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There is to be a continuous ventilation in the crèche ; the air will bo purified by streams of fresh air as soon as impregnated with any odors, but the children must never be exposed to any draught; there are never to be any flowers in the crèche ; as soon as the number of children in the crèche increases, all the windows will be opened and the cradles, &c., be aired; the children will be taken into the open air whenever the weather permits.
TEMPERATURE. The temperature of the crèche will always be about 150 Réaumur (about 60° Falrenheit;) towards evening the temperature will be lowered a little. The parents are urged to cover up the children well when they are brought to the crèche in the morning and when taken away in the evening.
The greatest possible cleanliness is to be maintained in the crèche ; every child will be washed and combed in the morning and before the first meal; after every meal its hands and face will be washed. While washing the children they will be kept far from the windows; they will be completely undressed, and after having been washed they will be rubbed with clean towels till they are completely dry. Every child will be provided with a sponge, a basin, a handkerchief, a cup, and a spoon. From the beginning of May till the end of September, the children will take a tepid bath twice a week, remaining in the bath about 10 minutes; they will never be bathed till two hours after a meal.
The children will be taken out as often as possible and be made to walk when they are able to do so; scolding is to be used but rarely, corporal punishment never, and altogether the greatest tenderness in the treatment is recommended; the children are to be laid sometimes on one side and sometimes on the other, always with the head a little raised; they are to be covered sufficiently but not too much; no child is to be left in its chair for any great length of time; the movements of the children in their swaddling-bands are not to be hindered; the child is not to be lifted up with one arm only; the feet of the children are to be kept warm, the stomach easy, and the head cool; no painted confectionery, or anything which might hurt the children, is allowed in the crèche; the children may be caressed but not embraced ; their sleep is never to be interrupted; they are not to be excited in any manner; they are to enjoy their games, and are, if possible, placed near those for whoin they show any predilection ; whenever a child has convulsions it is to be at once removed from the sight of the others, and the physician is to be informed immediately.
(12) When a child is admitted to the crèche, the parents are informed with regard to the following regulations, with which they must comply:
(13) Mothers must nurse their children whenever their work permits.
(14) Children must be brought to the crèche before 8 a. m. in summer and before 9 a. m. in winter, and must be taken back in the evening after the day's work has been finished.
(15) Parents owe due respect to the directress and all the employés of the establishment.
(16) Parents who neglect their infants, and who, after having been duly warned, do not coniply with the regulations, lose all their privileges, and their infants are sent home.
THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN RUSSIA.*
By EMILE DE LAVELEYE, of the University of Liége, Belgium.
[From the Revue des deux mondes, April 15, 1874.]
Russia during the last twenty years has shown how a great state may rise from a defeat. Like Prussia, after the battle of Jena, it has profited from a bitter lesson. While the country was recovering from the shock of defeat the time was not spent in sluggishness and fruitless experiments; it has, on the contrary, been a period of radical reform and com. plete reorganization. In 1854 Russia had really not been conquered, as, after two years consumed in gigantic exertions, the allies had only succeeded in taking one single city, situated on the confines of the empire. The frontiers had scarcely been touched, for the enemy never thought of leading his armies into the heart of the country. The country nevertheless was exhausted, and made peace because it had not the strength to continue the war any longer. The Russian government was fully aware of the causes of its weakness. These causes were three in number: first, the lack of rapid means of communication; secondly, the in. sufficient development of the productive powers of the country; and, thirdly, the want of enlightenment among the masses of the people. If in 1853 Russia had had railways, the allies would never have ventured into the Crimea, whence they would soon have been driven back into the sea; and if, on the other hand, the natural wealth of Russia had been developed by a free and enlightened people, she could for a long time have defied all the assaults of France and England. To remove these various causes of weakness has been the object which Russia has pursued with indefatigable perseverance and in an intelligent manner.
The beginning was made by tracing a net-work of railroads, which extends every year in all directions. Next, the serfs were emancipated, a reform of far-reaching consequences, which must change the whole economical situation of the empire, since it has awakened in the popalation that desire for progress which always accompanies freedom. Recently military service has been made compulsory for all, not even ex
*(1) General Plan for the Organization of Popular Education, published by order of the Emperor, by M. P. de Taneef, 1862; (2) General Regulations for Public Schools, prepared by Prince Paul Gagarin, minister of public instruction ; (3) Report of the Minister of Public Instruction, Count Dmitri Tolstoï, to the Emperor, for the years 1872 and 1873.
cepting the families of nobles. For some years the government has been earnestly engaged in the enormous work of extending education to all classes of society, both in the rural districts and in the towns and cities. This, in my opinion, is the most important matter, for it is the application of scientific kuowledge which makes labor productive. If for the same amount of exertion men reap five or ten times more to-day than in former times, it is because, thanks to science, the domesticated natural powers work themselves and produce everything needed for satisfying our wants. The United States is certainly the country where relatively the greatest amount of wealth is produced, and there more than any. where else are all new discoveries applied to labor. Open as many schools in Russia as in America, and the power of that immense empire will surpass that of any other country in the world. It must be acknowl. edged that in this respect everything had to be done, even to laying the very foundation on which to erect the building. In order to understand this we must cast a glance at the past.
EDUCATIONAL EFFORTS FROM 1700 TO 1861.
From the reign of Peter the Great till the abolition of serfdom.
The first attempts to educate the people date from the reign of Peter the Great. In Holland, where even at that time there were many and good schools, the imperial reformer saw the marvelous results produced by them.
In 1714 he established " compulsory schools of arithmetic" for the higher classes.
In 1715 and 1719 stricter regulations were published, and attendance at school was made compulsory for all except the nobility. These excellent measures, far from meeting with favor, were violently opposed. The city-councils of several cities sent petitions demanding the suppression of these schools as being dangerous institutions.
In 1744, it was ascertained that not a single pupil from the middle class attended these schools, and, after special schools had been founded for the clergy and the nobility, they were completely deserted.
In 1775, Catherine II, influenced by the philosophical ideas of the eighteenth century, ordered the establishment of schools in towns and villages. She wished that the school-fee should be as small as possible, in order not to deter the poorer classes from sending their children to school; but this order unfortunately remained a dead letter, for every. thing was wanting, teachers, school-houses, books, money. Since that time several other efforts were made, but invariably without any result. Considerable sums would have been requireil to make a beginning, and the government contented itself with passing laws.
In 1782, a committee, with M. Zividovsky as chairman, proposed to establish two kinds of schools, one with a four-years course for the higher classes, and another with a two-years course for the common people.