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The preceding exercise is presented merely to show the mode in which, in conformity with the suggestions just made, the student's compositions may be corrected. The exercise is one of a class of very young students By this example, the teacher will become acquainted with a set of arbitrary marks for the correction of errors, which may easily be explained to a class, and when understood will save the teacher much writing.
Thus, when a word is misspelt or incorrectly written, it will be sufficient to draw a horizontal line under it, as in the following exercise. If a capital is incorrectly used, or is wanted instead of a small letter, a short perpendicular mark is used. When entire words or expressions are to be altered, they are surrounded with black lines, and the correct expression is written on the blank page on the left. When merely the order of the words is to be altered, figures are written over the words designating the order in which they are to be read.
Transposition. Synonymes, collected, applied, defined, distinguished, and illustrated. Variety of expression, phrases generalized, particularized, translated from Latin to Saxon derivatives, and the reverse, expanded, compressed.
Figures of speech analyzed.
Students of higherg .de may also be exercised in the Logical Analysis of the same subject, ne ticing the subject with its scope, topics, method and lastly in a. Critical Analysis, relating to the choice of words.
Structure of the sentences.
Of these he will give the general characEloquence.
ter, with a particular analysis.
It was a beautiful evening, in the month of August, when
Tempted by the beauty of the evening, I took a walk along
might be seen approaching the coast, making signals of
The night was such, that it would have been almost in.
ship could long survive such a ternpest, and we were soon convinced that the vessel before us
open boat, and we could render no assistance to them.
The shrieks of the unhappy persons, mixed with the
But no vessel could stand such a tempest long, and it
now staying with one of those who were the means of | saving her life, until her friends can be found.
were taken into Despairing of saving more, the hardy fishermen reached the shore nearly exhausted with fatigue.
MARKS USED BY PRINTERS IN THE CORRECTION OF
Many mistakes in printing may be avoided, when the printer and the writer clearly understand one another. It is thought it will be useful to present in this volume a view of the manner in which proof-sheets are corrected.
On the opposite page is a specimen of a proof-sheet, with the corrections upon it. A little attention will readily enable the student to understand the object of the various marks which it contains, particularly if taken in connexion with the explanation here given.
An inverted letter is indicated by the character and in the mode represented in No. 2.
When a wrong letter is discovered, a line is drawn through it and the proper letter written in the margin, as in No. 1. The correction is made in the same manner when it is desired to substitute one word for another.
If a letter or word is found to be omitted, a caret (1) is put under its place, and the letter or word to be supplied is written in the margin; as in Nos. 8 and 19.
If there be an omission of several words, or if it is desired to insert a new clause or sentence, which is too long to admit of being written in the side margin, it is customary to indicate by a caret the place of the omis sion, or for the insertion of the new matter, and to write on the bottom nargin the sentence to be supplied, connecting it with the caret by a line Irawn from the one to the other; as in No. 15.
If a superfluous word or letter is detected, it is marked out by drawing a stroke through it, and a character which stands for the Latin word dele (expunge) is written against it in the margin; as in No. 4.
The transposition of words or letters is indicated as in the three examples marked No. 12.
If two words are improperly joined together, or there is not sufficient space between them, a caret is to be interposed, and a character denoting separation to be marked in the margin opposite; as in No. 6.
If the parts of a word are improperly separated, they are to be linked together by two marks, resembling parentheses placed horizontally, one above and the other beneath the word, as in the manner indicated in No. 20.
Where the spaces between words are too large, this is to be indicated in a similar manner, excepting that instead of two marks, as in the case of a word improperly separated, only one is employed; as in No. 9.
Where it is desired to make a new paragraph, the appropriate character (T) is placed at the beginning of the sentence, and also noted in the margin opposite; as in No. 10.
Where a passage has been improperly broken into two paragraphs, the parts are to be hooked together, and the words “no break" written oppo. site in the margin; as in No. 18.
If a word or clause has been marked out or altered, and it is afterwards
la Though a vériety of opinions exists as to
the individual by wyom the art of printing was 29 first discovered ; yet all authorities concur in admitting Peter Schoeffer to be the person 3Com
who invented cast metal types, having learned "S the art of of cutting the letters from the Gut5 o tembergs, he is also supposed to have been
the first whoengraved on copper plates. The "following testimony is preseved in the family,
by Jo. Fred. Faustus of Ascheffenburg: 10 T“ Peter Schoeffer of Gernshiem, perceiving ğ Cano 116 his master Fausts design, and being himself 12 tr. (desirous ardently to improve the art, found
out (by the good providence of God) the method of cutting fincidendit the characters 13 stet/ in a matrix, that the letters might easily be
singly cast \; instead of bieng cut. He pri- 12 ei/ 14 I vately cut matrices for the whole alphabet 15 Faust was so pleased with the contrivance
that he promised Reter to give him his only "wf. daughter Christina in marriage, a promise Stal
18 which he soon after performed.
me (But there were many difficulties at first with these letters, as there had been before 3 Room with wooden ones, the metal being too soft 3 fuf to support the force of the impression : but 20 € this defect was soon remedied, by mixing a substance with the metal which sufficiently "2 tr. hardened it),” -and when he showed his master the letters cast froin these matrices,