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day life; horticulture; theory of education; methods of instruction; schoolhygiene; the constitution of Belgium; drawing; vocal music; and gymnastics. Each school bas a director and a number of professors, who are appointed by the King. The students live and board in the school, for which they pay a certain amount fixed by special regulations. Examinations are held at the end of every half-yearly term, and a final examination at the end of the whole course, when students who pass it satisfactorily receive a certificate. The normal sections at present differ but little from the normal schools except in name. The course of instruction in the normal schools for females also takes up three years and ein braces all the subjects taught in the normal schools for males, adding to it instruction in needlework, &c.



The number of primary schools in 1869 (the most recent statistics) is 5,611, (being an average of 1.12 schools to every 1,000 inhabitants,) with 10,576 teachers and 593,379 pupils, (being an average of 11.7 pupils to erery 100 inhabitants.)

The number of schools for adults is 2,620, (an average of 4.8 schools to every 10,000 inhabitants,) with 217,168 pupils, (an average of 43.2 to every 1,000 inhabitants.)

The number of infant-schools (maintained by the communes and by private aid) is 609, with 60,570 pupils.

The number of normal schools for primary instruction is 37, viz: 14 for male teachers and 23 for female teachers, (2 State normal schools, 5 normal sections, 7 private normal schools for males and 23 private nor: mal schools for females,) with a total of 1,896 students, viz, 1,192 males and 704 females.

The total expenditure for primary instruction during 1869 was 8,002,043.07 francs, ($1,600,408,) distributed in the following manner: central government, 3,327,912.97 francs; provincial governments, 318,268.90 francs; communes, 2,934,185.20 francs; school-fees by scholars able to pay them, 935,750.54 francs; private munificence, 358,387.73 francs; balance from last year, 217,537.73 francs.


Besides the primary schools enumerated above there are a number of such schools under the ministry of justice, viz: prison-schools, hospitalschools, and almshouse-schools. The number of these schools in 1869 was 6,564, viz, 3,713 for boys and 2,851 for girls.


Every regiment of the Belgian army has its school, where illiterates can learn at least reading, writing, and arithmetic. During the year 1870, 2,541 soldiers attended these schools, of whom 306 were entirely illiterate, while 2,235 had a knowledge of reading, writing, and arith. metic. Besides these schools for adults, there are in the larger garrisons primary schools for the children of soldiers. The school-age in these establishments is between 12 and 14 and the condition of admission is a knowledge of reading and writing. In 1870, these schools were attended by 241 scholars.


The number of young men of the age of 21 presenting themselves for military service in 1871 was 11,696. Of this number, 10,027 could neither read nor write, 2,319 could only read, 15,823 read and write, 15,716 had a better education, and of 811 the degree of education was not ascertained ; 70.56 per cent. therefore could at least read and write and 5.19 per cent. could only read.


The basis of intermediate instruction is the organic law of June 1, 1850, modified by succeeding laws.

The intermediate schools are either government-schools, those of a higher grade being called royal atheneums and those of a lower grade, intermediate schools, (écoles moyennes.) The provincial or communal intermediate schools of the higher grade are called colleges (colléges) and those of the lower grade intermediate schools. They are either provincial or communal establishments aided by the state, or establishments supported entirely by the provinces or communes, or private institutions aided by the communes.

The administration of the royal atheneums and of the royal intermediate schools is entirely in the hands of the government. The provin. cial or communal establishments, aided by the state, must conform to the following conditions: The school must adopt the course of studies prescribed by the government; the text-books used, the internal regu. lations, the distribution of the course of studies, and the financial status must be approved of by the government; otherwise the adminis. tration is left to the provincial, communal, or private authorities.

The highest authority for all intermediate schools is the council of improvement of intermediate instruction, (conseil de perfectionnement de Vinstruction moyenne.) This council is composed of ten members, prominent educators and men of science, appointed by the minister of the interior and presided over by him. The council has to give advice as regards the course of studies, has to examine the text-books, gives instructions to the inspectors, and discusses all matters of interest pertaining to the intermediate schools.

The directors of all intermediate schools, private or government, must have a certificate of professor of intermediate instruction and the teachers must have a certificate of having attended a university. Every

three years a report on intermediate schools is presented to the Belgian parliament.

There are three inspectors of intermediate instruction, viz: One inspector-general, one for mathematical and natural sciences, and one for the “humanities,” languages, literature, history, &c. The atheneums are inspected at least once a year by each of the three inspectors and all the other intermediate schools at least once a year by one of them.

Courses of instruction.—The course of instruction in the atheneums is divided in two sections, viz, the section of the humanities and the sec. tion of professional studies. The former comprises: Religion; laws of rhetorics and poetry; Greek, Latin, French, Flemish, or German ; ele

1; mentary mathematics; arithmetic; algebra, as far as equations of the second degree; geometry; trigonometry; natural philosophy; universal history; Belgian history; ancient and modern geography; geography of Belgium; constitution and administration of Belgium; special study of modern languages, such as German and English; drawing and calligraphy; vocal music; and gymnastics. This section has seven classes, each of one year's duration, and the number of hours per week varies between twenty and thirty.

The section of professional studies comprises : Religion ; rhetoric; French, Flemish, German, and English ; elementary mathematics, analytical geometry, descriptive geometry, spherical trigonometry, all with their application to the arts, industry, and commerce; elements of nat. ural philosophy, mechanics, chemistry, natural history, and astronomy; book-keeping; elements of commercial law and political economy; his- . tory and geography, especially of Belgium; drawing; calligraphy; vocal music; and gymnastics. This section has one preparatory class and two subdivisions, viz, the lower one, comprising three classes of one year each, and the higher, comprising four classes of one year each. The number of hours per week varies between twenty-eight and thirty-four.

The course of studies in the intermediate schools usually opens in the beginning of October and closes during the second week in August.


There are four normal schools for intermediate instruction, viz, two normal courses-one normal school of humanities and one normal school of sciences. The course of instruction in the normal courses lasts two years and embraces the following subjects: First year. French ; Flemish ; geography and history, especially those of Belgium ; arithmetic, and its application to business; algebra, as far as equations of the second degree; plane geometry; book-keeping; commercial law; elements of natural philosophy; drawing, especially linear drawing; calligraphy. Second year. Pedagogics and methodics; French ; Flemish ; algebra continued; trigonometry; surveying; elements of mechanics and chemistry; natural history.

The course of instruction in the normal school of humanities at Liége lasts four years and embraces the following subjects: Latin language and literature; Greek language and literature; history of ancient literatures; history of French literature ; history of Flemish, Ger

. man, and English literature; psychology; ancient history, (eastern coun. tries and Greece ;) Roman history; Roman antiquities ; history of the Middle Ages; history of Belgium; ancient and modern geography; physical geography; general grammar and principal theories of Greek syntax of Latin syntax, and of French syntax; pedagogics; and methodology.

The course of instruction in the normal school of sciences at Ghent lasts three years and embraces the following subjects: First year. Algebraic analysis, analytical geometry, elements of descriptive geometry, experimental physics, botany, psychology and logics, exercises in elementary mathematics, linear drawing, and drawing of plans. Second year. First part of differential and integral calculus, statics, descriptive geometry, mathematical methodology, inorganic and organic chemistry, elements of mineralogy, exercises in elementary mathematics and infinitesimal analysis, linear drawing, and drawing from nature. Third year, Second part of differential and integral calculus, rational mechanics, elements of astronomy, elements of geology, zoologs, chemical experiments, physical experiments.

Special examining juries are appointed by the King or the minister of the interior every year to hold the final examinations in the intermediate normal schools, and candidates who pass satisfactorily receive a certificate.

STATISTICS OF INTERMEDIATE INSTRUCTION. Total number of intermediate schools December 31, 1870, 161, viz: 10 royal atheneums and 50 intermediate government-schools; 30 communal establishments aided by the government, (17 colleges and 13 intermediate schools;) 3 schools supported entirely by the communes; 64 supported by the bishops, the Jesuits, or religious corporations; and 4 supported entirely by private individuals.

Total number of students in 93 intermediate schools, (all exclusive of the religious and entirely private schools,) 15,822, viz: 3,651 in the royal atheneums, 8,471, in the government intermediate schools, 3,071 in the communal schools aided by the government, and 629 in the schools supported entirely by the communes.

Total number of normal schools for intermediate instruction, 4, with 38 students.

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. There are in Belgium four universities, two supported by the govern. ment and two free universities, the two former at Ghent and Liége and the latter at Brussels and Louvain,

Each university has four faculties, viz, of philosophy and literature, of mathematical and natural sciences, of law, and of medicine. The professors are appointed by the King, and no one can be professor who has

not the degree of doctor or licentiate in the branch which he intends to teach. Exceptions from this rule are made with men who by their writings or the practice of their science have become famous.

The academic authorities are the rector of the university, the secretary, the deans of faculties, the academic council, and the college of assessors. The academic council is composed of all the professors of the university, presided over by the rector; the college of assessors is composed of the rector, the secretary, and the dean of the faculties.

The rector is appointed by the King for three years, and the administration of the university chiefly rests in his hands. The academic council every year nominates two candidates for the place of secretary, one of whom is appointed by the King. The deans of the faculties are elected annually by the professors of each faculty. The academic council and the college of assessors are convoked by the rector.

Every student must annually pay a registration fee of 15 francs, besides a fee for the courses of lectures he wishes to attend, varying be." tween 200 and 250 francs per annum.

The academic year is divided into two terms; there are two vacations annually, one from the first Saturday in August till the first Tuesday in October. The programme of lectures is published at the beginning of each term.

The academical punishments are admonitions, suspension of the right to attend the lectures, and expulsion from the university.

The government has charge of the general superintendence of the state-universities. To assist the minister in his duties, the so-called "council of improvement of superior instruction” is called together by him at least once a year. This council consists of eight professors, called by the minister from each faculty, and such other persons as he thinks might be of use in its deliberations on any improvements in superior instruction. With every state-university there is a governmentcommissioner, entitled “administrative inspector of the university.” He has to see to it that the laws regarding superior instruction are properly carried out and that the programme laid out at the beginning of the course is carefully observed, and he has likewise the superintendence of all the buildings belonging to the university.

The state-universities confer a special scientitic diploma on persons who, after having obtained the doctor-degree, have applied themselves to certain specialties of science. This diploma is simply an attestation of capacity. For obtaining the doctor-degree and the diploma above mentioned, examinations are held annually.

To illustrate the working of a Belgian state-university, the course of instruction at the University of Liége during the year 1872 is given below:

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