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report of Prince Gagarin for 1863 enumerated in 36 provinces (Russia in Europe has 49 provinces) 30,179 schools with 632,471 scholars, while the French report of Count Tolstoï for 1872 gives only 24,000 schools with 875,090 scholars for the whole of Russia in Europe. These numbers are, as the minister remarks, very insignificant compared to the population of Russia in Europe, which is about 65,000,000. Thus there would only be 1 scholar to every 75 inhabitants, while in the New England States and in Upper Canada there is 1 to every 4 inhabitants and 1 to every 6 in Denmark and Saxony. Even the states ranking lowest on the educational scale show a more favorable proportion than Russia : thus, Italy, 1 to 19; Greece, 1 to 20; Portugal, 1 to 40; and Servia, 1 to 48.


The government is fully aware of the absolute necessity of supplying a sufficient number of good teachers, if education is to prosper at all, and, consequently, makes great efforts to increase the number of normal schools or “ seminaries.” In the beginning of 1871 there were only 15 normal schools. During 1871 10 new ones were established, and it has been decided to have 8 more, thus more than doubling the number of these schools in one year. In January, 1873, their number was 41. Besides this the provincial assemblies have at their expense organized educational courses in connection with the district-schools in 18 different places. All this is doubtless insufficient; yet it is nevertheless pleasing to see the provincial administrations and the central government rivaling each other in their zeal in such a worthy cause. The central government, for example, appropriates 14,810 roubles ($11,848) per annum for the normal school at Kief, and paid 63,000 roubles ($50,400) besides for the erection of the building. The normal school of Kasan had, in 1871, cost 61,433 roubles, ($51,546,) and 25,000 roubles ($20,000) in 1872. At this price very convenient buildings can be had, and this liberality bears its own reward. In the one year 1872, the government-appropriation for normal schools has been increased by 229,000 roubles, ($183,200.) portant item, which the report neglects to mention, is the number of teachers annually supplied by these institutions and the number of teachers required every year. The extent of the want must be known before it can be fully supplied.

Teachers' conferences, which have proved so eminently useful in the United States, have been introduced in Russia. These conferences are held under the direction of experienced educators appointed by the edu. cational authorities and under the superintendence of the inspectors of primary instruction. The expenses are paid by the provincial assemblies. These conferences have, during 1872, been held in 47 different places, and, according to the minister's report, have exercised a most beneficial influence, spreading the knowledge of better text-books, better methods of instruction, &c. They create centers of educational information, and thus supplement the preparation received at the normal school. It would be well if these conferences could be introduced in every province of the empire, obliging the teachers to attend them, and, of course, paying all their expenses. Teachers' meetings have become so popular in America that families vie with each other in extending their hospitality to the visiting teachers.


Illiteracy is still very prevalent in the rural districts of Russia. According to Mr. Mitchell, British consul at St. Petersburg, * who has thoroughly studied the condition of the Russian rural population, only 8 to 9 per cent of the population can read and write, and still the Russian peasant is naturally intelligent and learns very quickly everything he is taught. This seems to be one of the national characteristics, for it is well known that no nation learns foreign languages so easily and speaks them so fluently as the Russian. The peasant, who is a good hand at many trades, thereby sharpens his mental faculties. He not only raises all he wants in his household, but builds his own house and barns, manufactures his furniture, his clothes, tools, wagons, harness, and in fact everything which can be made with the few simple tools he possesses. The necessity and habit of thinking of everything, of being prepared for all emergencies, develop in him a taste for work, the faculty of imi. tation, and thus produce an astonishingly bright and intelligent work. man. If education were brought to his door he would make excellent use of it. Educated and better fed, the Russian would make one of the best artisans in Europe. His principal weakness is intemperance. He drinks large quantities of strong liquor—the vodka-especially since it bas come down in price, and has become deshof ka, i. e., cheap drink. The best means to combat this vice, which is actually the plague-spot of the rural districts, is to raise the intellectual standard of the rural pop. ulation, so as to give them more elevated tastes and a desire for refined amusements.


The emancipation-law of 1861 accorded to each community an auton. omy almost as complete as that of the American township. The inhabitants elect their communal council and their mayor-staroste. These authorities do not only exercise the local administration, but also the judiciary-power in the first degree. It is sometimes claimed that the Russian peasants are not sufficiently advanced to make the proper use of such decentralizing and radically democratic institutions, and various abuses springing therefroin are mentioned. This system, how ever, is the same as that in force in Switzerland, even among the very

* See his admirable report in a Blue-book of 1870, entitled Reports from Her Majesty's Representatives respecting the Tenure of Land in the several Countries of Europe.

+ Mr. Mitchell relates the following: Some time ago an inhabitant of Elisabetgrad accused Eupbrosine M. of having proved faithless to her marriage-vows. Although no proof is furnished, the husband believes the story; le causes all the inhabitants to as primitive peasants and shepherds of the forest-cantons, and works exceedingly well. It insures complete and at the same time orderly lib. erty, it accustoms the people to self-government, and inspires an ardent love of their country and respect for traditional usages. In order to make this system, which was introduced in Russia in 1861, work well, nothing would be required but to give to the Russian peasants that very rudi. mentary degree of education which the mountaineers of Uri and Unter. wald possess. These, it is true, have enjoyed free institutions from times immemorial, but before Boris Godunof (Emperor of Russia 1598 to 1605) had introduced serfdom, the organization of the communities was like that of the Swiss cantons. The same system is in use among the southern Slavonians, in Servia. It would therefore be only a return to national traditions; only, as modern civilization is a much more elaborate system, more enlightenment would be required to administer well even a simple rural community.


Russia is making great efforts to spread education among the halfcivilized races which inhabit the vast steppes east of the river Don. Schools have been established for the Tartars, the Bashkires, and the Kirghise. The normal schools of Kasan aud Irkoutsk are intended to prepare teachers for these Touranian races. This is a far-seeing policy, for it is not only a service rendered to general civilization, but, by thus spreading the Russian language, the assimilation of these foreign races with the remainder of the Slavonian population is gradually brought about. The same result is expected from the Tartar schools of Oufa and Simpheropol, whose chief and essential object is to train teachers who are thoroughly conversant with the Russian language. The Russian government, for very good reasons, attaches such importance to the success of these Tartar and Kirghise schools, that a special inspector, Mr. Radlof, has been appointed, who works among these tribes by persuasion and encouragement, who establishes schools wherever possible and puts thein in working order. He has also undertaken the publication of the most-needed text-books, riz, a manual for the study of the Russian language and an arithmetic for the use of the Tartars, also a Tartar reader. Another very interesting work has been published by order of the ministry of public instruction, viz, maps giving the exact location of all the foreign tribes in the provinces of Kasan, Astrakhan, and Samara, as well as all the German and other colonies.


Russia does not neglect anything which tends to make her relations semble at the mayor's office, and has his wife convicted and condemned, without being allowed to plead her cause, to be led, stark naked, through the town and to receive 15 blows with a cane. This sentence was carried out literally, on a very cold October morning. This is certainly primitive and quick justice.

with the nations of Asia mora intimate and is calculated to increase her influence in that part of the world. An academy of oriental languages has recently been established, pow bearing the name of its first president, lately deceased, Privy Counselor Lazaref. In 1871, 20,000 roubles ($16,000) were appropriated for it. There are eight professorships, viz, of Armenian literature, of Arabic, Persian, Georgian, Turkish, Tartar, history of the eastern nations, and oriental calligraphy. The professors and students enjoy the same privileges as the professors and students of the universities. The recent expedition to Khiva has again shown how useful it is in war to know the language of the enemy. T:vo Russian officers, thoroughly conversant with the language of Khiva, repeated the bold enterprise of the Hungarian scientist and author, Vambéry, and visited Khiva in disguise, on their return furnishing the Russian commander with exact plans of all the canals and fortifications.

SECONDARY EDUCATIO.. Secondary education in Russia is organized almost like that of Germany, especially since the promulgation of the law of 1871, which reg. ulates the studies in the gymnasia, and that of 1872 regarding the realschools. The gymnasium's course now embraces Greek, Latin, German, 7 and French, besides the scientific branches. The Russian real-schools are very excellent institutions and every way suited to the wants of Russia. Without neglecting general studies like history, they devote nearly all their efforts to mathematics, drawing, chemistry, modern languages, and all those studies which tend to aid industrial activity. They enable young men to acquire a very complete and very superior education without troubling them with the study of the ancient classics, (humanitarian studies,) which frequently drive them into a career leading to nothing. Thus they diminish the number of those mistaken lives, or, to use a common expression, those “dry fruits,” which are the plague of families and of society. Holland has likewise recently organized similar schools (Hoogburgerscholen) in all the more important towns.

The proof that these schools in Russia really meet an urgent want is seen in the fact that as soon as the ministry had promulgated the law more than forty provincial assemblies and municipalities applied to the ministry to have such real-schools established. T.venty-four at once furnished a building, an endowment, and guaranteed an annual appropriation. The endowments offered during the single year 1872 announted to 280,000 roubles, (224,000,) not counting twelve buildings, some of which were of considerable value.

The city of Borissoglebsk, in the province of Tambof, offers a build. ing valued at $30,000; Kief one at $13,000. The city of Rostof, on the river Don, gives annually more than $20,000, a sum sufficient to cover all the expenses of a six-class real-school. Sarapoul annually appropriates $10,000; Krementchoug, $12,000; Rossieni, $8,000; Krasnooufimsk, in the province of Perm, a building valued at $12,000 for a real-school,

four classes of which are intended specially to meet the wants of that locality in mining and metallurgy, with agricultural instruction in the fifth and sixth classes and applied mechanics in the select class. These numerous demands, accompanied by such generous offers even from the most distant provinces of the empire, are admirable manifestations of the spirit of progress which is awakening everywhere; they prove that the local authorities are fully alive to the fact that only by the diffusion of scientific knowledge can the natural resources of a country be developed. The funds placed at the disposal of the ministry by the government are, we are sorry to say, as yet entirely insufficient, and most of the above-mentioned requests, so worthy of the strongest encouragement, have consequently been laid over for the present. At the end of the year 1872 there were not more than 27 real-schools, not, however, including those of the scholastic districts of Dorpat and the Caucasus.

On the 1st of January, 1872, there were in Russia 126 gymnasia and 32 progymnasia, with 42,751 scholars, 3,720 more than in 1871. The number of those presenting themselves for the August admissionexaminations was 11,068; 2,239 (i. e., 20 per cent.) were unable to pass these examinations, which are extremely rigorous, and in spite of this 41 of the 127 gymnasia had to refuse the admission of 1,048 youths who had passed the examination, merely because there was no room. This is another proof of the eagerness of the people to make the best use of the means of education offered them. What a strange contrast; in other countries the government makes efforts to stir up the local authorities and the private citizens in the cause of education, while in Russia pri. vate individuals, city- and provincial authorities outstrip the government in their efforts. It is the most sacred duty of the government to encourage this work of regeneration. During the year 1871 the gymnasia and progymnasia cost 4,467,614 roubles, (83,574,115,) of which sum the government paid 3,215,889 roubles, ($2,572,711,) or about 72 per cent.; the remainder has been provided by the municipal authorities, the provincial assemblies, private individuals, and by the interest derired from school-funds. It is a curious and significant fact that Russia every year appoints a number of Austrian Slavonians as teachers in her secondary schools, 60 in 1870 and 60 in 1871. If this continues it cannot fail to exercise an important political influence in the future.


The official report also speaks of the persevering efforts to russianize Poland and the Baltic provinces. In 1871 there was in Poland only one gymnasium where instruction was not imparted in Russian, and this one bappened to be originally a German school. The report says that, in the latter half of 1871, this gymnasium bas been placed under the municipal authorities as a German one. The Polish language is thus entirely banished from the secondary schools, and the examinations in

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