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"“ No," replied the daughter, “like all others of his sex, he delights in keeping the ladies in suspense.”

• “What you say, Miss, is very true,” said Aunt Quimby, leaning in her turn across Mr. Montague, "and considering how young you are you talk very sensibly. Men certainly have a way of keeping women in suspense, and an unwillingness to answer questions even when we ask them. There's my son-in-law, Billy Fairfowl, that I live with. He married my daughter Mary eleven years ago the 23d of last April. He's as good a man as ever breathed, and an excellent provider too. He always goes to market himself; and sometimes I can't help blaming him a little for his extravagance. But his greatest fault is his being so unsatisfactory. As far back as last March, as I was sitting at my knitting in the little front parlor with the door open, (for it was quite warm weather for the time of the year) Billy Fairfowl came home, carrying in his hand a good sized shad; and I called out to him to ask what he gave for it, for it was the very beginning of the shad season ; but he made not a word of answer; he just passed on, and left the shad in the kitchen, and then went to his store. At dinner we had the fish, and a very nice one it was ; and I asked him again how much he gave for it, but he still avoided answering, and began to talk of something else; so I thought I'd let it rest awhile. A week or two after, I again asked him : so then he actually said he had forgotten all about it. And to this day I don't know the price of that shad.”

From what we have said, it will be seen that we think highly of Miss Leslie's powers; an opinion declared not merely by our approbation in so many words, but in the regret which we have expressed at her choosing subjects which may be amusing, when so well described, but can have no lasting attraction. There is something unpleasant in accounts of well meaning persons imposed upon by vulgar pretension ; neither does any one take pleasure in being reminded of the sorrows of country lodgings and picnic parties,--things which in remembrance are never sweet, though they may be sometimes mournful to the soul. The rigid fidelity of Crabbe would hardly be tolerated, were it not for strong virtue and strong passions, and the stern gravity with which he describes them. We shall be happy to meet Miss Leslie as a painter of scenes and subjects, which would give pleasanter impressions of American society to those who do not know our country, and bring back pleasanter recollections to those who do. Vulgarity, foolishness and affectation are the growth of every soil: human nature, there is much reason to believe, is very much the same on this as on the other side of the globe: it is not well to follow the example of the man, described by Johnson, who, after going out to enjoy the country, could remember only that the swains were coarse, and that the briers had torn his ancles,-inconveniences, which he might have foreseen without a prophet's eye.

ART. VIII.- Lotteries.
A Lecture before the Boston Young Men's Society, on the

Subject of Lotteries. By GEORGE WILLIAM GORDON.
Boston. 1833.

The young men of some of our largest cities and seaport towns have, during the past year, formed themselves into associations by the name of Young Men's Societies. They appear to have no sinister or doubtful objects in view, but to aim simply at mutual improvement. They are not sectarian, but include in their ranks persons of all sects and denominations, nor do they seek to secure the elevation of any one to office, because he belongs to this or to that political school. On this subject, they have acted according to their individual opinions,--and one great benefit of their association will be, to make them feel their obligation to act conscientiously in the selection of their rulers.

It cannot be supposed that, during the short period since these societies were established, they can have ascertained all the means, or even the best means, for effecting their objects. They have, however, established libraries and reading-rooms, which are opened in the evening, as an inducement to young men to turn aside from temptation and idleness, and improve their minds while they are amused and interested. They give their countenance and patronage to public houses conducted on the principle of temperance. They have addressed circulars to clergymen of the various denominations, asking their cooperation in this work of humanity,--and they favor lectures on this account, as well as for the reasons just assigned.

We do not perceive that any danger can reasonably be apprehended from these associations, and their general result must we think be useful. They encourage young men to activity and independence, they inculcate fearlessness in the discharge of duty,—and the public are their censors and their judges. If they do not accomplish all that they propose, they will at least produce the conviction that their motives are good, their principles sound, and their objects laudable. One of the results of these associations is the work before us.

The Boston Young Men's Society, finding public attention aroused and directed to the evils of lotteries, determined to do all in their power to shed light upon the subject,—and to diffuse the information upon it, now in possession of but few, among the mass of the community. For this purpose they invited Mr. Gordon to deliver publicly, and afterwards to repeat, a Lecture on Lotteries; and they have now published it, from a belief that the reasoning which it contains, supported, as it is, by abundant and satisfactory evidence, will do much towards extending into other States the reformation, which is so favorably commenced in our own. This lecture was not hastily prepared; it bears marks of much research; and, were we sure that it would be as extensively read as the importance of its subject demands, we might well spare our readers any farther remarks.

The writer commences with a history of lotteries in this and in foreign countries; tracing them back as early as the distribution of gists among the Roman soldiers.

In closing his notice of English lotteries, he makes the following remark, which commends itself to our consideration as a community, at a time when self-destruction has unfortunately become so frequent.

" There is, however, one fact connected with English lotteries that we cannot withhold: it should ever be remembered in the annals of self-destruction. A short time previous to the abolition of lotteries in Great Britain, a scheme was formed at London, containing several magnificent prizes of 20, 50, and even 100,000 pounds each. The display of this scheme induced many extensive adventurers, and the night following the drawing was sig. nalized by fifty suicides.'

Mr. Gordon candidly examines the ground often taken, that lotteries are not properly gaming; and shows conclusively, that they are not only gaming, but of the worst and most extensive character.

• The principle upon which all gaming proceeds, and which is the root of all the misery and distress attendant upon it, is this: -the transferring of property from one to another without receiving an equivalent. The truth of this position is too evident to need illustration,

* Another constituent of gaming is the placing of property at the disposition of hazard. And in no case, actual or supposed, can it be more completely subjected to the control of chance, than in the lottery wheel. It matters not, whether all the parties, interested in the hazard, are actively engaged in bringing about the result. Are the gamesters upon the turf less interested, because they do not ride their own horses? Every ticket-holder is a partner in the lottery game, and the managers are his deputed agents to play it.

'Whatever has a tendency to create an excessive thirst for gain, or to excite irregular appetites and desires, must make men vicious, and is injurious to the public morals. This proposition alone is sufficient to determine the dangerous influence of lotteries.'

But we are told that, if lotteries are gaming, so are assurances, --and why are they not equally innocent ? Why is not a lottery broker making a livelihood in a manner equally honest with an underwriter? This reasoning may at first appear rather specious, though a moment's consideration will satisfy any one that the two cases are widely different,-indeed, that they are founded upon opposite principles; as fully appears from our author's reply.

• Assurances are undoubtedly matters of chance. But if they are therefore instances of gaming, the merchant's adventure, the physician's efforts to save the sick, and, in fact, all the affairs of life, must equally fall under the same imputation, since their final success or miscarriage is alike unknown, before the result makes it manifest. But there is a marked difference of character between these chances. Policies of Assurance are intended to guard against loss, or to prevent distress by diffusing a loss among many persons; while lotteries are matters of chance, intended to allure to loss by fallacious hopes of gain. Policies of Assurance hold out no allurements of gain. No man can enrich himself by lawful assurance. Neither can one man be impoverished by the assurance of another, but on the other hand they furnish protection against poverty.

* In the collection and distribution of money, lotteries and assurances are totally unlike. In the one case, the money is collected from the many, to be given to the few, without any regard to circumstances, or to the merit of those who receive it. While in the other case, it is collected from those who have property at risk, and who are, perhaps, unable to take the hazard of its safety,—and is distributed to those who are so unfortunate as to be losers.

• The premiums, gained by an Assurance Company, are a reward in consideration of the capital employed and placed at risk, for the benefit of those who take out policies. While in the lottery there is no capital whatever employed ; not a farthing is deposited for the benefit of the adventurers, but what is by them contributed ; and yet immense profits arise for the benefit of the managers. And that such immense profits should be realized without the employment of any capital, seems irreconcilable with all the principles that regulate commercial transactions.

Besides, in the case of assurance, both parties are interested that the event should be determined in the same manner

r;—that is, that there should be no loss; and thus all the heart-burning, envy and jealousy, which exists among ticket-holders on account of the opposition of their interests, has no place under a policy of assurance.

* Nor does a policy of assurance afford a mere chance of gratification, (which is all a lottery ticket gives) but a present substantial benefit, in that peace of mind which the security of property is calculated to afford. Nor does the advantage stop with the person assured, for the process that guaranties security to him, is beneficial to the whole community in all its relations with that individual;—and hence, assurances form a main pillar in the structure of commercial integrity.'

Having examined some principles, by which we are to judge how far lotteries are ever useful to the community, let us next proceed to matters of fact, and treat of lotteries as they are. We have the scheme of a New York lottery before us, and we learn from it two things: 1. What the purchasers of tickets are permitted to know of the lotteries in which they adventure ; and 2. What they are not permitted to know.

It is a matter of general notoriety, that brokers uniformly deduct fifteen per cent. from all prizes for themselves. It is not generally known, that they also gain twenty-five per cent. in addition, by the difference between the scheme price and the retail price. It appears from the scheme, that VOL. XXXVII.-NO. 81.

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