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pike again in the jaw-bone, so that the elephant still swayed back, but neither of them being able to reach the one the other ; the excellent prince casting bis golden shield before him, and drawing his glittering curtelar, leapt upon the neck of his horse, and laying one hand upon one tooth of the elephant, with the other hand upon the thonge that went cross his forehead, vaulted up, and settling his feet upon the tusks, on the head of the beast, cast up himself, and laid his sitting place where his hands were, and there he rode by a little and a little, till he might buckle with the insedent. No sooner came he within the reach of the Turk, but he smote the Turk so freely, who was ready prepared for him, that he made him decline a little, there they fought so long that the elephant driven through pain was thrust up to the lists, hereupon all the christian people shouted, in a more free manner than ever at any time before, all the while the hard mettal'd swords play'd upon each others shields, so that the glory of their rare fight was so wonderfully pleasing to the eye, and so honourable to the combatants, that if they had jested one would well have been contented to view all the long day: but the good prince was too hard for the other, for with his ready blows he urged the great slave out of his cell, and made him sit behind the arson of the saddle, and if this accident had not happen'd he had surely made him sit behind the arson of his elephants tayle. For so soon as the elephant had but touched the lists, the Christian marshals of the field came gallopping and parted the combatants, holding the Turk as vanquished, whilst betwixt the contrary and adverse part there was four negatives, so that well nigh they had fallen to blows, for the case seemed to the Christian plain, to the Turk unjust. That because the beast whereon he rode went to the lists end, therefore the stopper should be blamed. Well, heraulds whose office it is to deal in such royal matters, had the discussing of it, and it was deferred to arbiters, with this condition, that if the Turk was found vanquished, he should be yielded as recreant (and miscreant he was.) So the matter was posted off whilst it never was concluded, and both the parties departed, the one to the camp, the other to the city, in no less solemn pomp than they entred accompanied into the sands, where so rare a chance fortuned betwixt so puissant emperors. And because the matter was as strange as true I have sojourned a little too long in it. But in the next inne you shall have a better refreshment or a newer choice.'
We have already spoken of the author's style as being racy and spirited; we might have added, that at times it is also exceedingly harmonious and poetical. Thus, for example, speaking of a female, he says, 'In her silken soft hand she held a lute, discoursing sweetly upon the solemn strings with her nimble fingers.' And again, when speaking of the Christian and Turkish armies, he says, "Now it had been a brave sight, to see the greatest princes of the whole world east and west, attended on by their whole forces set in aray, their gorgeous and bright armours and weapons casting up long tramels of golden shine to the heavens, the noyse of clarions, trumpets, etc. incouraging the fainting souldier, and increasing the boldness of the resolute. There was at once in this field all the terror of the world, accompanied with all the beauty.'
But enough. We must now, though reluctantly, take leave of our theme, fearing, like the author of the last romance, that because the matter was strange as true, we have sojourned a little too long in it.'
ART. V.- History of Maine.
ry, A. D. 1602, to the Separation, A. D. 1820, inclusive.
The author of this work has long been known to the public as a lawyer and politician of eminence; and he has fully maintained his reputation as a historian. We rejoice that at last we have a complete history of Maine, written by one capable of doing it justice. During the fifteen years that these volumes have been in preparation, every authentic source of information has been examined, from the library of Harvard University and the Boston Athenæum, to the communication of the most unpretending correspondent. Mr. Williamson has wanted neither patience and industry in collecting facts, nor ability in relating them in the manner best fitted for the object he had in view. He has given a simple, unvarnished record of truths, many of which are of a nature to excite a lively interest, and has no where allowed his pen to play with figures, flowers, and phantoms in the fields of fancy.
The Introduction contains the best description of the coast, islands, and geographical features, that has yet appeared. When consulted in connexion with the excellent map of Mr. Greenleaf, it will often be found of great utility. Mr. Williamson's description of the animals, vegetables and minerals of Maine, will be of service to the naturalist; and his account of the medicinal qualities of many indigenous herbs, will, it is hoped, awaken a spirit of inquiry on the subject.
The body of the work includes not only the great outlines of the history of Maine, but a correct and detailed account of the various parts of the State. A large amount of valuable matter is embodied in as small a space, as could be reasonably expected or desired. A history of so important a State, containing a larger territory, and a greater portion of fertile soil than all the rest of New England,—the third State of the Union in amount of shipping, and possessing almost as many good harbors as all the United States besides, cannot be re lated in a few pages. Belknap’s New Hampshire, Williams's Vermont, or Bradford's Massachusetts could be compressed into a six-penny magazine, with as much reason, to say the least, as the history of Maine.
Finally, the work is arranged with judgment; written in a neat, perspicuous style ; and will long be regarded as a standard history. Those who would become acquainted with one of the principal States of the American Republic,—who have viewed its beautiful scenery ; its towering and majestic mountains; its romantic undulations of hill and valley; its shining lakes and broad winding rivers :—who have gazed on the crumbling ruins of the ancient warriors' home, and have longed to know the deeds of the days of other years,'—would do well to purchase the work of Mr. Williamson.
The coast of this State was first visited by Capt. Gosnold, in 1602. After sailing along the shore as far as Cape Cod, he returned to England, without seeing or performing any thing remarkable. But America was now regarded with curiosity and interest. The romantic and fantastical accounts of its sylvan scenes and wild inhabitants,' were listened to with admiration; and after having been disregarded for more than a hundred years, or at least viewed as a residence fit only for savage men, it had become the theme of conversation in every circle, and already in imagination was a home for many a bold adventurer.
In the course of three years, two other navigators, Captains Pring and Weymouth, arrived on the coast, and explored some of the harbors and bays. Weymouth was much pleased with his visit; his men readily caught plenty of salmon, cod, haddock, and other large fish ; and the soil on the islands and main was found to be of an excellent quality. In ascending Penobscot Bay in his pinnace, all were delighted with the beautiful prospect: they admired the cool dark groves, and listened with rapture to the songs of the wild birds among the branches. The wide and deep river, with its pebbly coves and green borders, appeared to them the finest they had ever seen. The captain was instructed to treat the natives with the greatest kindness, in his intercourse and traffic with them; but he easily found a pretext for kidnapping five, with whom he soon returned home, leaving an irreconcilable hatred against the English name.
Five companies were soon after formed, and incorporated by king James, for the purpose of colonizing the American coast, and teaching the savages the precepts of the Christians of those times, their practices having been duly impressed on the minds of the natives by the actions of Capt. Weymouth and bis man-stealing associates. The London Company, in April, 1607, established a colony at the mouth of James river in Virginia ; and soon after, on the 31st of May, the Plymouth Company despatched two ships with emigrants, to commence a settlement on the coast of Maine. They arrived on the 8th of August, and soon established themselves in the southerly part of the present town of Phipsburg. The vessels returned to England in December, leaving forty-five of the adventurers to spend the winter on the edge of an unexplored wilderness, and on the shore of a wild tempestuous ocean.
A combination of circumstances caused this settlement to come to nothing. The winter was extremely severe; the natives became more unfriendly; and the first arrivals from England brought information of the death of Lord John Popham, the leading member of the Plymouth Company. The colonists left the country with the returning ships, and justified themselves to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and other members of the Company. From this time, however, the coast was never deserted by the English, until it became permanently settled. They fished among the islands, traded with the natives, and sometimes wintered in the country. The island of Monhegan was a place of general rendezvous, and had permanent inhabitants as early as 1622, and probably before that time. In the year following, settlements were commenced at Saco, Sagadahoc, and other places on the main, which soon spread over the whole coast.
Meanwhile the French were not careless spectators of the operations of the English in America : they were fired with the idea of extending their possessions, and of partaking in the gainful trade with the natives. In 1603, Henry VI. of France granted a patent to the Sieur de Monts of all the American territory between the fortieth and forty-sixth degrees of north latitude, giving the tract the name of Acadia. De Monts soon crossed the Atlantic, and after visiting the coast of Maine, and wintering on St. Croix island, at the head of Passamaquoddy Bay, finally settled at Port Royal, now Annapolis, in Nova Scotia. Some of his adherents soon after laid the foundation of Quebec; and two Jesuit priests, leaving Port Royal, established themselves on the island of Mount Desert. In the course of three or four years, these Jesuits were joined by twenty-five or thirty other Catholics. They were, however, soon dispossessed by Capt. Royal, who, with sixty followers, destroyed their settlement; carried fifteen of them, with the Jesuits, to Virginia, and sent the others to France. Royal pursued his conquests; broke up the French settlements at St. Croix and Port Royal; and carried the booty to Jamestown. But the French soon returned ; pursued their fisheries ; traded with the Indians ; furnished them with arms; and converted them to the Catholic religion. They were not molested again, however, until 1629, when David Kirk, with his kinsmen Louis and Thomas, reduced their establishments at Quebec, Trois Rivières, and Tadousac.
The English settlements in New England now advanced with great rapidity; in 1631 eight extensive grants of territory in Maine had been made by the council of the Plymouth Company. All ranks were equal on this side of the Atlantic. There were no privileged orders. The inhabitants enjoyed civil and religious liberty ; they were borne down by no oppressive tax; and were free from the political squabbles and persecutions of the parent state. Many persons of superior abilities repaired