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Studies required for the examination of candidate preparatory to the doctor's
Studies required for the doctor's examination :
Studies not comprised in the above examinations :
FACULTY OF LAW-Continued.
Hours per week.
Studies reqaired for the second doctor's exainination :
Studies required for the degree of doctor of political and administrative sciences:
Studies required for the title of notary:
Studies required for a candidate of natural sciences:
Studies required for a candidate of physical and mathematical sciences :
Studies required for a doctor of natural sciences :
* See course of special schools.
FACULTY OF SCIENCES-Continued.
Hours per week.
First Second term. terin.
Studies required for a doctor of physical and mathematical sciences :
functions and probabilities
Studies required for a candidate of medicine and surgery:
Studies required for the first doctor's examination :
Studies required for the second doctor's examination :
Studies required for the third doctor's examination :
Studies required for pharmacists:
* Not yet determined.
The total expenditure for the state-universities in 1870 was 860,617.94 francs.
For special schools connected with the university, see paragraph "Special schools."
The number of so-called free universities is two, viz: the free unirer.
sity of Brussels, established in 1834, and the Catholic university of Louvain, established in 1835. The course of studies in these two universities is very similar to that of the state universities, and they confer the same degrees, only differing as regards their administration, the free university of Brussels being managed by a council of administration composed of twenty members, the mayor of Brussels being the president; seven of the members are life-members, appointed by the council of administration from among the founders and supporters of the uni. versity. The city-council of Brussels pays an annual subsidy of 50,000 francs and the provincial council of Brabant of 10,000 francs towards the support of this university; the rest of the expenses is met by the nterest of the fund presented by the founders, by donations, and by the students' fees, amounting to about the same as in the state universities. The Catholic university at Louvain has a fifth faculty, viz, an extra faculty of theology, and is in charge of the Catholic authorities.
Industrial instruction.—There are a number of special schools connected with the state-universities, as the school of civil engineering, connected with the University of Ghent, established 1838. This school comprises a preparatory division-called the preparatory school-a school called the special school of civil engineering, and a school of arts and manufactures. The preparatory school is intended to prepare young
. men for the two other schools; the special school of civil engineering is intended for young men who wish to become engineers in the royal engi. neer-corps for bridges and roads, who wish to enter the railroad-service, or who wish to obtain the degree of civil engineer or architectural engi. neer. The school of arts and manufactures is destined for those who intend to obtain the diploma of industrial engineer or who merely desire to acquire a more scientific knowledge of industry.
At the head of the school there is a director and a council of improvement of studies, consisting of five members, appointed by the ministry of the interior. The course of instruction in the preparatory school lasts two years and comprises the following subjects: experimental physics and elements of mathematical physics; descriptive geometry and its application to shading, perspective, stone-cutting, and timber work; organic and inorganic chemistry; applied chemistry; elements of civil architecture, higher algebra, analytical geometry; elements of astronomy and geodesy; differential and integral calculus; analysis; elements of machinery; elementary and analytical mechanics; calculation of probabilities; and social arithmetic. The course of instruction in the special school of civil engineering lasts two years. This school has two sections, the first intended for pupil-engineers, (élèves-ingénieurs,) and the second for the education of civil engineers or architectural engineers. The school has an inspector of studies and the course of instruction embraces the following subjects: civil architecture, history of architecture, mineralogy, geology, industrial chemistry, industrial physics, social economy, administrative law, hydraulics, construction of machinery, stability of constructions, machinery, steam-engines, the construction and working of railroads, constructing roads, bridges, canals, and harbors.
The school of arts and manufactures has a three years course, and embraces the application of sciences to general and special branches of industry. It is placed under the immediate superintendence of the in. spector of studies of the school of civil engineering.
The school of arts, manufactures, and mining connected with the university of Liége was established in 1838. It has a director, council on improvement of studies, and three inspectors of studies. It has three divisions, viz: a preparatory school, a special school of arts and manufactures, and a special school of mining. The course of instruction is the same in the two first-mentioned schools as in those connected with the University of Ghent. The special school of mining has a threeyears course, which embraces the following subjects: the searching and working of mines, mineralogy, industrial economy, industrial organic chemistry, industrial inorganic chemistry, assaying, metallurgy, indus. trial physics, industrial architecture, construction of machinery, applied mechanics, and working of railroads.
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS AND WORKSHOPS.
The number of industrial schools is 26; they are alınost exclusively communal institutions, receiving aid from the government, which has the general superintendence and the right of inspection. The course of instruction lasts two to four years and is given entirely free of charge. It generally embraces the following subjects: mathematics, mechanics,