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STATE OF CALIFORNIA.
'ADOPTED BY THE CONVENTION, OCTOBER 10, 1849; RATIFIED BY THE PEOPLE, NOVEMBER 13, 1849; PROCLAIMED, DECEMBER 20, 1849 ; AND AMENDED
IN 1857, 1862, AND 1871.
PREAMBLE. We, the people of California, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, in order to secure its blessings, do establish this Constitution.
DECLARATION OF RIGHTS. Section 1. All men are by nature free and independent, and have certain inalienable rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty; acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and pursuing and obtaining safety and happiness.
Sec. 2. All political power is inherent in the people. Government is instituted for the protection, security, and benefit of the people, and they have the right to alter or reform the same whenever the public good may require it.
Sec. 3. The right of trial by jury shall be secured to all, and shall remain in violate forever; but a jury trial may be waived by the parties, in all civil cases, in the manner to be prescribed by law.
Sec. 4. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or prefer
ence, shall forever be allowed in this state; and no person shall be rendered incompetent to be a witness on account of his opinions on matters of religious belief, but the liberty of conscience hereby secured shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or justify practices inconsistent with the peace or safety of this state.
Sec. 5. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require its suspension.
Sec. 6. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed; nor shall cruel or unusual punishments be inflicted; nor shall witnesses be unreasonably detained.
Sec. 7. All persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, unless for capital offenses when the proof is evident or the presumption great.
Sec. 8. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime (except in cases of impeachment, and in cases of militia when in actual service, and the land and naval forces in time of war, or which this state may keep, with the consent of Congress, in time of peace, and in cases of petit larceny, under the regulation of the legislature) unless on presentment or indictment of a grand jury; and, in any trial in any court whatever, the party accused shall be allowed to appear and defend, in person and with counsel, as in civil actions. No person shall be subject to be twice put in jeopardy for the same offense; nor shall he be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.
Sec. 9. Every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right; and no law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech or of the press. In all criminal prosecutions on indictments for libels, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury; and if it shall appear to the jury that the matter charged as libelous is true, and