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Deschapelles was probably the best, and ported by his merits: it was a sort of military certainly the most remarkable, chess-player frankness, rather than gasconade. He was that ever entered the salon of the Café de la as proud, and talked as much of his success, Régence. He was naturally endowed with in growing prize-melons in the Faubourg du an exclusively peculiar talent for rapidly ac- Temple, as he was of his chess-victories in the quiring a complete mastership over the most Palais Royal. In short, it seemed that in evintricate games of skill. At trick-track, a erything he turned his mind to, he was successvery difficult and complicated game, some ful; and so much were the Parisians impressed what resembling backgammon, he was un- with the idea of his universal abilities, thatrivalled. Polish draughts, a highly scientific the Gauls - one of the secret societies of game, little inferior to chess, he mastered in 1832— had seriously proposed, in the event three months, beating the very best players of a forcible change of government, to create of the day, though seven or eight years is gen- M. Deschapelles dictator of France. erally considered a fair period for a person Mouret, chess-teacher to the family of of ordinary abilities to become a second or Louis-Philippe, was one of the most amusing third rate player. More extraordinary still: of the later frequenters of the Régence. It he always asserted that he acquired all he was he who, shut up in a drawer barely sufever knew of chess in four days! “I learned ficient to contain a good-sized cat, for many the moves,” he used to say; "played with years conducted the moves of the celebrated, Bernard (a celebrated player) ; lost the first, but improperly termed, automaton chesssecond, and third day, but beat him on the player, in almost all the principal towns of fourth ; since which time I have neither ad- Europe. Many were the amusing anecdotes vanced nor receded. Chess to me has been, he used to relate, when subsequently revealing and is, a single idea. I look neither to the the secrets of his prison-house. Though the right nor to the left; but I simply examine slightest noise, the least audible intimation of the position before me, as I would that of two a living creature being concealed in the chest hostile armies, and I do that which I think — apparently filled with wheels and other best to be done." Still more extraordinary mechanism, upon which the automaton played is the manner in which this preternatural - would have been fatal to the deception, faculty was developed. In his first youth, Mouret never lost his presence of mind, save Deschapelles was considered to be a person of upon one occasion. It happened thus: The rather inferior abilities. Joining, however, automaton was exhibiting in the capital of the army of the republic, he was one of a one of the minor German principalities, and, small body of French infantry which was as usual, drawing crowded audiences. A charged by a brigade of Prussian cavalry : in professor of legerdemain — everybody is a the melée, his right hand was shorn off; a professor now-a-days — who was performing sabre-cut clove his skull, and another gashed in the same place, finding his occupation gone his face diagonally from brow to chin. This through the superior attractions of the woodwas not all. The whole Prussian brigade en chess-player, determined to discover and galloped twice over his mangled body; once expose the secret. Aided by his long proin the onslaught, and again in their retreat. fessional experience of the deceptive art, he Deschapelles was subsequently picked up, soon saw through the trick, which more and carried of the field, his head presenting learned persons had only distantly guessed a ghastly mass of fractures. To the surprise at; and, assisted by an accomplice, raised a of everybody, he ultimately recovered ; and to sudden outcry of fire just as the automaton his death, which occurred but a few years was in the midst of an interesting gamo. since, he ever attributed his unparalleled en- The noise of the alarmed spectators rushing dowments, as regards games of skill, to the from the room struck a momentary panic to bouleversement his brain received on that aw- the heart of Mouret, who, believing himself ful occasion !

about to burned alive, struggled so violently Great men, in their varied walks of life, to release himself from his concealed bondage, are generally modest; Deschapelles, however, that he rolled the automaton, turban, cushion, was an exception to the rule. Yet his as- and all, over on the floor. Maelzel, the visBumption, if not warranted, was at least sup-ible exhibitor, instantly flying to the rescue,


dropped the curtain ; but next day the auto I found the temple of Caïssa, as my commaton left the town, and the astute conjuror panion rather magniloquently denominated remained master of the field.

it, to be, in spite of plate-glass, gilding, and In justice to chess, it must be added of marble-topped tables, little better than a poor Mouret, the most amusing of story-tellers, third-rate café ; and saw, as soon as I entered, that he was the only first-class chess player I that the fane of the goddess was desecrated have ever met with who extinguished fine by draughts and dominoes – the games of abilities, sacrificed character, and destroyed boors and children. The Pole invited me to life, by over-indulgence in strong waters. play, but I declined ; for not relishing either

But I have wandered too long among the the air of the place or the tone of its comtraditions of the Régence. Fatigued and pany, I had at once made up my mind to disappointed by my fruitless search after the remain but a few minutes. We had disbuilding itself, I made my way round to the cussed a demi tasse each, and were about to Place du Palais Royal, and seating myself depart, when a young soldier entered the in a peculiarly comfortable arm-chair, com- salon a Zouave, who had been wounded at menced an agreeable flirtation with a glass of the Alma. I am an Englishman, and, of lemonade. There, while musing on the chess- course, having a thorough contempt for enpaladins of the past, I was startled by an thusiasm, detest scenes and all such sort of appearance which, at first glance, I took to things ; still, I could not refrain from fraterbe a spectre, but immediately after recognized nizing with the brave fellow, from shaking as one of the last living relics of the olden the remaining hand of one who had lost the time. It was the tall, thin, black-stocked, other fighting beside my own countrymen. frock-coated, buttoned-up, linenless-looking, Then the filling and emptying of glasses, the grisly old Pole, with the unpronounceable universal rite and symbol of fraternity, had Dame, who for many years has been so well to be duly celebrated. Did we not trinquer known to the habitués of the Régence. I together! Did I not, in honor of the occanerer met any one who could spell and pro- sion, drink a whole petit verre of that, to me nounce his most cacophonous of names; but at least, horribly offensive compound - offenthat did not matter, as he had long held the sive to the olfactory as well as the gustatory titular rank of colonel ; while the youngsters nerves — crême d'absinthe ! of the Régence — behind his back, though, be The entrance of the soldier, like the breakit said - gave him the sobriquet of Leipsic, ing of a potent spell, unloosed a score of from his interminable, and not always very tongues. Draught, domino, and chess-playwell-relished, accounts of that famous battle. ers threw up their games to converse on the

He was doing the flaneur business in grand all-absorbing topic of the war. With no litstyle, when, like the Ancient Mariner, I held tle amount of vociferation and gesticulation, him with my eye, and, to keep up the nau- the movements of the allied armies were tical allusion, soon brought him to anchor in freely criticized, and approval or censure the chair beside me. Our first greeting being loudly proclaimed by the wordy disputants. · over, we lamented the decadence of chess and I need scarcely observe, that there are matthe fall of the Régence ; then spoke of other ters connected with the war humiliating and matters of general and peculiar interest. As painful to English ears — with true French I suspected the great question of the day, to politeness, these subjects were not brought him at least, related to dinner, I at once, by forward in my presence. But as the hot a quiet invitation, set his mind at rest on debate was rapidly leading towards that that important subject, and then inquired unpleasant direction, the wily old Pole crewhere the Parisian chess-players now mus- ated a diversion by exclaiming : “ After all, tered.

gentlemen, war is but chess, and chess is Some of them,” he replied, are aristos war.” shat up in clubs - - a vile system, excuse me, “What!” shouted the Zouave, with that though borrowed from your own country. A indescribable emphasis which a Parisian gamin few still worship Caïssa, the divine goddess gives to the simple pronoun quoi. of chess, in a café ; come,” he continued, “I repeat,” replied the colonel, " let me introduce you to her modern tem- the principles of chess and war are the same, ple."

and in chess will be found a complete epitome

16 that

of the art of war. For instance, no one can | fate of arms depends upon a number of play at chess without first acquiring a perfect minute particulars and combinations. We knowledge of the various moves which dis- should be astonished if we knew the very tinguish the different pieces, neither can a small links in the chain of circumstances general command an army who is ignorant of which have lost great battles, and neutralized the simple evolutions of a peloton. How can the effects of glorious campaigns. But I am a man handle a number of regiments, who tiring you, my children, with the garrulous cannot maneuvre a single battalion ?” gossip of an old soldier and chess-player.”

" True, true," chorused a number of voices. “No, no !” was vociferated from all parts • It evidently appeared that the Pole had of the room. “Proceed, if you please ; we mounted his hobby ; and the audience, for- are all attention." getting their previous debate, had unan “ Well, I will say a few words more. I imously determined that he should ride it for need not tell you that, when a projected their amusement.

attack at chess is foiled by the superior de“When opening the game," continued the fences of your adversary, it should be immecolonel, we direct our moves so that no one diately abandoned, and your men placed in of our pieces or pawns can neutralize the another position of attack, or on the defensive. effect of another ; while, at the same time, In war, an obstinate persistence in attack has we place them where they cannot be attacked been fatal to the fame of many great generals : with impunity, and in the most advantageous they lost their men, and with them the means positions for assaulting the enemy. A skil- of forming another attack, on a less formidable ful general will act on a similar principle. position, and even the power of making a He will select the ground most favorable for vigorous defence. A great general is never the action of his infantry and cavalry, taking obstinate. Napoleon I., particularly in his care that they do not restrain the fire of his Italian campaigns, was the beau-ideal of a artillery ; and, by the same rule, he will use chess-player. The art of war, as exemplified all the means in his power to prevent the by that great general, wholly consisted in the enemy from deploying his forces in 80 advan- proper application of three combinations ; tageous a manner. At chess, this can be first, the disposition of his lines of operation done only by having the first move. There in the most advantageous manner, either for are first moves also in war. The general attack or defence ; secondly, the skilful conwho first takes the field acts on the offensive, centration of his forces, with the greatest his opponent being compelled to act accord- possible activity, on the weakest or most iming to the manner in which he is attacked. portant point of the enemy's lines ; thirdly, And, as in chess, it is no very great disadvan- the simultaneous employment of this accumutage to be forced to act on the defensive ; for, lated force upon the position against which in the course of a campaign, the attacking it was directed. This is exactly the correct army will be almost sure to make some mis- system of attack at chess. The principles of take, which, if promptly taken advantage of defensive operations in war and chess are preby its opponents, will change the defence to cisely similar. It is an acknowledged prinan attack. In war, as in chess, it is much ciple, that the basis of a plan of attack more difficult to attack than to defend. The should form the best possible line of defence. great secret of success in chess is foresight, This fundamental rule can never be violated not only to direct your own moves towards a with impunity ; for nothing is more embardefinite object, but also to penetrate the rassing than a sudden transition from offenintentions of your adversary. It is the same sive to defensive operations — when false in war.

Your enemy makes a certain move moves, or an unfortunate oversight, has ment; it is for you to divine his motives for deranged the plan of an assault. There likedoing so. This is absolutely indispensable, wise is considerable analogy between the if you wish to be in a position to parry suc- abilities required to form a great general and cessfully his attacks. A small disadvantage a skilful chess-player. The commander of in chess, a crowded situation, an unsupported an army should possess a complete knowledge piece, a neglected opportunity of castling, of the general principles of war, which may and other apparent trifles, frequently leads to be required during a tedious campaign, or the loss of the game. So it is in war : the demanded by the exigencies of actual conflict.

He must plan, arrange, and conduct prelimi- order to amuse him with an image of war, nary operations ; act with promptness and while his metropolis was besieged by Ramah, decision in cases of emergency; judge of the in the second age of the world. The Westimportance of a position, or the strength ofern tradition, however, is more feasible. an intrenchment; discover, from the slight- According to it, the game was invented by est indications, the designs of the enemy, Palamedes, to amuse the Grecian warriors while he shrouds his own in impenetrable during the ten tedious years of the siege of obscurity; and, at the same time, preside Troy. Sinon, it is said, was one of the most with unshaken self-possession over the shift- celebrated of the Greek players, and derived ing fortunes of the tumultuous battle-field. the idea of the wooden horse, with which he A skilful chess-player requires qualities of finally checkmated the Trojans, from the a similar description. To a perfect mastery knight of the chess-board.” of the difficult art of selecting and occupying, This awful climax recalled me to myself. with the utmost rapidity, a commanding I had begun to fancy myself in the Régence, position, he must add a thorough knowledge when, startled by the appearance of that of all the many and complicated varieties of wooden horse, I looked round and saw that I stratagems and snares, which he is alternately was in a vulgar café without traditions and called npon to invent and put into practice - without celebrities. to see through and defeat.

Catching the old soldier's eye, I made a “ All great generals have been chess-play- significant gesture, implying that I was going ers; and it is a curious fact, that the tra- to dinner, and walked out. I had gone

but ditions of both the East and the West relate a few paces ere he rejoined me ; and I was that chess was invented during a siege. The soon happy to find that neither his appetite, Hindoo legend states, that it was invented nor his immense fund of anecdote, was at all by the wife of Ravan, king of Ceylon, in laffected by his lecture on Chess and War.

Ir thou have thrown a glorious thought

Upon life's common ways,
Should other men the gain have caught,

Pret not to lose the praise.
Great thinker, often shalt thou find,

While folly plunders fame,
To thy rich store the crowd is blind,

Nor knows thy very name.
What matter that, if thou uncoil

The soul that God has given;
Not in the world's mean eye to toil,

But in the sight of Heaven?
If thou art true, yet in thee lurks

For fame a human sigh,
To Nature go and see how works

That handmaid of the sky.
Her own deep bounty she forgets,

Is full of germs and seeds;
Nor glorifies herself, nor sets

Her flowers above her weeds.
She hides the modest leaves between,

She loves untrodden roads;
Her richest treasures are not seen

By any eye but God's.
Accept the lesson. Look not for

Reward; from out thee chase
All selfish ends, and ask no more

Than to fulfil thy place.

From the Church Journal.

(PSALM 127 : 2.)
As from the glare of busy, feverish day,

We turn with longing to the holy stars,
Feel the soft air of night around us play,

And bless it for the respite from our cares;
So to the grave the earnest Christian turns,

Weary of sin, and stained with many tears, So his poor bruised heart within him burns

With longing for this covert from his fears.
As we hear music, in the hush of night,

Sounding far off, as if the angel bands
Were sweeping harp-strings of the star-beams

Close by the door of heaven, with skilful hands;
So, through the awful stillness of the grave

The Christian soldier hears the glorious psalm
Of those blest souls his Master came to save-
And who, through Him, have won the victor's

As weary children to their mother's care

Hasten, like birds unto the parent nest,
Kneel by her side, and say their evening prayer,

Then fall asleep, close nestled to her breast;
Even so God's children, coming to the eve

Of life's last weary day, pray him to keep With his kind care the dear ones they must leave, And then “ He giveth His beloved sleep.


Part of an article in the British Quarterly Review. contumely poured upon that very religion WAR POLICY OF GREAT BRITAIN. which the republicans of Italy would disOn the west, the Western Powers are re, there be between the Protestant Magyar, who

grace? What community of sentiment can trained, or affect to be restrained, by dread of stimulating revolutions, or by fear of the Sclavonic element subservient to his rule,

evoked a revolution in attempting to render embroiling themselves with the two great and the chivalrous Pole, who regards his disPowers whose territories would be concerned

tinction as the leader of that element as the in the struggle. Now, we should like to know what England has to fear from foreign proudest. badge which his country could nationalities. It is true that the French

assume?* Emperor's throne would not be the more

People, because they hear of the word

revolutionist applied indistinctly to all popusecure for a revolt in Hungary, or from the proclamation of another Roman republic

. in behalf of chimerical schemes of government

lations who are struggling against their rulers The hint that he gave Europe, in not allowing Kossuth to pass through his dominions, Poles to be exactly in the same predicament;

which never had any existence, imagine the fully proclaims his feelings on this head ; nevertheless, he has a strong predilection for and Russia, with an insolence that defies the plans of his uncle,* and there is nothing comparison, has taken care to spread this imin the reconstruction of Poland that need pression, with a view to intimidate Germany alarm him about the rising of the Red Repub

and the conservative classes of Europe. But licans in any part of Europe. No doubt

we have no more right to apply the word there are anarchists in Poland, as there are revolutionist in this sense to the Poles, than everywhere else. When the government of

that of anarchist to the man who, having a state is in solution, the people have the

been recently plundered of his money and more excuse for forming their own opinion, such stigma is to be used, it must be applied

watch, demands their restitution. If any but the generality are strongly in favor of an to the imperial spoiler who, like a thief in the hereditary monarchy, and if the country rose of itself to-morrow, they would aim at no

night, watched for opportunity to filch their

liberties from their grasp, appropriate their other form of government. But, in resuming their independence under the protection territories, and slay their independence. In of the Western Powers, the Poles would only

is be too glad to accept any polity their deliver- essentially that of order and justice, and, as

such, has been maintained by the most coners pressed upon them ; nor is it at all likely that the uprising of this people at the dic servative statesmen in Europe ; — by the Castation of two conservative states, to fulfil a

tlereaghs and the Metternichs, by the Talleypolitical necessity, would awaken any hopes who, had not the Lion escaped from his lair

rands, by the Hardenbergs, and the Steins, among the democrats of Hungary or Italy: at Elba, would have risked another European Instead of a national outbreak, raging with that fury as to emit sparks to light up the war for their deliverance. The Poles do not inflammable materials which smoulder in other aim at visionary constitutions and long-forcountries, the movement might be effected gotten codes buried under the accumulated with as much order and regularity as if the dust of centuries ; their rights are those of provinces were merely turning out, as they yesterday, and embrace everything that is were wont, to fire å feu de joie over the sacred to order, not only in political affranelection of a new sovereign. What commu

chisement but religious freedom. The wounds nity of feeling can there be between the

* It is true that the imprudent conduct of a few exiles, in republican of Italy, who would deprive the fraternizing with the Red Republicans, seems to fly in the Pope of his estates and enthrone another face of this reasoning ; but if we judge of the Polish nation

from these specimens, we shall fall into the absurdity of the Goddess of Reason on the altar of the Apos- Portuguese, who formed their estimate of the refined people tles, and the Catholic Pole, who regards as ninsular war, carried off their wives, and plundered their the foulest blot upon his national honor the cellars. We indeed marvel that the Poles are so reserved

as they are. If the conservative classes turn their backs

upon a people, they must expect them to fall into unseemly * The sympathies of Napoleon's Foreign Minister, Count ways, and catch at every straw which promises

to better Walewski, strongly incline to the Poles ; and Count de Per- their condition ; but once admit them to their ranks, they signy, his London ambassador, is no less committed to their will assert the respectability of their pretensions, and bid

good-bye to these messieurs.


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