would be one of the best reconstructive movements we could have in the country, and therefore I have felt, in addition to other reasons, a deep interest in it. I do not see how a pure republic is to be maintained, unless it is based on the intelligence of the people. That requires educational privileges for all the people. Without a combined interest and effort in every section of the country for the support of educational facilities, it will be impossible to obtain the results which we most desire in this respect. In order that there may be a combination and harmony of interest in this matter, I have always been ready and anxious to give my support to any proper means for this end and purpose.


The visitors then took leave of the President, and were shown through the White House, after which they went to the Corcoran Art-Gallery,

where they were most courteously received by Mr. W. MacLeod, curator, and Dr. F. S. Barbarin, assistant curator, who pointed out the many works of art in the building. After spending some time most pleasantly at the gallery, the line was again formed, and a visit was made to the Jefferson School-Building, where Professor Walter Smith, State-director of art-education in Massachusetts, addressed the teachers of the District of Columbia on the subject of "Drawing in public schools."

The large hall was filled with the teachers and their friends, who paid the closest attention to the professor's conversational explanations and blackboard-illustrations of the value and practical methods of teaching



The department assembled at 7 o'clock.

The PRESIDENT. It was considered important to have the subject of school-hygiene treated on this occasion by some one who could speak with authority, and accordingly we have invited the gentleman that I now have the honor of introducing to you, Dr. A. N. Bell, of New York, editor of The Sanitarian. [Applause.]

Dr. Bell said:


Mr. PRESIDENT, LADIES, AND GENTLEMEN: The paper which I have the honor of reading to you this evening is entitled


Education is a primary necessity of man. It is by education that the organs of the body acquire accuracy in their movements. The senses of sight, hearing, taste, and smell all learn to act. And the earliest charm of infant-life is to observe the progress of the education of the senses; to watch the study of a toy; to see the hands holding it at various distances, turning its different sides to view, tasting it, shaking it, and finally, when a little older, breaking it to see whence comes the noise. Who that has watched this process has not learned the first accomplishment of a teacher, to promote the education of the senses by the association of physical exercise, amusement, and study?

The passage from infancy to childhood is but an imperceptible step, marked by the continued expression of new experiences. Everything excites new impressions; everything must be examined with due deliberation; no hurry, no pressure, no fatigue. And during the while, ay, even during the whole period of waking hours, there is incessant motion. Nature has implanted in the young of all animals a pleasure in exercise. Muscular action being not only necessary for strengthening the muscles, but also the bones to which they are attached, the actions of crying and laughing, the deep inspirations of sobbing and joy, both alike tend to develop and strengthen the lungs. And the active exercise of the lungs promotes and develops the action of the heart, which, with increasing vigor, sends the blood to every part of the body. In all this the brain participates to an extraordinary degree, requiring that the young mind be exercised with the utmost care. By experience and habit the child acquires judgment, learns to compare one movement with another, to direct its organs to special objects, to produce this or that action, to take this or that attitude for the accomplishment of its purposes. And all the subsequent capacity of the brain will greatly depend upon the care with which it is cultured during the period of growth.

Imagination, perception, and memory-faculties which are always preceded and de

termined by the sensations-are all the subjects of education, enlarged and extended in proportion as new excitements and impressions call them forth and give them application.

"Glancing broadly at the whole range of psycho-physical phenomena," observes Dr. Tuke, "it is clear that it would be taking a very contracted view of the relation between mind and body, if we did not include in this relationship a reference to the inseparable nexus existing between the two, arising out of the fact that the organ of the mind is but the outgrowth and ultimate development of the tissues and organs of which the body itself is composed; that it not only unites them in one bond, but is, in truth, a microcosm of the whole."* Of all parts of the human body the brain is the last to gain maturity. According to Owen, "the brain has advanced to near its term of size at about ten years, but it does not usually obtain its full development till between twenty and thirty years of age." While the brain has not usually more than one-fortieth of the weight of the body, it receives about one-fifth of the whole volume of the blood. It is scarcely necessary to state in this connection that every organ and tissue of the body is nourished by the blood, and that upon the supply of it, and the condition of it, nutrition and development for weal or for woe depend. During the period of growth there is not only the development of new parts, but, in the brain especially, a change of structure going on until that degree of perfection has been attained which is necessary to the exercise of all the functions. Hence this period is characterized by extraordinary functional activity in every part of the body. It is this which makes the demand for food so much greater during the period of growth than in after-years. Not, however, that the larger proportion of food in demand is wholly required as new material applied to actual increase, for that bears a very small proportion to the amount required for constant renewal which the increase involves, but the extraordinary functional activity in disposing of it and the corresponding necessity for replacing the waste in the buildingup and perfecting the structure according to the original plan. For it is characteristic of every living thing to follow out a certain inherent type or pattern, subject, of course, in some degree, to modification under the influence of external conditions, or, when these are aggravated, to acute disease and death; but such circumstances do not effect a permanent change in the original design. During the period of growth and change of structure the modifying influence of external conditions is most strongly marked. The constitution of the individual adapts itself to the circumstances and becomes fixed for the life-time. So that, if a child of originally healthy constitution be subject for any considerable length of time to such injurious physical conditions as produce a tendency to disease, unless the conditions are speedily changed, the effect is to establish a constitutional weakness or disease, not only during the life of the individual, but, it may be, a diathesis, with hereditary qualities for several generations. For, when the modification of the individual is once fixed in the growing brain, it becomes part of the general fabric; the different organs adapt themselves to the change and the condition is maintained by nutritive substitution. On the other hand, constitutional vices contracted during the period of growth may be gradually overcome in the progress of new generations, and, by a continued subjection to healthy surroundings, the normal type regained. It is apparent, therefore, that these changes of growth and structure are all affected by and through the circulation of the blood; its condition depends upon the air we breathe.

Air, everybody knows, is the absolute necessity of every living thing. It is the very first element of our bodily tissues, and breathing affords three-quarters of the nourishment of our bodies; and the other quarter, which we obtain in the form of solid and fluid aliment, is also in great part composed of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbonic acid-the elements of the atmosphere.

Chemically, the air consists of a mixture of two kinds of gases, oxygen, or vital air,

* Influence of Mind upon the Body in Health and Disease. By Daniel Hack Tuke, M. D., M. R. C. P., p. 23; Philadelphia edition, 1873.

t Anatomy of Vertebrates. By Richard Owen, F. R. S.; vol. iii, p. 144; London, 1868.

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