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I, A. J. Pinkham, Secretary of State of the State of Idaho, do hereby certify the following to be true and correct copies of the Constitution of the State of Idaho, adopted in Convention, August 6, 1889, and the Act of Congress admitting the State of Idaho into the Union of States, approved July 3, 1890, as appear of record in my office.

IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my


hand and affixed the Great Seal of the State. Done at the City of Boise, the Capital of Idaho, this Nineteeth day of February, in the year of our Lord One Thousand Eight IIundred and Ninety-one, and of the Independence of the United States of America, the One Hundred and Fifteenth.

Secretary of State.

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Adopted by a Constitutional Convention held at Boise City, in the Territory of Idaho, August 6, 1889.


We, the people of the State of Idaho, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, to secure its blessings and promote our common welfare do establish this Constitution.



SECTION 1. All men are by nature free and equal and have certain inalienable rights, among which are enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, pursuing happiness, and securing safety.

SEC. 2. All political power is inherent in the people. Government is instituted for their equal protection and benefit, and they have the right to alter, reform, or abolish the same whenever they may deem it necessary, and no special privileges or immunities shall ever be granted that may not be altered, revoked, or repealed by the legislature.

SEC. 3. The State of Idaho is an inseparable part of the American Union, and the Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the land.

SEC. 4. The exercise and enjoyment of religious faith and worship shall forever be guaranteed; and no person shall be denied any civil or political right, privilege, or capacity on account of his religious opinions; but the liberty of conscience hereby secured shall not be construed to dispense with oaths or affirmations, or excuse acts of licentiousness or justify polyga

mous or other pernicious practices, inconsistent with morality or the peace or safety of the State; nor to permit any person, organization, or association to directly or indirectly aid or abet, counsel or advise, any person to commit the crime of bigamy or polygamy, or any other crime. No person shall be required to attend or support any ministry or place of worship, religious sect or denomination, or pay tithes against his consent; nor shall any preference be given by law to any religious denomination or, mode of worship. Bigamy and polygamy are forever prohibited in the State, and the legislature shall provide by law for the punishment of such crimes.

SEC. 5. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended unless, in case of rebellion or invasion, the public safety requires it, and then only in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.

SEC. 6. All persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses, where the proof is evident or the presumption great. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

SEC. 7. The right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate; but in civil actions three-fourths of the jury may render a verdict, and the legislature may provide that in all cases of misdemeanors five-sixths of the jury may render a verdict. A trial by jury may be waived in all criminal cases not amounting to felony by the consent of both parties, expressed in open court, and in civil actions by the consent of the parties, signified in such manner as may be prescribed by law. In civil actions and cases of misdemeanor the jury may consist of twelve, or of any number less than twelve upon which the parties may agree in open court.

SEC. 8. No person shall be held to answer for any felony or criminal offense of any grade, unless on presentment or indictment of a grand jury or on information of the public prosecutor, after a commitment by a magistrate, except in cases of impeachment, in cases cognizable by probate courts or by justices of the peace, and in cases arising in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger: PROVIDED, That a grand jury may be summoned upon the order of the district court in the manner provided by law: AND PROVIDED FURTHER, That after a charge has been ignored by a grand jury, no person shall be held to answer or for trial therefor upon information of the public prosecutor.

SEC. 9. Every person may freely speak, write, and publish on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.

SEC. 10. The people shall have the right to assemble in a peaceable manner to consult for their common good; to instruct their representatives, and to petition the Legislature for the redress of grievances.

SEC. 11. The people have the right to bear arms for their. security and defense; but the Legislature shall regulate the exercise of this right by law.

SEC. 12. The military shall be subordinate to the civil power; and no soldier in time of peace shall be quartered in any house without the consent of its owner, nor in time of war except in the manner prescribed by law.

SEC. 13. In all criminal prosecutions, the party accused shall have the right to a speedy and public trial; to have the process of the court to compel the attendance of witnesses in his behalf, and to appear and defend in person and with counsel.

No person shall be twice put in jeopardy for the same offense; nor be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law.

SEC. 14. The necessary use of lands for the construction of reservoirs or storage basins, for the purposes of irrigation, or for rights of way for the construction of canals, ditches, flumes, or pipes, to convey water to the place of use, for any useful, beneficial, or necessary purpose, or for drainage; or for the drainage of mines, or the working thereof, by means of roads, railroads, tramways, cuts, tunnels, shafts, hoisting works, dumps, or other necessary means to their complete development, or any other use necessary to the complete development of the material resources of the State, or the preservation of the health of its inhabitants, is hereby declared to be a public use, and subject to the regulation and control of the State.

Private property may be taken for public use, but not until a just compensation, to be ascertained in a manner prescribed by law, shall be paid therefor.

SEC. 15. There shall be no imprisonment for debt in this State except in cases of fraud.

SEC. 16. No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, shall ever be passed.

SEC. 17. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated; and no warrrnt shall issue

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