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for the last time turned out at the sea-ghll call of thinker, and boldly and unreservedly ex-
cruise quent, brilliant, imaginative, poetical, satiri-
never dull ; but, alas! he is often mystical and
express himself, for his writing is pure, man-
stand what he says, but the ablest critic can-
thoughts, and irritates his warmest admirers
Whale," both of which he seems to have
Such is Herman Melville ! a man of whom once poetical, forcible, accurate, and, above America has reason to be proud, with all all, original. But it is his style that is orig; his faults ; and if he does not eventually inal rather than his matter. He has read rank as one of her greatest giants in literprodigiously on all nautical subjects – naval ature, it will be owing not to any lack of history, narratives of votages and ship- innate genius,
but solely to his own incorto deftly avail himself of these stores of in- rigible perversion of his rare and lofty formation. He undoubtedly is an original
DRINK AND AWAY.
BY REV. WILLIAM CROSWELL.
There is a beautiful rill in Barbary, received into a large basin, which bears a name signifying “ Drink and away !” from the great danger of meeting with rogues and assassins.
UP, pilgrim and rover,
Redouble thy haste !
Life's wearisome waste.
Thy footsteps betray
0, drink and away!
By night and by day,
Nor scruples to slay.
The blood of his prey
Then drink and away!
With toil though thou languish,
The mandate obey ;
There's death in delay!
Is fiercer than they ;
Or drink and away!
Thy God is thy stay,
Yield not in dismay;
Look on to the day
Thy thirst shall allay.
Enjoy thy repose,
Forever and aye,
Then drink and away!
From The Times, 8 Jan. find almost hopeless the difficulties of transKARS.
porting artillery, shot, and shell for the purOUR correspondent at Constantinople, in poses of a prolonged siege. the letter which we publish to-day, gives So impracticable is the route from Batoum some interesting particulars of the heroic that even the tide of inland commerce passes defence of Kars, which, if possible, increase along the circuitous channel of Trebizonde our regret that its brave garrison and its and Erzeroum. The road between these two noble leaders did not meet a more worthy places turns the most difficult ranges, and is fate. Leaving, however, what is now, un- accordingly chosen by the caravans even for happily, beyond recall, we may with more the traffic with the Russian provinces. Omer advantage consider the nature of the country Pasha in earlier years distinguished himself which must one day be the scene of a stub- highly in mountain warfare. That Mouraborn contest, and the prospects of the next vieff gave him credit for the ability to pass campaign. The Russians may be looked the mountain barriers that lie between upon as holding a long line of positions in Batoum and Kars is evident from the attack defence of their Asiatic provinces. Their in September, and the despatch in which the extreme left is now strengthened by the defeated General explained it. “Having capture of the Turkish fortress, and the learned," wrote Mouravieff
, “ that Omer command of a great extent of country to the Pasha was with a large force at Batoum; I west and north. Their right rests upon the judged it necessary to attack at once.” It spurs of the Caucasus, which strike off south- may be said that the Russian thus told his ward from the great chain, and merge into adversary what it would be best for him to the Armenian district of mountains. The do, and that it would be wise to follow up a Suramin Pass, which defends Tiflis and the move that had had such immediate and valley of the Cyrus, is the most important striking effects. But Mouravieff, perhaps, position in this part of their line, while be- did not know the weakness of the Turkish fore it, at a distance of some 70 miles, is army. Even now it is difficult to understand Kutais, which will probably be strongly forti- that it should have been so ill provided. A fied long before the allies are in a condition loan had been raised and money was not to invest it. Between Kutais and Kars is the wanting, the powers of the General were pashalic of Akhaltzik, a region of wood and ample, and a Mushir is not generally scrupumountain, thinly peopled and ill suited to be lous in making requisitions. Transports the theatre of offensive warfare. It almost were in readiness; even the Turkish vessels follows as a necessity that an allied army of war had been turned into troop and prooperating for the conquest of Transcaucasia vision ships. But the fact, though unexshould attack the Russians at one of the plained, is not the less certain, that the two extreme points, with a view either to the Turkish army was destitute of the means reduction of Gumri or to a direct march on which alone could render possible so hazardTiflis. With respect to a campaign in ous a march across the ridges of Lazistan. Armenia for the recapture of Kars there are The invested city fell, and its reconquest is a strong reasons for hesitation. All that before task for the futere. told against the Russians is now in their Should an advance on Kars be resolved on, favor. They are on the defensive ; they hold it is probable that the longer but easier route not only Kars, but the Soghanli Mountains, of Erzeroum must be adopted. It must be across which the road from Erzeroum passes remembered that Kars is as much defended at a height of 4,000 feet above the sea. by climate as Cronstadt. The world will From a mere glance at the map one is apt to probably never know the losses of Mouravieff inquire why "Erzeroum should always be in his relentless blockade, and yet the Russpoken of as on the road from Kars to the sians had been for months on the spot, and sea. It stands to the south-west of the cap- were in the neighborhood of their own retured fortress, is equally inland, and far sources. The allies will have to march against away from the Russian frontier and the parts the new Russian stronghold through a dewhere the war is carried on. But it must be vastated country, where operations are only observed that in that Alpine region the possible from June to September. It is of nearest way is often closed by insurmountable the greatest necessity that in such an enterobstacles. The chains of hills run at right prise the road by which men and supplies are angles between Batoum and Kars; the passes brought should be open as long as possible. are at very great heights above the sea, and it is only the route by Erzeroum and Trebifilled during nearly the whole year by the zonde which fulfils these conditions. Snows which have drifted down from the But it is probable that no skilful soldier loftier peaks. Furthermore, the descent will advise the repetition of an Armenian from the plateau is very precipitous towards campaign. When Omer Pasha went to the north, and an army from Batoum would Suchum-Kaleh he commenced a campaign
which certainly was not for the relief of ticulars of the siege which reach us daily, Kars. We may almost believe that the Turk- have given quite a tragic character to the ish General saw the impossibility of a rescue, history of Asia during the last two months. and was content to trace the outline of a Hitherto only the general features of heroism more extended plan. A war for the destruc- on one side and villany on the other were tion of the Russian power in Asia must be known ; but now we see by degrees the carried on in the regions into which Omer dramatis persone appearing and speaking Pasha made his sudden advance. There, at for themselves. If one listens to this tragleast, we have in our neighborhood a popula- edy, one can scarcely believe that it is not tion of mountaineers which has always strug- fiction. The despised Turkish army of Asia, gled against the Russian yoke. Even though that rabble about which everybody seemed Georgia might not be conquered, nor the to despair, is converted, energy
and Muscovite frontier driven back behind the moral superiority of a few officers, into a Caucasus, yet the warlike tribes between the heroic little band, whose discipline, put to Black Sea and the Caspian might be restored the severest test by famine and despair, to their former independence, and the work cannot be surpassed by the first soldiers in of a quarter of a century made fruitless in a the world. Although numbers were daily single year. Yet it is no light enterprise to dying from starvation, no excesses occurred; drive a forewarned foe from a country of in the batteries, where there were always rocks and ravines, in which he has been ac- three days' provisions, the famished sentry customed to plant a new fortress at every paced about within reach of them, without new step of conquest. We have been two allowing himself to be overcome by the years thinking and talking of the Crimea, temptation. It was the story of Tantalus a and yet how little is known of its interior thousand times, but more nobly, repeated, and the obstacles we may meet! Compared for it was moral courage, not physical imwith the Crimea, these Asiatic regions may possibility, which prevented them from satbe called unknown lands. Even the Russian isfying the cravings of hunger. The inhabmilitary maps, it is said, give no correct idea itants themselves were scarcely behind the of the country. There are other reasons troops in the display of unselfishness. While which should induce caution and dissuade they had anything left themselves, they shared from any hasty enterprise. In a little pe- voluntarily with their defenders, and deprived ninsula hardly more than 100 miles long we themselves even of their beds to give comfort find ourselves at a loss for effective land trans- to some poor fellows in the hospital. port. Who knows whether the British army, The population of Kars is, for the most even if unopposed, could march to Bakshi- part, composed of Turkish Georgians, who, serai, 20 miles off? But an Asiatic campaign having, before the organization of the Nizam, might cause Hannibal or Napoleon to look been often called upon to defend the town grave. To surmount the lofty ridges of these and the frontiers, preserve a traditional Eastern Alps will demand resources which bravery. The only black sheep among them may be supplied, but not without deep fore- were the Kara Kalpaks, a Turkoman tribe thought and long preparation. Should the settled in the town and its environs. These Czar persist in an obstinate contest against latter served both sides. They were of great Europe, the time will assuredly come when help to the Russians in the transport of prothese hard-won possessions will be endan- visions and material, but, at the same time, gered hy the Western arms. It is here that they used to be in constant communication Russian territory can be most effectually cur- with the town, and bring news of the enemy. tailed and Russian influence most conspic- Now and then a horseman used to appear uously nullified. It is for these reasons that before the ramparts, and fire off his gun as a we would see such a war cautiously and signal; when some one came out to meet scientifically approached, and almost look him, he first expressed his doubt about his upon the fate of the late foray as a benefit, being a Mussulman, and only when he heard from the warning it has given us.
the profession of Mahometan faith did he believe his news.
Then a kind of sham fight From the Times' Correspondent.
took place to blind the eyes of prowling CONSTANTINOPLE, Dec. 27. Cossacks — pistols were fired off, and the Kars, the commission named to inquire horseman disappeared. into the state of affairs in Asia, and the General Williams' intention had always councils of war held at the Seraskierat, still been to cut through the enemy when every exclusively occupy attention, so that even hope of relief had disappeared; but the the rumors of peace which every post brings letters which he continued to receive up to us from Europe, do not excite so much in the last moment, especially from Selim Pasha, terest as they would at other times.
of Erzeroum, made him hope and persevere ; The arrival of Dr. Sandwith, and the par- and when at last the futility of all these
promises dawned upon him, it was too late hands, and thus was enabled to hold out so for such a resolution. A council was held long; but the difficulties thrown in his way to discuss the possibility of this last remedy; were such that, with all his energy, he could and Kerim Pasha, — one of the best and not complete his arrangements. While the bravest of the Turkish commanders, - did garrison of Kars was starving, the defterdar, not hesitate to declare that the emaciated seized by an unaccountable economical fit, soldiers, even with the courage of despair, bargained with the muleteers, and insisted could not march with their muskets for a on a difference of a few paras, the result of mile without sinking under the load, and which was that no bargain was concluded at the nearest Russian forces were at four miles' all. Plenty of grain was in the stores of Erzedistance from the town. One may imagine roum, but the pretext was the want of aniwhat point exhaustion had reached, when, mals to carry it. There are, bowever, numsome time before the surrender, a body of berless donkeys in the town, and when it was Cossacks with two guns approached one of proposed to employ them the defterdar's obthe forts, and began to throw shells into it, jection was that it would be a shame to emand of all the guard only three men were ploy donkeys for the Commissariat of the Imable to crawl to their post. Had the Rus- perial army. During the siege itself there sians known the cxact state of things, they were persons who offered to take grain to could have taken the town without resistance. Kars at their own risk, and again economical
While in the town all were vieing with pretexts prevented this. each other in perseverance and self-sacrifice, In the medical department likewise pecumeanness and selfishness seemed to be the lation had left the town utterly unprovided. order of the day without. In spite of all It was not the quantity about which one indications of an approaching movement on would complain, but the quality, for hunthe side of the Russians, and with all the dreds of cases arrived containing the most facilities afforded for providing the town useless drugs, while all essential things were with everything necessary in the beginning not provided. Instead of the instrumente of the siege, the grossest neglect prevailed necessary for field surgery, cases containing in every department.
obtsetric instruments came out in quantiFirst, as regards the munitions of war, it ties; cosmetics and other curious medicines, will be scarcely credited that only three enough for the whole population of Asia days' ammunition was in the town for the Minor, formed the chief portion of the mediguns of position. The secret was well kept, cal supplies. and the Russians will have discovered it only The reason for this is easily explained ; after taking possession of the town, for, had the person who had the contract for this they known it, they would certainly have kind of supply bought as cheaply as possible made a few successive false attacks, which all kinds of unsalable articles in all the back would have soon exhausted the ammunition shops of Pera and Galata, and charged them of all the heavy guns. And this was the at a high price to the Turkish Government, case in a frontier town, exposed every mo- giving a reasonable profit to those whose inment to an attack of the enemy, while moun- terference would have been inconvenient. tains of ammunition encumbered the maga- The consequence is that the Turkish Govzines at Erzeroum and Trebizonde! Halett ernn ent owes him at this present moment Bey, the Chief of the Ordnance Department 7,000,000 piasters for the supply of mediof the Asiatic army, is under inquiry in con- cines to the army, and this to a man who sequence.
had three years ago not credit for 7,000 piasThe starvation which led to the final sur ters! He is likewise under investigation. render of the garrison in less than four Thus, you see, there were not a few proxmonths tells its own tale. An exposed for- imate causes which contributed to the fall of tress like Kars, the key of the surrounding Kars, but they do not excuse anybody for country, ought have had at least one, if this state of things, which was pretty well not two years' provisions in it, while the known by the constant despatches of General garrison received even in the second month Williams. As Kars was not in a position half, and in the end a quarter of a ration. to save itself, it was to have been saved by Tahir Pasha, the defterdar, or commissary- others. Now that it has fallen there are no general, is accountable for it. Notwith- end of councils of war, sendings of troops, standing repeated requisitions from General and serious thoughts of appointing a proper Williams, from the very beginning he found commander-in-chief for the Asiatic army, pretexts for refusing. Had it been left to The 14 Pashas were the real bane of it, and him, the town would have been absolutely it is time that this absurd and fatal state of without any provisions at all at the begin- things should be altered. ning of the investment; fortunately, Gene Those councils do not express, as far as I ral Williams took the matter into his own can hear, positive dissatisfaction with Omer
Pasha, but the adoption of a new plan of out uttering a word, and withdrew from campaign implies a tacit disapprobation of public gaze to conceal their pangs, and to his conduct. The lank diversions have been beguile their hunger in a sort of stupor, to wholly given up, and serious thoughts are which their sufferings had granted a cessabestowed upon the defence of Erzeroum tion of some moments. A third of the garand Trebizonde. There is no danger for the rison, inhabitants and soldiers, lay stretched moment, for the country is already so covered on the ground, and awaited without a murwith snow that it wouid be impossible for an mur their last moment. The rest tried to army to move. There are consequently from keep life up as best they could. On the 28th, three to four months for preparation. Under when the convoy of provisions brought by these circumstances it would be perhaps pre- the Russians entered the town, the enemy mature to fix on a defensive plan, which were astonished that it was not attacked by might cripple the operations for next year. the populace, and that only a small number Omer Pasha is said to have gone back to of persons surrounded the wagons. The Batoum, and his army to be falling back Russians were soon finished with them, and towards Redout Kaleh. Thus the famous waited some time for the rest of the indiversion for the relief of Kars is at end ; but, habitants to come up, but no one came. although it was rather a strange idea to seek After some search they learnt that the soldiers safety for Kars on the Circassian coast, this and inhabitants were so exhausted as not to might become an important point for opera- be able leave the houses, They therefore tions in spring, if it be undertaken indepen- resolved to go from house to house to dis dently.
tribute the provisions personally. The great The position of the Russians has in the part of the sick were suffering from inmeantime considerably improved by the cap- llammation of the intestines, and among ture of Kars; for, although of no great im- some the malady had made such progress portance as a defensive position for the Turks, that they could not eat their rations, but it offers no small advantages to the enemy. died beside the food they had so eagerly It is a pied à terre which enables them to oc- longed for. On the 28th the enemy took cupy the Soghanli-dagh and the range of possession in form, but their definitive entry Lazistan, opening thus a road towards the was postponed to the 30th. The first care valley of the Churouk-su, but Kars is the more of the Russian officers was to organize an important for them, because it gives them interim Administration, to preserve the town overy facility of influencing the Kurdish from disorder. The number of sick amounted tribes which surround to the south the whole to near 6,000, and the greatest activity and province of Erzeroum.
zeal were displayed in attending to them. In this respect the Government of Constan- On the evening of the same day the officers tinople has much to answer for. It has for of the regular troops were informed that years systematically intrigued to break down they would quit Kurs on the 1st of December, the feudal power of the Kurdish chiefs, and and that they were to proceed to Alexandroto make a source of revenue of them, instead pol, where they would be provisionally of taking advantage of their military spirit detained. They were allowed to make their to form them into an efficient frontier guard. preparations at perfect liberty. In the meanIt has so well succeeded that now all the time the Volunteers, the Redifs, and BashiKurdish tribes of the frontier are heart and Bazouks freely quitted the town, pursuant soul with Russia, and the possession of Kars to the terms of capitulation. On the 1st the will extend Russian influence likewise over officers left, as had been announced, and the the more distant tribes.
Russians definitively occupied the town. The
General officers had finished their preparaA letter from Kars, of the 2d of Decem- tions. The Commander-in-Chief, Vassil ber, says:
Pasha, and Generals Hussein Pasha and
Kerim Pasha, General Williams and his staff, “ The last moments of resistance were among whom were remarked Colonel Lake, marked by heroism. For a long time each Major Teesdale, Captain Thompson, and his soldier on duty had been in the habit of secretary, Mr. Churchill, quitted the town, receiving only half a ration, and on this a with all the superior officers of the regular reduction was soon made for the inhabitants. troops, accompanied by an escort, on their The portion for each man diminished from way to Alexandropol.' day to day. The last distribution of provisions took place on the 23d of November. TIE FALL OF KARS from famine excites Five times the quantity of provisions would bitter feelings here. People continually ask have been necessary to appease the hunger the reasons for not breaking the blockade of the soldiers and the inhabitants. They and supplying the brave garrison with had no longer a morsel. The men sank with. I provisions. Two reasons may exist. Some