Изображения страниц
PDF
EPUB

"Pleased thou shalt hear, and thou alone shalt hear." The circumflex accent is the union of the grave and acute accents, and indicates that the syllable on which it is placed should have both the rising and the falling inflection of the voice.

The caret * is a mark resembling an inverted v, placed under the line It is never used in printed books, but, in manuscripts, it shows that something has been accidentally omitted ; as,

recited
“ George has his lesson."

The following marks are references; and are generally used to call attention to notes on words or sentences, placed at the bottom of the page: The Asterisk, *

The Parallels, II
The Obelisk, t

The Paragraph, T
The Double Obelisk, f The Index, I

The Section, $ When many notes occur on a page, and these marks are all exhausted, they are sometimes doubled. Figures and letters are also sometimes used instead of the above marks.

It is proper to remark, that, in some books the section, S, and the paragraph, T, are used to mark the parts of a composition, which in writing or printing should be separated."

A paragraph † denotes the beginning of a new subject, or a sentence not connected with the foregoing.

A section f is used for subdividing a chapter into smaller parts.

It is proper here to remark, that every composition should be divided into paragraphs, when the sense will allow the separation. Different subjects, unless they are very short, or very numerous in a small compass, should be separated into paragraphs.

EXERCISES IN PUNCTUATION. Insert Commas in their proper places in the following sentences. Wife children servants all that could be found were savagely slaughtered.

He had been born bred and educated on a small moorland farm which he now cultivated.

Doing to others as we wish them to do to us constitutes the fundamen tal principle of Christian charity.

Julius Cæsar wrote in a clear natural correct flowing style.

* The word caret is derived from the Latin language, and signifies it is wanting.

† The word paragraph is derived from the Greek language, and signifies an ascription in the margin.

The word section is derived from the Latin language, and signifies a division or cutting. The character which denotes à section seems to be made of ss, and to be an abbreviation of the words signum sectionis, the sign of the section.

Climate soil laws custom food and other accidental differences have produced an astonishing variety in the complexion features manners and faculties of the human race.

In our epistolary correspondence we may advise dissuade exhort request recommend discuss comfort reconcile.

Esercise ferments the humors casts them into the proper channels throws off redundancies and assists nature in her necessary operations.

A wise man will examine every thing coolly impartially accurately and rationally,

Homer the greatest poet of antiquity is reported to have been blind.
Milton the author of "Paradise Lost” and “Regained” was blind.
I am my dear Sir your humble servant.
The earth like a tender mother nourishes her children.
Harold being slain the conqueror marched immediately to London.
Swift says no man ever wished himself younger.
To err is human; to forgive divine.

The great Xerxes upon whom fortune had lavished all her favors not content with being master of powerful armies numerous fleets and inexhaustible treasures proposed a reward to any one who should invent a new pleasure.

You should not desire says an ancient Greek author even the thread of another man's needle.

She let concealment like a worm in the bud feed on her damask cheek.

Nature has wisely determined that man shall want an appetite in the beginning of distempers as a defence against their increase.

The whole circle of vices like shadows towards the evening of life appear enormous to a thinking person.

You are not to suppose that the fate either of single persons of empires or of the whole earth depends on the influence of the stars.

Insert the Comma, Colon, and Semicolon where they belong in the following

sentences. Green is generally considered the most refreshing color to the eye therefore Providence has made it the common dress of nature.

To err is human to forgive divine.
The aim of orators is victory of historians truth of poets admiration.

Saint Peter is painted with the keys Paul with a sword Andrew with a cross James the Greater with a pilgrim's staff and a gourd bottle James the Less with a fuller's pole John with a cup and a winged serpent Bartholomew with a knife Philip with a long staff or cross Thomas with a lance Matthew with a hatchet Matthias with a battle-axe Simon with a saw and Jude with a club.

Some place their bliss in action some in ease

Those call it pleasure and contentment these. Most of our pleasures may be regarded as imaginary but our disquietudes may be considered as real.

Chaucer we are told by Dryden followed nature every where but that he never went beyond her.

A clownish air is but a trifling defect yet it is enough to make a man universally disagreeable.

In the New Testament as in the dignified and sober liturgy of the Church we see deep humility but not loathsome abjectness sincere repent.

ance but not agonizing horror steadfast faith but not presumptuous assur. ance lively hope but not seraphic abstraction the deep sense of human infirmity but not the unblushing profession of leprous depravity the holy and heavenly communion but not vague experiences nor the intemperate trance.

Do not flatter yourself with the idea of enjoying perfect happiness there is no such thing in the world.

Keep close to thy business it will keep thee from wickedness poverty and shame. • The path of truth is a plain and it is a safe path that of falsehood is a perplexing maze. * Do not flatter yourself with the idea of enjoying perfect happiness for there is no such thing in the world.

Were all books reduced to their quintessence many a bulky author would make his appearance in a penny paper there would be no such thing in nature as a folio the works of an age would be contained on a few shelves not to mention millions of volumes that would be utterly annihilated.

Insert the Period, Question, and Exclamation Point, where they respectively

belong in the following sentences.

Honor all men Fear God Truth is the basis of every virtue Every deviation from veracity is criminal The Latin language is now called a dead language because it is not spoken as the mother tongue of any nation America was discovered in the night of Oct 11th O S AD 1492 Have you ever read its history The Rambler was written by Samuel Johnson LL D Sir Josh Reynolds FRS was a very distinguished artist

In the formation of man what wonderful proofs of the magnificence of God's works and how poor and trifling in comparison are the productions of man Why do you weave around you this web of occupation and then complain that you cannot break it How superior is the internal construrtion of the productions of nature to all the works of men

XV.
DERIVATION AND COMPOSITION OF WORDS.

Words, with regard to their origin, are divided into primitive and derivative; and, with regard to their form, into simple and compound.

A primitive word is a word which is in its original form, and is not derived from any other word; as, man, good. content.

A derivative word is that which is derived from another word; as, manful, manhood, manly, manliness; goodness, goodly, &c.; contented, contentment, contenting, contentedly, &c.; which are derived respectively from the primitive words, man, good, content.

A simple word consists of one word, not compounded; as sea, able, self.

A compound word is a word that is made up of two or more words, or of one word and some syllable added; as, sea-water, unable, myself. *

Words are found, on examination, to be reducible to groups or families, and are related to each other by identity of origin and similarity of signification. Thus the words justly, justice, justify, justification, justiciary, adjust, readjust, unjust, injustice, &c., are all kindred words, connected with the primitive word just. The primitive words of a language are generally few in number, and language is rendered copious and expressive by the formation of derivatives and compounds from the primitives.

When a syllable is added, in the composition of words, it takes its name from the position in which it is placed with regard to the word. If it is placed before the word it is called a prefix, if at the end of the word, it is called an affix.

In derivative words, there are generally three, and sometimes four things to be considered ; namely, first, the root, from which the word is derived; secondly, the prefix; thirdly, the affix; fourthly, the letters which are added for the sake of sound, and which may be called euphonic letters.

The root is cometimes called the radical letters of a word. Thus, from the Latin word venio, which significs to come, and its variation ventum, many English words are derived, in the following manner: The first three letters of the word are taken, as the radical letters, or root of the word. By adding the prefix contra, which signifies against, we have contraven; to which is added the euphonic letter e, to lengthen the last syllable, and thus is composed the word contravene, which means to come against, or oppose. In a similar manner, we have the words prevent, invent, circumvent, convent, and their derivatives.

* Some compound words are formed by the union of two other words; as sea-water, semi-annual. Such words are generally recognized by the hyphen placed between the words composing the compound. Mr. Goold Brown says, that "permanent compounds are consolidated," that is, are written without the hyphen, But it is contended that "glass-house " is as much a permanent compound as "bookseller.” The truth is, that no better reason can be given for the use or omission of the hyphen, than caprice.

† The student who wishes to study this department of etymology, will find it more fully displayed in Horne Tooke's “ Diversions of Purley;" Rice's " Composition,” McCulloch's “ Grammar," and Towne's “ Analysis of Derivative Words.” In the first mentioned of these works, the “ Diver sions of Purley,” may be found a learned and ingenious account of the de rivation and meaning of many of the adverbs, conjunctions and prepost tions of the English language.

Many of the prefixes used in the composition of English words are Latin or Greek prepositions; and the effect which they produce upon the meaning of the root contributes much to the copiousness of the English language.

There are so many other ways of deriving words from one another, that it would be extremely difficult and nearly impossible to enumerate them A few instances, only, of the various modes of derivation, can be given here.

Some nouns are derived from other nouns, or from adjectives, by adding the affix hood, or head, ship, ry, wick, rick, dom, ian, ment, and age; as, from man, by adding the affix hood, comes manhood, from knight, knighthood, &c., from false, falsehood, &c.

Nouns ending in hood, or head, are such as signify character or quality; as, manhood, falsehood.

Nouns ending in ship are those that signify office, employment, state, or condition; as lordship, stewardship, hardship.

Nouns ending in ery signify action or habit; as, slavery, knavery, bravery.

Nouns ending in wick, rick, and dom, denote dominion, jurisdiction, or condition; as bailiwick, bishoprick, dukedom, kingdom, freedom.

Nouns ending in ian signify profession; as, physician, musician, &c.

Nouns that end in ment or age signify the act, or habit; as commandment, usage.

Nouns that end in ard denote character or habit; as drunkard, dotard

Nouns ending in kin, ling, ing, ock, el, generally signify diminution; as lamb, lambkin, duck, duckling, hill, hillock, cock, cockerel.

Nouns ending in tude, or ude, generally signify state, condition, or ce pacity; as plenitude, aptitude, &c.

ALPHABETICAL SYNOPSIS OF PREFIXES.

A, Ab, Abs, from.
Ad, Ac, Al, Ap, At, &c., to.
Ambi, both,
Amb, amphi, round.
Ante, before.
Anti, against.
Ana, back.
Apo, Aph, from.
Auto, one's self.
Be, to make,
Bene, well.
Bi, Bis, two, half.
Biblio, book.
Bio, life.
Centu, hundred.
Chrono, time.
Circum, round.
Co, Con, Col, Com, Cor. with.
Contra, against.
Cosmo, the world!
Counter, opposite

De, from, down.
Deca, ten.
Di, Dis, &c., separation, not.
Dia, through
Dys, bad, difficult, hard.
E, Ex, EI, Ëm, Er, &c., out of
En, Em, in.
Epi, upon.
Equi, equal.
Extra, beyond.
For, against.
Fore, prior.
Geo, the earth.
Hetero, of divers kinds.
Hex, Hexa, six.
Homo, of one kind.
Hydro, water.
Hyper, over.
In, Im, Il, not, with an adjer

tive, into, with a verb, on.
Inter, among

« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »