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physics, chemistry, book-keeping, drawing, and modeling, and in some schools, also, mining, metallurgy, and architecture.
An institution peculiar to Belgium are the workshops for learning trades, (ateliers d'apprentissage.) The origin of these workshops was the hopeless condition of the weavers in Flanders about 1830, who were suffering much in consequence of the introduction of machinery. A private association was then formed which aimed at spreading the knowledge of improved methods of weaving; the government soon took the matter in hand, and numerous workshops were established throughout the country, where skillful weavers instructed young men in the improved methods of weaving. Many of these workshops are institutions entirely supported by government, and others are supported by the provincial or communal authorities or by private individuals, but all of them are under government-supervision. In many of these workshops instruction is also given in reading, writing, arithmetic, and other eleinentary subjects during the evening.bours.
In this connection the Industrial Museum at Brussels must be mentioned. It was founded in 1826 and re-organized in 1841, and contains physical and chemical instruments, machinery of every kind, and a technological library. Since 1846 a drawing-school is connected with it and since 1852 free lectures are delivered in the evenings on physics, chemistry, mechanics, political economy, and hygiene, which are very well attended.
AGRICULTURAL INSTRUCTION. There is one state agricultural school at Gembloux, founded in 1860. This school is located in large and well-arranged buildings and has a model farm and garden, and in the neighborhood are large distilleries breweries, and sugar-manufactories, thus affording the students an opportunity of becoming acquainted with these branches of industry. The conditions of adınission are the age of 16 and a good knowledge of the ele. mentary branches, geometry, and geography. The time of entering is the 1st October. The institution is in the charge of the ministry of the interior. Students who board in the institution pay 700 francs annually. At the end of the course, examinations are held and diplomas of "agricultural engineer” given to the successful candidates. The course of instruction lasts three years and embraces the following subjects : elementary algebra, plane geometry, stereometry, surveying, elements of mechanics, linear drawing, construction of agricultural implements, raral architecture, drainage, irrigation, physics, meteorology, inorganic and organic chemistry applied to agriculture, agricultural technology, mineralogy, geology, zoology, botany, all with their relation to agriculture; anatomy, physiology, hygiene, breeding, raising, and improving of domestic animals; general and special agriculture, forest-culture, horticulture, and arboriculture; agricultural and forest-economy, various systems of culture, rotation of crops; agricultural laws; agricultural book-keeping. The instruction given is both theoretical and practical. There are two schools of horticulture, one at Vilvorde and one at Ghent, established by a decree of the minister of the interior in 1855. The conditions of admission are the age of 17, good bodily health, a perfect knowledge of French and of all the elementary branches. The annual charge is about 100 francs, which is, of course, only a nominal charge, as the students are lodged and boarded free of expense. The course of instruction occupies three years, is both theoretical and practical, and embraces the following subjects: French, Flemish, arithmetic, book-keeping, botany, architecture of hot-houses and gardens, flowerculture, culture of vegetables, hot-house-gardening, fruit-culture. Con. nected with each school are large gardens, nurseries, arboretunis, hothouses, museums, and libraries.
There are two academies of the fine arts, one at Brussels and the other at Antwerp, both under the direction of the government. The object of these academies is to give gratuitous instruction in painting, sculpture architecture, and engraving, and the sciences relating to these arts, to spread the taste for art, and to encourage and protect those who engage in its pursuit. Councils of administration, most of whose members are appointed by the King, are charged with the superintendence of these academies. The course of instruction is given by professors appointed by the King, is of indefinite length, and embraces the following subjects: historical painting, drawing, sculpture, genre-painting, landscape painting, portrait-painting, picturesque anatomy, architectural painting, architecture, naval architecture, engraving on wood, steel and copper-engraving, proportions of the human body, principles of ornaments, modeling, picturesque perspective, history, antiquities and costumes, aesthetics and general literature, comparative architecture, and geometry.
The taste for art is also fostered by the royal museums of paintings and sculpture at Brussels, by the Royal Museum of Antiquities in the same city, and by a number of provincial, municipal, and private museums in every part of the country.
Lower art-instruction is given in drawing-schools chiefly maintained by the communal or provincial authorities, at present numbering up wards of fifty, where gratuitous instruction in drawing and kindred branches is given.
There are two royal conservatories of music, at Brussels and at Liége managed by committees appointed by the King, under the supervision, of the ministry of the interior. Each has a director and a number of professors. The object of these institutions is to give gratuitous instruction in music and encourage and elevate the musical taste. The length of the course is indefinite. It embraces the following subjects: thorough bass, harmony, singing, Italian language, elocution, violin, violoncello, double-bass, piano, organ, French horn, trombone, clarionet, saxophone, hautboy, flute, bassoon, trumpet, &c.
Book-keeping and kindred branches are taught in many schools. There is a superior commercial institute at Antwerp, established in 1852, for the acquirement of the higher branches of commercial knowl. edge, at the joint expense and under the immediate patronage of the Belgian government and of the municipality of the city of Antwerp.
The practical and theoretical course of instruction extends over two years and embraces the following subjects: book-keeping; commercial correspondence, in French and English; commercial transactions of every kind; description of merchantable articles and produce; political economy and statistics; commercial and industrial geography; general principles of law; Spanish, Italian, German, and English commercial and maritime legislations compared; principles of international law; legislations of customs; ship-building and fitting.out. The entering-fee is 25 francs per annum, and the general subscription for the first year is 200 francs and for the second year 250. Candidates can enter at any period of the year, but no reduction is made in the terms. Examinations for admission take place only once a year, at the beginning of October, before a commission appointed by the government and presided over by the director of the institution. The subjects of this examination are: a composition in French and a translation from French into German and English; physical geography; commercial arithmetic; elements of algebra, geometry, book-keeping; rudiments of natural philosophy and of chemistry; rudiments of universal history. These conditions are modified in favor of foreigners, especially as regards languages. The students do not live in the institution, but board in the city. A final examination is held at the end of the second year, at which examiners specially nominated by the government deliver certificates to such students as pass the requisite examination; and any student who has displayed special proficiency may obtain a stipend enabling him to travel abroad during several years at the expense of the government and with the title of consular pupil.
There are three institutions for military instruction, all under the supervision of the ministry of war, viz, the school of war, (école de guerre,) the military school, and the school for non-commissioned officers of the infantry and cavalry, the first intended for the education of staff-officers, the second for the education of commissioned officers of the infantry, cavalry, artillery, and engineers, and the last for the education of noncommissioned officers. The course of instruction in the two first-mentioned schools embraces: fortification, topography, geodesy, calculation of probabilities, political and military geography, staff-service, higher administration, military history, tactics and strategy, artillery, mathematics, physics, chemistry, general history, French literature,
hygiene, knowledge of horses, English, German, and drawing; and the course of instruction in the last-mentioned schools embraces mathematics, linear drawing, geography, history, French, and Flemish.
There are two schools of navigation, viz, at Antwerp and Ostende. Scholars are admitted annually during the second weeks of March and October. Instruction is given free of charge in the following subjects: arithmetic, geometry, trigonometry, nautical astronomy, navigation, rigging, stowage, naval steam-engines, commerce, meteorology, English, keeping of the log-book, practical exercises, cruises on the ocean, &c. At the end of the course an examination is held and successful candidates receive certificates as first or second lieutenants or captains.
Statistics of special schools.
Special school of civil engineering, University of Ghent...
63 211 35 79 39
78 1,588 9,329
338 811 97 70
INSTITUTIONS FOR DEAF MUTES AND THE BLIND.
There are in Belgium no public institutions for deaf mutes and the blind, but the nine institutions which exist have all been founded and are supported by private individuals, aided by the state, provincial, aud municipal authorities.
There are two agricultural reform-schools supported by the government, one at Ruysselede for 500 boys, and one at Beernem for 400 girls and children between the ages of 2 and 7. The pupils are instructed in agriculture, needlework, housekeeping, and various useful trades.
CRÈCHES IN BELGIUM. During the last thirty years quite a number of crèches (mangers, in remembrance of the manger of Bethlehem) have been founded in most countries of Europe, but especially in France and Belgium. They are all managed and supported either by private individuals or corporations. A complete series of reports of the famous crèche Marie-Henriette, (named after the Queen of Belgium,) at Antwerp, froin 1867–72, has come to hand, from which we extract the following:
During the year 1866 the cholera had made great ravages in Belgium, but especially in the city of Antwerp. The misery produced by this epidemic was very great among the poorer classes of the population. Many infants were deprived either of a father or a mother, and, while the parent was obliged to be absent the whole day to earn a scanty livelihood, these poor little infants were left in the charge of careless neighbors, who wanted high pay for their services, but who, in most cases, let the infants suffer from cold and hunger. The same was the case in the family of many a poor working-man whose house had escaped the dreadful scourge, but whose great poverty made it necessary for his wife to go out likewise during the day, in order to contribute towards the maintenance of the family. When these facts became known, a number of benevolent ladies and gentlemen met to propose a remedy, and this remedy was the crèche. This first meeting took place on the 4th November, 1866, and on January 23, 1867, the crèche was solemnly opened. Since that year it has continued to fourish, and has accommodated, in all, up to the year 1872, 942 infants of the tenderest age, viz, 477 girls and 465 boys. During the year 1872, the number of inmates was 149, viz, 90 girls and 59 boys. The receipts during the same year were 44,306.81 francs and the expenses 26,773.20 francs. To show more exactly the working of a crèche, the regula. tions are subjoined in full:
(1) Every child aged at least fifteen days, or, at most, three years, whose parents are residents of the city, can be admitted to the crèche, if it is not afflicted with any contagious disease and if it has been vaccinated.
(2) Persons who desire to place an infant in the crèche must furnish a paper showing the residence of the parents and their occupation and a certificate of vaccination.
(3) After these papers have been shown, the name of the child is registered and the time indicated when it can be received.
(4) The children are admitted to the crèche, whenever a vacancy occurs, in the order in which they are registered.
(5) Application for admission can be made every day from 9 to 12 a. n., but the admission itself only takes place on Monday.
(6) All children admitted to the crèche are treated on a footing of perfect equality.
(7) The charge for each child is five centimes per day, or twenty-five centimes per Week, in case of prepayment.
(8) When the time for admitting a child has come, the persons who bring it must answer the following questions: Are the father and mother alive? What is the amount of their daily or weekly earnings? How many days a month do they work? Have they any protectors who help thein? Do they receive any aid froin the poorfund ?
(9) The crèche does not receive sick children, and no child is admitted before having been thoroughly examined by the physician of the institution.
(10) The food of the children at the crèche consists
(a) For babies that have not yet been weaned: Of bread-soup (panades de biscuit) made with white bread and arrowroot boiled in milk and water, every day at 10 a. m. and between the hours of 2 and 5 p. m.; and, for a drink, barley-water or gruel, with a little moist sugar. These drinks must be prepared fresh every day.
(b) For children of seven months and more who have not yet been weaned: The bread-soup will be given only in the morning, and at 2 p. m., by a pap of gruel; and three times a week by beef- or veal-soup, (bouillon,) from which the fat has been skimmed. This soup is to be prepared with semolino.
(c) For children who have been weaned : At 10 a. m., bread-soup, only a little thicker; at 12.30 p. m., beef- or veal-soup, with rice and semolino, followed by vegetables, of which potatoes are not to form more than one-sixth part; at 5 p. m., slices of bread spread with butter; for drink, ptisan made of licorice. (11) The following regulations will be observed carefully: