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Example 9th. Participial nouns converted into common nouns, and the contrary; as, Providence alone can order the changing of times and seasons. Providence alone can order the changes of times and seasons.
Example 10th. The change of the verb, an adjective, or an adverb, into a noun and the contrary; and the conversion of a noun into a pronoun ; as, Idleness, ease, and prosperity tend to generate folly and vice. The tendency of idleness, ease, and prosperity is to generate folly and vice. Idleness, ease, and prosperity have a tendency toward the generation of folly: Folly and vice are too generally the consequences of idleness, ease, and prosperity.
Simple language always pleases most. Simplicity of language always pleases most. We please most when we speak simply. Those persons who, &c. They who, &c.
Example 11th. The conversion of an active or a passive verb into a neuter verb with an adjective ; as, Sobriety of mind suits the present state of man. Sobriety of mind is suitable to the present state of man.
Example 12th. By the conversion of a declaration into an obligation, with a corresponding change of words.
Declaration. Man's present state renders sobriety of mind highly becoming.
Obligation. Man in his present state should be characterized by sobriety of mind.
Example 13th. By a noun in apposition to avoid the use of the conjunction and. Hope is the sustainer of the mind, and supports us under many a burden. Hope, the sustainer of the mind, supports us under many a burden.
Example 14th. By the preposition and its objective case, instead of the pos. sessive; as, The moon's mild radiance and the sun's resplen dent brightness are objects which, &c. The mild radiance of the moon and the resplendent brightness of the sun, * &c.
The repetition of and † avoided by the use of the preposition; as, God has given us senses to enjoy all these beautiful objects, and reason to guide us in the use of them. God has given us senses to enjoy all these beautiful objects, with reason to guide us in the use of them.
By the use of the potential mode instead of the infinitive ; God has given us senses that we may enjoy all these beautiful objects, with reason, &c.
An infinitive phrase instead of a nominative noun; To do justly, to love mercy, and to walk humbly, are duties enjoined by Christianity. Justice, mercy, and humility, are duties enjoined by Christianity.
The negative adverb with the conjunction but; We can observe the exquisite skill of the Artificer in all that we see around us. We cannot but observe the exquisite skill of the Artificer in all that we see around us.
It is to be remarked, that although some examples have been given, in which the participial noun is used, yet when there is a common noun from the same root, of similar meaning, the participial noun should be avoided. Thus, “The habit of deceiving" is not so elegant an expression as “ Habits of deception.”
Resolution of the personal pronoun, with the conjunction and into the relative pronoun ; thus, We can learn a lesson of resignation, and it will prepare us for that happy home where the weary are at rest. We can learn a lesson of resignation,
* It is deemed very inelegant to construct a sentence with many posses sive nouns, or with many objectives governed by the preposition of Thus, the sentence, The extent of the prerogative of the King of England, or, The King of England's prerogative's extent, would be better expressed thus, The extent of the King of England's prerogative.
† The use of the conjunction and may often be avoided by dividing long sentences into short ones.
which will prepare us for that happy home where the weary are at rost.
. Example 16th.
By the use of the present or perfect participle instead of the verb; as, He was called to the exercise of the supreme power at a very early age, and evinced a great knowledge of government and law's, and was regarded by mankind with a respect which is seldom bestowed on one so young.
In this sentence the use of the participles removes one of the conjunctions, which young writers are very apt to repeat unnecessarily ; thus, Called to the exercise of the supreme power at a very early age, and evincing a great knowledge of government and laws, he was regarded by mankind with a respect which is seldom bestowed on one so young.
By the use of the participles instead of the relative clause, as, “ The smiles that encourage severity of judgement hide malice and insincerity.” Smiles encouraging severity of judgement hide malice and insincerity.
For the sake of emphasis, or to gratify a taste for singularity, some writers have adopted the poetical style in prose, placing the verb before its nominative ; thus, When we go, for go we must, &c. Proceed we now to the second subject of our consideration. Recognize we here the hand of an Almighty power.
In some instances, perhaps not strictly proper, we find the definite article placed before the relative pronoun; as, These things, the which you have seen and understood, &c.
It is to be observed, that in all the changes suggested in the foregoing models, there must be some slight change in the idea, but still the identity of the thought is sufficiently preserved in all the changes suggested. *
* Under the head of variety of expression, may be noticed some few peculiarities and improprieties, which are sometimes heard, especially in colloquial intercourse, and which, in some instances, are not notioed by any grammatical authority. And first, the improper use of if for whether, as follows: " She asked me if I would go with her.” It should be, “ She asked me whether I would go," &c. Again, the improper use of me for my self, and of you for yourself. As, I am going to wash me. Do you intend to wash you? It should be myself and yourself. Again, The use of as for that; as, I do not know as I shall go. I do not know as I could tell when. It should be that. I do not know that I shall go. I do not know that I could tell when. Again, The use of any and got with a negative; as, I have
Examples of some of the preceding methods of inversion and transposition.
The mind is sustained by hope.
Example 2d. Idleness, ease, and prosperity, tend to generate folly and vice.
The tendency of idleness, ease, and prosperity is to generate folly and vice.
Idleness, ease, and prosperity have a tendency, &c.
not got any book. It would be better to say, I have no book. Such words as fetch for bring, sweat for perspiration, and many others of a similar cbaracter, are considered, to say the least, inelegant, and are to be avoided. The word so is sometimes heard in use for therefore; as, Charles did not wish to go, so I did not urge him. It should be, Charles did not wish to go, therefore I did not urge him. Other is sometimes improperly followed by but instead of than; as, I saw no other but him. It should be, I saw no other than him. We sometimes hear the demonstrative pronoun improperly used for the personal pronoun; as, Those who hear must obey. It should be, They who hear must obey. We sometimes hear such expressions as this: I know of hardly (or scarcely) a passage, &c. It would be better to say, I know of no passage, &c. The past tenses of the word lay (to place) are very frequently and improperly used for the corresponding tenses of lie (to lie down). Thus, The water laid in the pool. It should be, lay in the pool. You have laid abed too long. It should be, You have lain, &c. Again, We frequently find a want of correspondence in the different parts of a sentence, as follows: He did not mention Leonora, nor that her father was dead. It is better to say, He did not mention Leonora, nor the death of her father. These expressions fall under grammatical rule.
In sentences where the negative adverb occurs, it should be followed by the negative conjunction. Thus, “ Thou canst not tell whence it cometh and whither it goeth,” should be, Thou canst not tell whence it cometh nor whither it goeth.
In the use of prepositions we find many manifest improprieties. As ng certain rule can be laid down with regard to them, a few examples are pre sented, to show what prepositions may be properly used with certain words It may, however, be remarked that the same preposition that follows a verb or adverb, should generally follow the noun, &c., which is derived from it, as, confide in, confidence in ; disposed to tyrannize, a disposition to tyranny, &c. Accuse of falsehood. Differ from.
· Folly and vice are too frequently the consequences of idleness, ease, and prosperity. * Exercises on the principles of the preceding methods of Inver
sion and Transposition. Providence alone can order the changing of the seasons.
Can you expect to be exempted from these troubles which all must suffer?
Earth shall claim thy growth, to be resolved to earth again.
Indeed, if we could arrest time, and strike off the wheels of his chariot, and, like Joshua, bid the sun stand still, and make opportunity tarry as long as we had occasion for it, this were something to excuse our delay or at least to mitigate and abate the folly and unreasonableness of it.
* The word it commonly called the neuter pronoun, is sometimes very serviceable in enabling us to alter the arrangement. Thus, It is hope that sustains the mind. It is by hope that the mind is sustained, &c. See Whately's Rhetoric, Part 3d, Chap. 2d, Part 11th.
person, in a thing.
Disappointed in or off Profit by.
Provide with, for, or
Reduce under or to. S
Regard to or for.
Taste of or for. Il
Worthy of. **
* Addison has, “conversant among the writings," &c., and, “conversant about worldly affairs." Generally speaking, "conversant with" is preferable.
† We are disappointed of a thing when we do not get it; and disappointed in it when we have it, and find that it does not answer our expectations.
“Glad of," when the cause of joy is something gained or possessed; and "glad at," when something befalls another; as, “Jonah was glad of the gourd ; " " He that is glad at calamities," &c. S "Reduce under," is to conquer or subdue."
A taste of a thing, implies actual enjoyment of it; but a taste for it, implies only a capacity for enjoyment; as, "When we have had a taste of the pleasures of virtue, we can have no taste for those of vice."
** Many of these words sometimes take other prepositions after them, to express various meanings; thus, for example, “Fall in, to comply; " " Fall off, to forsake;" "Fall out, to happen;" "Fall upon. to attack;" "Fall to,' to begin ea gerly," &c.