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Studies required for the examination of candidate preparatory to the doctor's

examination :
History of French literature......
Latin philological and literary exercises.
Political bistory of antiquity.
Roman antiquities with a view to their political institutions
Greek philological and literary exercises
Political history of the middle ages
Political history of Belgium...

Studies required for the doctor's examination :
Latin literature
Greek literature...
History of ancient literature
Greek antiquities .
General and special metaphysics
History of ancient and modern philosophy

Studies not comprised in the above examinations :
Flemish literature
Modern political history..
Political economy
Roman religious, military, &c., antiquities
Oriental literature

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Hours per week.



Second term.

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Studies reqaired for the second doctor's exainination :
Criminal law....
Legal procedure..
Commercial law.......
Modern civil law...

Studies required for the degree of doctor of political and administrative sciences:
Pablie law of Belgium .
Administrative law
Political economy
International law

Studies required for the title of notary:
Civil law...
Organic and financial laws used by notaries

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Studies required for a candidate of natural sciences:
Inorganic chemistry
Organic chemistry
Experimental physics .

Studies required for a candidate of physical and mathematical sciences :
Higher algebra.....
Analytical geometry
Experimental physics.
Statics ....
Descriptive geometry.....
Differential and integral calculus.
Inorganic chemistry..

Studies required for a doctor of natural sciences :
A more thorough course of organic chemistry.
A more thorough course of inorganic chemistry.
Comparative anatomy...
Comparative physiology...
Vegetable anatomy and physiology.
Physical astronomy

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* See course of special schools.


Hours per week.


First Second term. terin.

Studies required for a doctor of physical and mathematical sciences :
Higher analysis, integral and differential calculus, calculus of variations, elliptical

functions and probabilities
Analytical mechanics .
Mathematical physics.

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Studies required for a candidate of medicine and surgery:
Human anatomy, histology
Human physiology, comparative physiology
Elements of comparative anatomy
Pharmacology ..
Descriptive human anatomy...
Anatomical demonstrations, (dissecting)....

Studies required for the first doctor's examination :
General pathology.
General therapeutics...
Special pathology
General pathological anatomy..

Studies required for the second doctor's examination :
Surgical pathology.
Theory of midwifery....
Public and private hygione....
Medical law, comprising toxicology

Studies required for the third doctor's examination :
Internal clinics
External clinics..
Obstetrical clinics..
Ophthalmalogical clinics
Surgical operations

Studies required for pharmacists:
"Theoretical pharmacy...
Practical pharmacy

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* Not yet determined.

The total expenditure for the state-universities in 1870 was 860,617.94 francs.

For special schools connected with the university, see paragraph "Special schools."

The number of so-called free universities is two, viz: the free unirer.

sity of Brussels, established in 1834, and the Catholic university of Louvain, established in 1835. The course of studies in these two universities is very similar to that of the state universities, and they confer the same degrees, only differing as regards their administration, the free university of Brussels being managed by a council of administration composed of twenty members, the mayor of Brussels being the president; seven of the members are life-members, appointed by the council of administration from among the founders and supporters of the uni. versity. The city-council of Brussels pays an annual subsidy of 50,000 francs and the provincial council of Brabant of 10,000 francs towards the support of this university; the rest of the expenses is met by the nterest of the fund presented by the founders, by donations, and by the students' fees, amounting to about the same as in the state universities. The Catholic university at Louvain has a fifth faculty, viz, an extra faculty of theology, and is in charge of the Catholic authorities.

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Industrial instruction.—There are a number of special schools connected with the state-universities, as the school of civil engineering, connected with the University of Ghent, established 1838. This school comprises a preparatory division-called the preparatory school-a school called the special school of civil engineering, and a school of arts and manufactures. The preparatory school is intended to prepare young

. men for the two other schools; the special school of civil engineering is intended for young men who wish to become engineers in the royal engi. neer-corps for bridges and roads, who wish to enter the railroad-service, or who wish to obtain the degree of civil engineer or architectural engi. neer. The school of arts and manufactures is destined for those who intend to obtain the diploma of industrial engineer or who merely desire to acquire a more scientific knowledge of industry.

At the head of the school there is a director and a council of improvement of studies, consisting of five members, appointed by the ministry of the interior. The course of instruction in the preparatory school lasts two years and comprises the following subjects: experimental physics and elements of mathematical physics; descriptive geometry and its application to shading, perspective, stone-cutting, and timber work; organic and inorganic chemistry; applied chemistry; elements of civil architecture, higher algebra, analytical geometry; elements of astronomy and geodesy; differential and integral calculus; analysis; elements of machinery; elementary and analytical mechanics; calculation of probabilities; and social arithmetic. The course of instruction in the special school of civil engineering lasts two years. This school has two sections, the first intended for pupil-engineers, (élèves-ingénieurs,) and the second for the education of civil engineers or architectural engineers. The school has an inspector of studies and the course of instruction embraces the following subjects: civil architecture, history of architecture, mineralogy, geology, industrial chemistry, industrial physics, social economy, administrative law, hydraulics, construction of machinery, stability of constructions, machinery, steam-engines, the construction and working of railroads, constructing roads, bridges, canals, and harbors.

The school of arts and manufactures has a three years course, and embraces the application of sciences to general and special branches of industry. It is placed under the immediate superintendence of the in. spector of studies of the school of civil engineering.

The school of arts, manufactures, and mining connected with the university of Liége was established in 1838. It has a director, council on improvement of studies, and three inspectors of studies. It has three divisions, viz: a preparatory school, a special school of arts and manufactures, and a special school of mining. The course of instruction is the same in the two first-mentioned schools as in those connected with the University of Ghent. The special school of mining has a threeyears course, which embraces the following subjects: the searching and working of mines, mineralogy, industrial economy, industrial organic chemistry, industrial inorganic chemistry, assaying, metallurgy, indus. trial physics, industrial architecture, construction of machinery, applied mechanics, and working of railroads.


The number of industrial schools is 26; they are alınost exclusively communal institutions, receiving aid from the government, which has the general superintendence and the right of inspection. The course of instruction lasts two to four years and is given entirely free of charge. It generally embraces the following subjects: mathematics, mechanics,

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