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* The whole number of tickets, which represents the number of adventurers, is 45,760; from this deduct the number of prizes, 18,040, which represent the chances of gain, and the result shows, that the former are to the latter nearly in the proportion of 3 to 2. In other words, there are only two prizes to be distributed among every five ticket-holders; so that three out of the five must draw blanks, and lose all their money. Thus, out of 45,760 adventurers, three fifths, or 27,720, must be losers, and their loss, at $5 each, the price of the ticket, will amount to $138,600. With what feelings would the laborer go forth to his daily task, with the expectation of losing the wages of three days out of every five, or of $60 out of every $100 he might earn?!

There is another point, on which there is much misunderstanding and blindness. Not only are the adventurers ignorant of the fact that three fifths must be losers, but they keep out of mind another important fact, that the chance of securing a high prize is very inconsiderable, and diminishes in value as you approach the highest prize ; for (as our author says) the adventurer's object is not to obtain a small prize, and thus barely save himself from loss,—it is to secure a fortune.' Mr. Gordon gives an application of the doctrine of chances (according to Dr. Brewster's Encyclopædia), to this scheme, from which it appears that

• The chance of drawing simply a $100 prize in this scheme, is as one to 381,--and should an adventurer purchase 381 tickets, paying $5 each, or $1905 for them, it would be more probable that 264 of them would draw blanks, or be entitled only to smaller prizes, than that even one would draw a prize as large as $100.

. And the chance of drawing a $500 prize, which in fact would be but $425, 15 per cent. being always deducted, would be as one to 915; and should a person purchase 915 tickets, paying $4575 for them, it would be more probable that 640 of them would draw blanks, or smaller prizes, than that even one would draw a prize of $500.'

The principle of excitement operates very strongly on mankind in reference to almost every subject, be it good or bad. If our feelings are engaged we become warm, zealous, and ready to make any sacrifices which are demanded, in order to secure our object, and there are few subjects, on which persons are so easily or so strangely excited, as on lotteries. The young adventurer, after drawing his first blank, tries a second time; and when each successive drawing adds to his disappointment, he is still eager in pursuit of the phantom which decoys him, but ever eludes his grasp. Often when he has spent his lawful earnings in the purchase of tickets, he is so earnest and determined that nothing can oppose him in his course, and that honor, honesty and integrity all forsake him.

On the other hand, the man who calls himself the favorite of fortune,' and wins the highest prize, is scarcely ever satisfied. We hardly hear of an individual, thus obtaining the object of his ambition, who does not dip again, and deeply, into these exciting waters. We are furnished with many facts in referto those who thus continue to purchase without winning, even when they are driven to unlawful means of acquiring money, and to those who are ruined by drawing high prizes ; who, being induced not only to continue gaming, but also to neglect their regular employment, contract idle, and too often vicious habits, and finally involve themselves and families in disgrace and ruin.

Another striking view of the folly of lotteries is presented in this lecture, to which we desire especially to call the reader's attention. We have been examining the comparative chances of gain or loss; we are now invited to examine the real value of a lottery chance.

• In fair dealing, no man is willing to pay more for a mere expectation of profit than it is worth,--and the rule for determining the value of this expectation, is to multiply the benefit expected by the fraction which represents the probability of obtaining it. But we may make some advances towards a true estimate by supposing, in each case, that there are no prizes of any other deuomination than the one, the expectation of gaining which is the subject of calculation. Under this view, and deducting fifteen per cent. from all prizes, we arrive at the following results : The chance for a $50 prize being 1 to 817, is worth 53–16 cts. 1,250 1 to 22880,

4 5-8
20,000
1 to 45759,

37 1-2 • In each case, in this estimate, the worth of the chance is the price, which, upon a fair calculation, a person ought to pay for a ticket; by which it will be perceived, that a lottery office is a dear market for fortunate chances.'

There is a disposition on all hands to rest on authority, and to cite great names with satisfaction, when they have

66

been ranged on that side of a question which we espouse. This is, however, extremely dangerous ; and if followed out, lays the axe at the root of all improvement, civil, political or religious. Where would have been the model of republican government and of free institutions which our country now presents, had we always acted on these principles?' Because the evils resulting from lotteries were not fully known, and were often entirely unobserved by the great and the good of past times, must we sustain them still, when evidence accumulates, day by day, proving conclusively that they do no good, but are rather productive of positive evil, even when managed with perfect integrity? On this subject we extract the following passage:

Contemplate the slave trade. Century after century rolled away, before a question was raised in regard to the lawfulness of that traffic. The slave traders invoked the blessings of Heaven upon their enterprise; and, when returning from their depredations upon the shores of Africa, thanked God for that mercy which had protected them from harm, and blessed their undertaking. And these men were, no doubt, oftentimes sincere, and perhaps pious. Even in Great Britain, where slavery is now unknown, it was not until after an arduous struggle of twenty years' duration, that Parliament could be persuaded to abolish it. And shall lotteries be sanctioned in this age, because other ages have done so? Will this community support an error, nay, a demoralizing evil, because other nations, or other communities in our own nation, continue to do so? We trust not.?

There prevails a misapprehension on the subject of lotteries. It consists in supposing, that the sum proposed to be raised for a given object is the extent of the tax levied upon the community, to carry on the proposed lottery; and the question is often asked, with an air of triumph, Is the sum (say ten or twelve hundred dollars) a very great one? Are we not continually called upon to supply much larger sums? We are: but what then?' If the managers of a lottery would engage to raise the sum proposed without reserving a large sum for their own emolument and expenses, and without stripping those who can ill afford to part with a shilling,—there might be some force in these interrogations. But facts abundantly prove

that this is not the case. Examinations made by the English Parliament, by the Legislature of Massachusetts, and by individuals, give a very different result. The error lies in

supposing, that the individual adventurers are not taxed in a lottery which is established to raise a given sum for the community. But when we consider how disproportionate is the sum paid by ticket purchasers to their ability and to the value of a chance, we shall be satisfied that the community will be less impoverished and straitened by a direct tax of $500, than by a lottery to raise $60 or $70.

There is, probably, no subject on which the community are so little informed and so credulous as on lotteries. They are often much incensed by taxation, and consider a small excise oppressive ; but they will cheerfully give $5, that the government may receive fifty cents, if they have any, even the most remote chance, of winning a prize.

We find several facts in this lecture, proving conclusively that there are multitudes of fictitious lotteries, by purchasing tickets in which, no benefit accrues to any one but the seller. This is a species of swindling, to which those, who can ill sustain the loss are especially exposed by their ignorance. And yet, after all the facts which have been made public, on the evils, both necessary and incidental, of lotteries,—they still exist, and have the sanction of the law to sustain them in several States of the Union. It is impracticable to ascertain the amount of pecuniary evil and loss which is thus occasioned annually to the community; and the amount of moral evil is far greater, in the loss of character and influence, in the formation of intemperate habits, and in the destruction of domestic peace and comfort.

It appears, from good authority, that in nine States of the Union, there were four hundred and twenty classes sold in 1832,—amounting, at scheme prices, to $53,136,930; and, with the addition of brokers' commissions, to $66,420,162.

It is devoutly to be hoped, that the eyes of the people may be speedily opened to the alarning and increasing extent of this evil; that we shall not, as in times past, find it arresting the attention of a few separate States only, but that all the States, viewing it in a proper manner, will resolve to exterminate it from the land.

Art. IX.-Woodbridge's Annals of Education.
American Annals of Education and Instruction. Edited

by William C. WOODBRIDGE. Vol. I.-III. Boston.
1831–3.

Although it is, perhaps, not strictly within the province of a Review to pass judgment upon the merits of other works of a similar kind, we have been for some time past intending to recommend particularly to the notice and favor of our readers, the very valuable monthly journal, which is published in this city by Mr. Woodbridge, under the title of American Annals of Education and Instruction. It would be superfluous to enlarge upon the importance of the subjects to which the work is devoted: that there is no question in the public mind upon that point, is sufficiently shown by the extraordinary efforts that are making in all quarters for improvement in education. It is equally apparent, that one or more journals, exclusively devoted to this subject, if properly conducted, must serve a most valuable purpose ; and are, in fact, almost indispensable auxiliaries to any system of vigorous, enlightened, and concentrated action. We find accordingly, that in Germany, where the theory of education has been more scientifically studied, and more successfully reduced to practice than in

any

other part of the world, journals of this kind are very numerous. They are constantly published in all the ordinary forms of periodical literature, annual, quarterly, monthly, weekly, and even daily. They are also common in England, and most other parts of civilized Europe.

The work before us is, we believe, the only one of the kind that is published in this country, and we regret to learn that the patronage which it has hitherto received is not sufficient to justify its continuance. We sincerely hope, that efforts will immediately be made, with all the necessary vigor and spirit, by the friends of education throughout the country, for placing it upon a better footing. We consider it entitled, not less by the manner in which it is conducted, than by the nature of the subject, to the support and encouragement of all who are really interested in the cause. sons in the United States unite so many qualifications for carrying on such a work as Mr. Woodbridge; and no one could

Few per

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