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than for the throne ; although the experience man. If a female sovereign goes right, she of other states, the position of women in exercises over the men that serve her a species France, and every reason of practical sense of influence which lends an air of chivalry to as it would be called, dictates a reversal of their zeal, and calls forth a greater power in the Salic law.
the administration of the state - a higher per Could such matters be settled on pure reasonal zest in its servants, and a vigor of mind son, the edict of Napoleon the Third could such as none but a genius with a crown on be framed in five minutes, and the proclama- could hope to realize if he were a man. As tion of it in the Moniteur would confer the to the pageantries that fill up the intervals succession on his child, be it boy or girl. But of state business, is it possible to conduct it is too late for a coup d'état of that kind. them half so well or so gracefully as when It might have been possible, perhaps, when the supreme head is a lady? Nor have female the First Napoleon founded the Empire upon sovereigns failed to call forth in different times the ruins left by the Republic. But, willing the most warlike powers of the state. Froza to employ the theatrical properties of antiqui- the days of a Semiramis to our own, we have ty, Napoleon the First went back to tradition, examples ready to our hand. The servants restored Charlemagne in all his legendary su- of Elizabeth began those chivalrous enterprises premacy, sewed the drapery of his own state abroad, by sea and land, which commenced with the golden bees, and left the Salic law the naval if not the military history of Eng undisturbed. It was Napoleon, therefore, land. The Hungarian was ready to draw his who clinched that half-prohibitory rule, and sword and use it unto the death for his "King confirmed the eternal prejudice of the French Maria Theresa." Russia was not less war people against a female monarch. France like under Catherine than under her Emperors. has oftener than once considered what ruler And the warlike spirit of England has revived she should have ; she has substituted one the more readily, no doubt, because a female branch of the Bourbon family for another, one sovereign can again call out the spirit of chivdynasty for another ; she has changed King. alry. France, however, is not only warlike for Emperor, Emperor for King, and King for as a state - not only possesses within her conPresident; she has been content to do with fines military traditions - but the whole or out a monarch at all ; but to set aside the ganization of the country tends to the miliSalic law -- the great fundamental rule for tary. Her factions, not content with “ the French dynasties before the Revolution - battle of the registration court," appeal would be a breach of etiquette which French against each other to arms. The very épiciers manners could not sanction; and we feel that of middle-class society are “National Guards," all the absolute power of Napoleon the Third and claim to determine the balance of power would dash itself to pieces in the attempt to in times of civil conflict. The political state modify that little regulation.
of France is one of chronic civil war, kept No doubt, there is reason for the prejudice, down by that party which happens to constialthough probably reason does not consciously tute the garrison in power. Fránce not only assist in establishing or maintaining it. We possesses an army or a military order, but know well enough in this country, that a she is an army, or more than one ; and infemale sovereign can do at least as well as a stead of requiring a sovereign to give the man upon the throne. The kind of business royal command for her military movements, which a monarch has to exercise in modern she needs a captain of the garrison, to defend
to either sex. There is a certain fidelity to tinually besieging it. It is this thoroughly established rules, an appreciation of character military organization, this constant antagoin the selection of public servants, a reduction nism of one military party against another, of state questions to the simplest elements which probably renders it necessary for France functions in which woman, with her simpler to have a man on the throne, and that man, and more instinctive mind, is better even than if possible, a great captain.
From Chambers' Journal.
wall become, so to speak, part of its subA NEW FACE FOR AN OLD HOUSE.
stance, and are almost imperishable. PreAn impression prevails that one conse pare your wall; paint it either plain, or any quence of Her Majesty's visit to Paris will be design according to taste ; then sprinkle the the gradual adoption of a system for promot- whole surface with the solution of potash ing the beauty and salubrity of the Great above mentioned, or of soda, and you cover it Metropolis. The New Metropolitan Buildings with a permanent glaze. Advantage has Act will effect something, and might very been taken of this discovery in the decoration properly be made the basis of a general scheme of public buildings at Munich, and other places of improvement. London will perhaps never in Germany, and with the happiest effects. look so bright and cheerful as Paris ; but with And in another way: when the Munich a purified river and a smokeless atmosphere, theatre was rebuilt, the inflammable materials its appearance would be surprisingly different were saturated in the solution, to render them from what it is at present. What we want fire-proof. It is known that fire takes but in sunlight might be made up in color that little hold on even stuffs and cottons that have is, color on the walls. There is no reason been treated with the solution. why dead and dingy surfaces of brick should Should the cost of the silicated colors be remain dead and dingy; for there is an avail-objected to, the wall may be painted with orable means by which they may be covered dinary water-colors, and then coated with the with a weather-proof glaze of almost any solution. This is applied by means of a small color, on which impurities would hardly lodge, hand-pump, or a syringe fitted with a rose, so or would be washed off with every shower of that the steam shall fall as a light shower. rain. We mentioned the subject some months The liquid soon dries and forms a glaze, wind ago in the Journal, and think it worth repeat- and weather-proof. What scope is thus afing at the present juncture.
forded for ornamental frescoes, or many species A paper on Hydraulic Lime, Artificial of decoration, which might beautify our streets Stone, and Different Novel Applications of for years, unsullied by dust or smoke! Soluble Silicates," addressed by M. F. Kuhl Wood, affected as it is by mbisture, is not maon to the Académie des Sciences at Paris, so well adapted for the silicated colors as takes up the subject in theory and practice. brick or stone. The most suitable kinds, ac The author tells us that when once the marked cording to M. Kuhlmann, are ash and hornaffinity of lime for silicic acid was discovered, beam. But glass, porcelain, and metal, if the silicifying of stone became an easy me- quite dry, take the colors readily. In glass chanical process ; and further, that the action particularly, a semi-transparence is obtained, of lime on metallic oxides has led, and will which renders it applicable, at low cost, to lead, to important results in art. He lays the windows of private houses or of ohurches; down the law, that " whenever a salt reputed and we all know what admirable effects can insoluble in water is brought in contact with be produced by colored panes artistically inthe solution of a salt the acid of which forms, troduced. At this point, the author makes with the base of the insoluble salt, a salt still the following practical remarks : - “Artificial more insoluble, there is an exchange; but in sulphate of baryta, applied by means of the most cases the exchange is but partial, admit- silicate of potash to glass, gives to the latter ting the formation of double salts. By direct a milk-white color of great beauty. The application of this law, he has succeeded in sulphate becomes intimately incorporated with giving a certain degree of silicification to the silex; and after a few days, cannot be chromate of lead and of lime, to numerous washed off even with hot water. On submetallic carbonates, and to some oxides, par-jecting the glass thus painted to the action ticularly oxide of lead.
of an elevated temperature, a beautiful white Another step was the application of alkaline enamel is produced on the surface, which silicates to painting; and instead of oils and would economically replace the enamels that the ordinary vebicles, M. Kuhlmann uses a have oxide of tin for their base. Ultramaconcentrated solution of silicate of potash, rine-blue, oxide of chrome, and colored or por finding it work well with vermilion, green, phyrized enamels, are a great resource in this ultramarine-blue, the ochres, oxide of chrome, new method of painting ; for if there be no and some others. These colors applied to a chemical combination in all these applications
of color, there is at least a very powerful ad- silicates. Ultramarine is fixed in cloths with herence determined by the silicious cement, more solidity and economy by the silicate of of which the hardening is doubtless facilitated potash, than by the methods now in use." by the excessive division wherewith it is pre- Here we have a wide range of applications sented to the action of the air.”
arising out of M. Kuhlmann's discovery ; and M. Kuhlmann has further succeeded in that the range will be extended, is not doubtusing his silicated colors for designs on paper- ful. We may add, that by grinding the charhangings, on cotton and woollen cloth, and coal used in the preparation of Indian-ink with in letter-press printing. The processes,' he silicate of potash in solution, a writing-ink is says, “differ very little from those in use in obtained almost indestructible by chemical the various modes of printing. One impor-agents; and the same solution, mixed with a tant condition is to maintain the silicious decoction of cochineal, gives a red ink, the colors in a uniform state of humidity during color of which resists for a long time the action their application ; whether the application of chlorine and the acids. take place with blocks of wood or metal, or Specimens of M. Kuhlmann's art are to be by having recourse to type. All the colors seen in the French Exposition. Perhaps that I have applied,” he adds,“op stone, wood, some practical member of the Society of Arts, metal, or glass, serve for printing on paper or during his visit to Paris, will inform himself woven cloths. Typography, color-printing, of the means by which the discovery may be the application of gold or silver in powder or made available in this country. Mr. Barin leaf, can all be executed with the same low's lecture on the subject at the Royal Infacility, taking care, with certain colors, to stitution has already done something towards keep out sulphur in the preparation of the making it known.
DANCING AND DANCING TUNES. – A century she's Naked (fie), Miss Forestor's, The Old and two or three years ago, the dancing master Assembly's, Fools, Hasees (? Asses), Captain of a southern Scottish town wrote out manuscript Ross, Lady Grizel Montgomerie's, Mager Askin, instructions for his pupils, of whom my father Mrs. Lorcereter (?), Miss Surchill's (? Chur. was one; and a copy is now before me which chill's), and General Blane's. The reels are : may suggest some musical and other minor mat- Toluch Gorum, Cameronion's March, Doun your ters relating to the amusements of our progeni- Banks, Miss Frazer's, Miss Macdonald's, Queens tors, curious enough for a notice in “ N. & Q." berry House, Your welcome to the Twon again It is entitled :
(can hardly and yet must be the Jacobite air “ The Dancing Steps of a Hornpipe and Gigg. I
- Yire welcome to your ain again”), A Mile to As also, Twelve of the Newest Country Dances,
38 Ride, The Corporal, Lochel's, Jock Hume's, as they are performed at the Assemblys and
| Miss Murray's, Short Apron, Lady Rothesse's Balls. All Sett by Mr. John Mógill for the Use
new, Miss Clark, and Mrs. Murray's. of his School, 1752.'
| The twelve country dances are mostly figured
to well-known tunes, which have descended to I do not know that the dancing instructions for the present, such as : Up and war them a' Willy ; sixteen steps in the hornpipe, and fourteen in the Because he was a Bonny Lad; Old Age and gigg, would be very intelligible now-a-days ; see Young ; My Wife's a Wanton wee Thing ; Rating that in the former, the second, third, and tling Roaring Willy, &c. ; but there are others fourth steps are “slips and shuffle forwards," which might provoke some inquiry, as, for in“spleet and floorish (? florish) backwards,” stance, The Cadgers of the Cannogate ; Ephey “ Hyland step forwards ;” and there are else- M'Nab; The Cornal or Backel ; The Lads of where directions to “heel and toe forwards," Dunse ; Jock of the Green, &c. “single and double round step,” “ slaps across Several of the tunes mentioned have become forward,” “twist round backward,” “ cross immortal in the songs of Burns. Others sleep strocks aside and sink forward," "short shifts," in personals and localities; but yet there may “ back hops," and finally, “happ forward and be some to interest your Scottish readers, and backward,” to conclude the gigg with éclat. perhaps bring correspondence on the subject of
The lists of the minuets and reels preserve old Scotch music, which may be both instruosome ancient names, but I cannot answer for tive and amusing. Though the fiddle no longer Master M'gill's orthography. The first are : prevails in that country, it is to be hoped there The Prince of Jess'es, Lady Fanny Askin's is still a national feeling for its bygone strains ! (1 Erskine), Lady Rothe's or My Lord Cathcart, - Notes and Queries.
W. J. The Duke of York's, Miss Ilay's Sweetest when
From the Athenæum. flexible, and full of variety, - Mr. Prescott History of the Reign of Philip the Second, narrates the incidents of Philip's reign. His
King of Spain. By Williain H. Prescott story moves swiftly, but is nowhere incom2 vols. Bentley.
plete. The personages are well grouped,
the order of circumstances and the order of The history of the reign of Philip the time are well reconciled, the events are Second is not the history of Spain alone. It neither confused nor isolated. The book is spreads, in greater or less proportion, over as once pictorial and sober, critical and draPortugal, Italy, France, the Netherlands, matic. Germany, England, the Islands of the Med When Philip the Second ascended the abiterranean, the coasts of Northern Africa, dicated throne of Charles the Fifth, there and the continent of the New World. It was no monarch in Europe to whom such a includes political and religious revolutions, sway had fallen. He was King of Spain, a Mohammedan and a Catholic crusade, with Castile, Aragon, and Granada no longer the story of St. Elmo and the great Armada, independent States, but provinces. He was - Protestant and a Morisco revolt, – the King of Naples and Sicily, and Duke of desolation of Holland and of Granada : epi- Milan. He was Lord of Franche-Compté sodes of national and of personal romance, and the Low Countries. He was titular -of memorable wickedness and memorable King of England by virtue of his alliance sufferings, of heroism and misery, – the with Mary. He possessed the Cape de Verd story of Alva and of Don Carlos, of Egmont, Islands, the Canaries, Tunis and Oran in Hoorne, and Montigny.
Africa, the Philippine and Spice Islands in Throughout this period, Philip the Sec- Asia, Mexico, Peru, and part of the West ond presents a singularly dramatic figure. Indies in America. In his army were the Though the champion of the Church, he veterans who had fought at Pavia and Muhlmakes war upon the Pope. Though the berg, who had been led by Almagro and enemy of France, he marries a French prin- Pizzaro. His navy was supreme, except in
83. The husband of one English Queen, the narrow seas contested by England. The he offers to marry her successor, and after- mines of Zacatecas and Potosi replenished an wards attempts the invasion of her king- exchequer wasted by the ambitious prodigality dom. His first wife is a princess of Portu- of Charles the Fifth. To these advantages gal; his second, a Queen of England; his he added some of the benefits of experience. third, a princess of France ; his fourth a He had already been exercised in the arts of princess of Austria. His glory is that he government, and stood at the head of the raised Spain to her highest position among Roman Catholic princes. Such were the cirthe modern empires, - yet to him belongs cumstances of Philip's position when he asthe reproach of having sown the seeds of her sumed the crown. Mr. Prescott, in an addecay.
mirable chapter, lays out the political scheme Mr. Prescott's narrative of the remarkable of Europe, as its states were then distributed; and diversified events distinguishing this pe- but it is not from this point that his narrative riod is constructed, in great part, of new commences. The more familiar story of materials. As the history extends over many Charles the Fifth's abdication forms an apcountries and touches the fortunes of many propriate prologue, with the history of the States, so the historian's researches have run youth of Philip, and of his visit to England. through nearly all the libraries of Europe. His first wife, of the royal house of Portugal, With the assistance of some zealous friends had died when the ill-starred Don Carlos was - Don Pascual de Gayangos deserving par- born ; and through the politic intervention ticalar mention - he has drawn from the of his father he had formed his alliance with archives and private collections of Great our own Mary. The historian has not Britain, Belgium, the Netherlands, France, neglected this opportunity to enliven his Spain, Germany, and Italy, materials which narrative with a pleasant account of the give to this book an original as well as an ceremonies and rejoicings which attended authentic character. With this mass of new this event. Philip's progress to London and evidence he has compared the published rec- Winchester was a continuous scene of heraldic ords of the time, and the result is a narra- and festal pomp, and Mr. Prescott's detive which – as far as it has gone - deserves scription of it is as full of life and spirit as to rank with the best historical works by the processional cavalcade. contemporary writers. For, in addition to its substantial value as a contribution to the
“Some embarrassment occurred as to the political, religious, and social annals of Eu- person who should give the queen away, rope, it derives some of its most admirable brief conference, it was removed by the Marquis
part of the ceremony not provided for. After qualities from the peculiar genius of its of Winchester and the Earls of Pembroke and anthor. In a warmly-colored style - clear, Derby, who took it on themselves to give her
away in the name of the whole realm ; at which conquests, and even deputed the Duke of the multitude raised a shout that made the old Alva to make his submission to the Papal walls of the cathedral ring again. The marriage chair. service was then concluded by the Bishop of Winchester. Philip and Mary resumed their
“On reaching the Vatican, the Spanish comseats, and mass was performed, when the bride- mander fell on his knees before the Pope,
and groom, rising, gave his consort the "kiss of asked his pardon for the offence of bearing arms
Paul, soothed by this peace,' according to the custom of the time. against the Church. The whole ceremony occupied nearly four hours. show of concession, readily granted absolution. At the close of it, Philip, taking Mary by the He paid the Duke the distinguished honor of hand, led her from the church. The royal couple giving him a seat at his own table ; while he were followed by the long train of prelates and complimented the Duchess by sending her the pobles, and were preceded by the Earls of Pem-consecrated golden rose, reserved only for royal broke and Derby, each bearing aloft a naked persons , and illustrious champions of the
Church." sword, the symbol of sovereignty. The effect of the spectacle was heightened by the various But to Paul fell the losses of the war. costumes of the two nations, – the richly-tinted The desolated Campagna, the dispersed army, and picturesque dresses of the Spaniards, and the mutinous populace of Rome, his injured the solid magnificence of the English and Flem- reputation, his diminished influence, were ings, mingling together in gay confusion. The glittering procession moved slowly on, to the proofs that there was a ruler in Europe with blithe sounds of festal music, while the air was the head of the Church.
the courage and the power to defy and assail rent with the loyal acclamations of the populace,
The French war delighted, as usual, with the splendor of the
the victory of Șt. pageant.'
Quentin,-celebrated by the building of the
Escurial, – the surprise of Calais- the inPhilip appears never to have received much vasion of Flanders and the battle of Grave gratification from his English alliance. He lines, supply Mr. Prescott with a succession would, perhaps, have been better pleased had of picturesque episodes, which he works into the Queen been legs demonstrative in her his narrative with equal care and skill. Upon love ; but his father's abdication, recalling the conclusion of peace the king of Spain him from the English Court, was speedily was again a widower, for_Elizabeth bad followed by the Papal war, which engaged succeeded Mary on the English throne. him in military and diplomatic enterprises. Philip seems to have regarded widowerhood His Italian campaign, led by the Duke of as wasted time, for a month had not elapsed Alva, was 80 cautiously conducted, that after Mary's remains had been deposited in when Pontecorvo had opened its gates, when Westminster Abbey, when he made direct Anagni had been sacked, and when his offers to the inheritor of her crown. Her victorious army was spread over the suburbs Protestant policy turning him from this idest, of Tivoli, he refrained from pushing his he took a bride, as the first-fruit of peaco, success, and awaited offers of peace. Paul from France. Elizabeth, Mr. Prescott thinks, the Fourth, however, had a different spirit. was considerably piqued
- not, perhaps, be“In an interview with two French gentlemen, Philip had been so easily consoled.
cause she had refused Philip, but because who, as he had reason to suppose, were interesting themselves in the affair of a peace, he ex
" • Your master,' said she, in a petulant tone, claimed : “Whoever would bring me into a peace to Feria, 'must have been much in love with with heretics is a servant of the Devil. Heaven me not to be able to wait four months !' The will take vengeance on him. I will pray that ambassador answered somewhat bluntly, by God's curse may fall on him. If I find that you throwing the blame of the affair on the Queen intermeddle in any such matter, I will cut your herself. Not so,' she retorted, “I never gave heads off your shoulders. Do not think this an your King a decided answer.'- True,' said empty threat. I have an eye in my back on Feria, 'the refusal was only implied, for I would you,' - quoting an Italian proverb, and if not urge your highness to a downright “ No," I find you playing me false, or attempting to lest it might prove a cause of offence between $0 entangle me a second time in an accursed truce, great Princes.'” I swear to you by the eternal God, I will make your heads fly from your shoulders, come what art the obvious difficulties of his subject. The
The historian has surmounted with singular may come of it!”. • In this way,' concludes the extension of Philip's influence into the policy narrator, one of the parties, his Holiness con- of so many states, - his various wars,
his tinued for nearly an hour, walking up and down the apartment, and talking all the while of his multitude of political transactions, simultaown grievances and of cutting off our heads, un- neous or successive, - rendered it no easy til he had talked himself quite out of breath.' " task to preserve the clearness and unity of
the narrative. Thus, the defection of the The issue of the war was favorable to Netherlands, though an episode in Philip's Philip, though he retained none of his Italian) career, was a distinct event, with features