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Intro, within. Juri, legal. Juxta, near. Litho, stone. Male, evil. Manu, hand. Mis, error. Mono, one, Multi, many: Myth, fatrilous. Noct, night. Non, Ne, not. Ob, Oc. &c., before, against. Oct, eight. Omni, all. Ornitho, bird. Ortho, right. Oste, bone. Out, beyond. Over, above. Pan, all. Para, against. Penta, five. Per, through. Peri, around. Phil, friendly. Physi, nature. Pleni, full. Poly, many. Post, after. Pre, before.

Preter, beyond.
Pro, before, out.
Pyro, fire.
Quad, four.
Re, again.
Retro, back.
Se, separation.
Semi.

Demi, half.

Hemi, ) Sex, six. Sine, without Soli, alone. Steno, short. Stereo, solid. Sub, Suc, &c., under Subter, under. Super, Supra, above Sur, over. Syn, Syl, &c., with. Tetra, four. Theo, God. Topo, place. Trans, across. Tri, three. Typo, type. Under, beneath. Uni, one. With, opposition. Zoo, aninal life.

ALPHABETICAL SYNOPSIS OF AFFIXES.

Age, rank, office.
Ance, ancy,
Ence, ency, state or act of.
Ant, ent,
Ate, ary, having.
Ble, that may be.
Bleness, the quality of being able.
Bly, in a manner.
Cy, ty, y, ity, state, condition.
En, in.
Er, or, an, ian, ex, ess, ee, eer, ist,

ite, san, zen, the person who.
Fy, to make.
Ies, science, art.
Ion, ity, ment, the state or act of.
Ish some degree.

Ism, doctrine, state.
Ive, ic, ical, ile, ine, ing, it, ial, ent

ant, pertaining to, having the quas.

ity, relating to.
Ize, to make.
Less, without
Ly, like, resembling.
Ness, quality of
Oid, resembling.
Ous, ose, nature of.
Ory, some, I like, full of.
Ric, dom, possession.
Ship, office.
Ude, state of being.
Ure, act of state of being
Ward, in a direction.

AFFIXES TO AFFIXES.

Are, ated, ating, ater, ator, ately, ateness, ation, ative, atory, able, ably, ableness, ability, ty's, ties, ties'.

Ant, antly, ance, ancy, ancy's, ancies, ancies'.
Ful, fully, fulness."
Fy, fies, fiest, fied, fying, fier, fication, cative, cator.
A, ally, alness, alism, alist, ality, ty's, &c.
Ize, ized, izing, ization, ism, ic, izable.
Ous, ously, ousness, osity, ity, y, ty.
Ive, ively, iveness, ivity.
Ile, ilely, ileness, ility.

The English language has, in many instances, two sets of derivative words, expressive of the same thing, the one of Saxon, and the other of Latin origin. Thus,

Watery,

SAXON. LATIN.

SAXON.

LATIN. Fearful, Timid.

Height,

Altitude.
Swiftness,
Velocity.

Lifeless,

Exanimate. Womanish, Effeminate.

Yearly,

Annual.
Building,
Edifice.

Aqueous.
Fewness, Paucity. .

Hearer,

Auditor.
And, in many instances, the nouns are of Saxon origin, while the cor-
responding adjectives are from the Latin. Thus,
NOUNS FROM THE SAXON. ADJECTIVES FROM THE LATIN.
Beginning,

Initial.
Body,

Corporeal.
Brother,

Fraternal.
Father,

Paternal.
Mother,

Maternal.

Feline.
Day,

Diurnal.

Canine.
Earth,

Terrestrial.
Gregarious.
Farinaceous.
Vitreous, &c.

Cat,

Dog,

Flock,
Flour,
Glass,

The student is now prepared to write a list of words derived from the proposed simple words, according to the following

Example.
From the word press, the following words are derived
Presser,
pressed,

pression,
pressure,
pressive,

pressingly,

depress,

uncompressed, &c. oppressor,
depression, &c. repress,

oppression, &c.
impress,
repressed,

suppress,
impression, &c. repression,

suppressor, re-impress, &c. express,

suppression, &c. compress, expression, insuppress, &c. compression, &c. oppress,

unsuppressed, &c. uncompress,

Exercises.

Use.

Write a list of words derived from the following words or roots by add.
ing the prefixes, suffixes, &c., that have been explained.
Faith.
Jure.
Right.

Append.
Health.
Marry
Good.

Absolve.
Pity.
Merge.
Idol.

Abridge.
Hope.
Tend.
Law.

Answer.
Mercy.
Stand.
Author.

Aspire.
Art.
Run.

Contract. Pride.
Care.
Ply.
Present.

Blame.
Need.
Range.
Attend.

Bless.
Fear.
Create.

Moderate. Caprice.
Shame.
Pose.
Virtue.

Censure.
Respect.
Graphic.

Caution.
Create.
Fac and

Presume. Cite.
Fine.

Factum.* Separate. Commune.
Scribe.
Divide.
Critic.

Conceal.
Argue.
Improve.
False.

Correct.
Sense.
Profess.
Fire.

Reform.
Lude.
Succeed.
Full.

Defy.
Join.
Deduce.
Frolic.

Define.
Real.
Defend.
Fortune.

Discover.
Large.
Resolve.
Multiply.

Elect.
Calumny.
Note.

Elevate.
Fense.
Arm.
Conform.

Fancy.
Move.
Peace.
Hinder.

Faction.
Spect.

Book.

Fault.
Sign.
Laugh.
Apply.

Favor.

Form.

Love.

* The origin of this word is the Latin verb facio, and its supine factum, which signifies to make, to do, or to cause, and it enters, in some form, intó the composition of more than five hundred of our English words. The word pono, and its supine positum, furnish 250 words; plico, 200; fero and latum, 199; specio, 177 ; mitto and missum, 174; teneo and tentum, 168; capeo and captum, 197 ; tendo, tensum, and tentum, 162; duco and ductum, 156 ; logos, (from the Greek language,) 156 ; grapho, 152. These twelve words enter, in some shape, into the composition of nearly 2500 English words. From 154 Greek and Latin primitives, nearly 13,000 English words are derived, or are affected in their signification. See Towne's Analysis of Derivative Words.

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Synonymes are words having precisely the same meaning.

The number of words, in any language, which are strictly synonomous, are few; but, as was stated in the last lesson, in the English language there are many instances of words, derived from different sources, expressive of precisely the same idea. Thus, the words swiftness and velocity, womanish and effeminate, building and edifice, fewness and paucity, brotherly and fraternal, fatherly and paternal, motherly and maternal, yearly and annual, height and altitude, are words of precisely the same import.

Although, with exceptions of the kind just enumerated, the words strictly synonomous are few, yet it is often the case that one word of similar meaning may be substituted in a sentence for another, without materially altering the idea intended to be expressed. Thus, in the senence, “I design to show the difference in these words," the word design may be changed into intend, purpose, propose, or mean; thus.

I design to show the difference in these words.
I intend to show the difference in these words.

I purpose, propose, or mean to show the difference, &c. The word show may, in like manner, be changed into explain, point out, or illustrate; the word difference may be changed into distinction, and expres. sions may be substituted for words, without materially altering the meaning of the sentence.

Such exercises as these give a command of language to the student, and are of great use as a preparation for exercises in prose, as well as verse. But to the poet especially a familiar acquaintance with expres sions of similar meaning is absolutely indispensable. Confined as he is

to certain rules, it is often the case, that a long word must be substituted · for a short one, or a short one for a long, in order to produce the necessa.

ry succession of syllables to constitute the measure, or the harmony, of his verses.

It has been stated, that few words are strictly synonymous. Although, in the sentence just recited, namely, “I design to show the difference in these words,” it has been observed, that the words intend, purpose, propose, or mean, may be substituted for design, without materially altering the sense, yet it must be understood, that the words themselves are really different in meaning. The word design properly signifies to mark out, as worth a pencil ; purpose signifies to set before one's mind as an object of pursuit ; mean signifies to have in the mind; propose properly implies to offer, and intend expresses the bending of the mind toward an object. *

The words difficulties, embarrassments, and troubles, are often used as words of precisely similar signification; but there is, in reality, considerable difference in their signification. The three terms are all applicable to a person's concerns in life, but difficulties relate to the facility of accomplishing an undertaking, and imply, that it is not easily done. Embarrassments relate to the confusion attending a state of debt, and trouble to the pain which is the natural consequence of not fulfilling engagements or answering demands. Of the three words, difficulties expresses the least, and troubles the most. “A young man, on his entrance into the world, will unavoidably experience difficulties, if not provided with ample means in the outset. But, let his means be ever so ample, if he have not prudence, and talents fitted for business, he will hardly keep himself free from embarrassments, which are the greatest troubles that can arise to disturb the peace of a man's mind.”

The words difficulty, obstacle, and impediment, although frequently used as synonymous, have nicè distinctions in their meanings. Difficulty, as has already been observed, relates to the ease with which a thing is done ; obstacle signifies the thing which stands in the way between the person and the object he has in view; and impediment signifies the thing which entangles the feet. All of these terms include in their signification, that which interferes either with the actions or views of men. The difficulty lies most in the nature and circumstances of the thing itself; the obstacle and impediment consist of that which is external or foreign; the difficulty interferes with the completion of any work; the obstacle interferes with the attainment of any end; the impediment interrupts the progress and prevents the execution of one's wishes; the difficulty embarrasses; it suspends the powers of acting or deciding; the obstacle opposes itself; it is properly met in the way, and intervenes between us and our object; the impediment shackles and puts a stop to our proceeding; we speak of encountering a difficulty, surmounting an obstacle, and removing an impediment; we go through difficulty, over an obstacle, and pass by impediments. The disposition of the mind often occasions more difficulties in negociations, than the subjects themselves; the eloquence of Demosthenes was the greatest obstacle which Philip of Macedon experienced in his political career; ignorance in the language is the greatest impediment which a foreigner experiences in the pursuit of any object out of his own country.

* The student who wishes a fuller explanation of the difference be tween these words is referred to that very valuable work entitled, “ English Synonymes explained in Alphabetical Order, with copious Illustrations and Examples drawn from the best Writers, by George Crabb, of Magdalen Hall, Oxford."

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