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THE TOWN. OF ABBEVILLE IN FRANCE. | agricultural products of the neighbouring country,

is a town in the North of France between and especially in corn, a large quantity of which is Calais and Paris. It lies to the South of Calais at brought from all quarters of the department, to be the distance of rather more than one hundred miles

embarked on the Somme. The population of Abbeby the road; and to the North of Paris at the dis

ville is now stated at about 19,000; in 1698, it was tance of about eighty miles. Under the old territorial

17,982,-showing a comparatively small increase. divisions of France it was comprised within the pro

Abbeville is not a place of great antiquity. A vince of Picardy, ranking in the second place among

native writer has, indeed, contended that it existed the towns of that division, or next to Amiens, (which

under the name of Britannia two centuries before the lies about thirty miles to the south-west of it.) It

Christian era,- that it was the chief town of the was also, in carly times, the capital of the earldom or

people called Britanni, in Belgic Gaul, whom he supcounty of Ponthieu. It is, at present, included in

poses to have given their name to our own island of the department of the Somme; and is built upon the

Britain ; but this, as the French antiquary Du Chesne banks of the river which gives that name to the

says, is “ probably" a prejudice in favour of his native

town. In the iniddle ages, the town is mentioned department. Its situation is pleasant, and advan

| under the Latin names of Abbatis villa, Abbavilla, and tageous for the purposes of commerce ; it stands in a

Abacicovilla, which it is said to have derived from its fertile valley about four miles broad, and is accessible by the Somme to boats of one hundred tons' burden,

founder, one of the Counts of Ponthieu, who was an

abbot. The earldom or county of Ponthieu, of which at high water, the tide rising six feet. Abbeville is a fortified town, though not remarkable

Abbeville was the capital, obtained its name according for strength, its circuit, exclusive of the fortifica

to Du Chesne, from the number of ponts or bridges tions, is nearly three miles and a half (English). It

in the fens and marshes which existed in this part of has five gates, near one of which is a charming pro

France. menade, planted with trees, by the side of the Somme.

In the carly wars of England and France, the The ramparts themselves, “ flanked with bastions, and

county of Ponthieu, and its capital, the town of surrounded with broad ditches planted with avenues

Abbeville, were frequently objects of contention. of trees, form an agreeable promenade, and command

The county passed by marriage to the English crown; a fine view both of the town and the surrounding

and in the year 1329, Edward the Third did homage country.”

for it to Philip the Sixth, or Philip of Valois. In In its passage through Abbeville, the Somme forms

1316, during the war between those Sovereigns, a smali island upon which the central portion of the

Philip fixed his quarters at Abbeville, just before the present town stands, the rest of it being distributed

battle of Cressy, and built a bridge there for the along the two banks. Besides this river there are

passage of his army. “He remained there a whole three smaller streams intersecting it; so that upwards

day," says Du Chesne, " to assemble his army, and of sixty bridges of various sizes are required to keep

on the morrow being advised that the English were up the communications between its different parts.

near, resolved to go and attack them, which he did Some of the streets are broad; the houses are

at the village of Crécy, but with shame and loss *,' &c. generally of brick, there being but a few of stone,

By the trcaty of Bretigni, which was concluded and some antiquated decayed edifices of wood. In

between Edward the Third and John the Second of former times, the town was adorned with many fine

France, on the 8th of May, 1360, the king of Eagresidences belonging to the neigbouring gertry; "but

land acquired the full sovereignty of the earldom cf traces of dilapidation and decay," said an English

Ponthieu, among other valuable territories in France; traveller some years ago,“ the effect of the Revolution,

in this cession the town of Abbeville was of course are everywhere visisible, without any, or hardly any,

lv any included. In 1364, however, king John died a pri. cheering symptoms of renovation." There are no

soner in London, having been unable to raise the public buildings deserving of particular notice, except

sum of 3,000,000 crowns of gold,--the amount of the Hall of Justice, the Town House, and the

his stipulated ransom. Collegiate Church,—or Cathedral, as it is sometimes

His successor, Charles the Fifth, became speedily called.

embroiled with the Black Prince, who governed This last edifice. the Collegiate Church of St. | Edward's dominions in the South of France : and in Wulfran,-is described as being in the finest style of

1368, made secret preparations for a fresh war with Gothic architecture; “ but the beautiful colossal

the king of England, at the same time openly exstatues at its front gate were mutilated at the Revo

| pressing his desire to maintain the peace. His intenlution, and it is so encumbered with houses on every

tion was to take Edward by surprise, and to regain side, that the exterior cannot readily be seen." The

possession of the county of Ponthicu by a sudden portal, however, and the two lofty square towers

attack; his measures were accordingly directed, in rising above it, are still objects of attention. The

the first instance, against its capital, the town of structure was founded by the Counts of Ponthieu in

Abbeville. He proceeded with great caution ; for, as an early age; and like many other ecclesiatical edi

Froissart says :fices in France, it remains to the present day in an The French kynge woulde not be knowen of the warr, unfinished state. “The interior has nothing striking,

for thicreby he thought he should lose the enterprise that except that which fixes the attention of the English

he trusted to have in the Erldome of Ponthieu. For if the

kyng of Englande had perfectly knowen that the French traveller in all Catholic churches,-freedom from or Cathonc churches, ---Treedom from or kyng woulde have made hym warr, he woulde right well

i gan, pews, and screens.".

have withistood the domages that he had after in Ponthieu, The manufactures of Abbeville are considerable. for he would so well have provyded for the good toune o. Its woollen-cloth manufactory, which was established Abbeville with Englyshmen, and so well have furnyshel all in 1665, by a Dutchman, named Van Robais, under

| other garysons in the said countie, that he would have been the patronage of Colbert, the celebrated minister of

still soverayne over them. And the seneshall of the same

countie was an Englyshman, called Sir Nicholas Lovayng, Louis the Fourteenth, is the most extensive in

who was in good farour with the kyng of Englande, as he was France; the cloths which are here produced, are worthy; for he was so true that to be drawen with wylde said to be little inferior to those of our own country. | horses he would never consent to any shame, cowardesse, or An extensive trade is also carried on at Abbeville, not villany only in the articles manufactured there, but in the

See Saturday Magazine, Vol. VIII., p. 58.

In the following year, 1369, when Charles had | ministers at Amiens; and that it might be concluded matured his preparations, he determined to com- with due solemnity, it was thought necessary that mence operations by an attack upon Abbeville ; but there should be a meeting between the two monarchs. he still conceived himself bound by the laws of The celebrated Philip de Comines, who was one of honour to send a “i defiance," or formal declaration the chief councillors of Louis, gives an interesting of war, to Edward, although it was his intention not account in his Memoirs of the measures taken by his to await the return of his messenger, but to calculate suspicious master to accomplish that object without the time of his arrival at the English court, and then endangering his safety and exposing his person to to begin at once. Or, again to quote the language of fatal risks; for the sad experience of the age had Froissart,

shown that the prevalent notions of honour were not When the Frenche kyng had secrete and certayne know. always a safeguard against treachery, and as Louis ledge how they within Abbeville would become French, would scarcely have scrupled to resort to such a villany and that the warres were open in Gascony, and howe all himself, he was naturally led to guard against it on his people were ready aparelled and in good wyll to make

the part of others. warr agaynst the prince, and to enter into the principalyte: how beit he thought as then to have no reproache, nor in

In order, (says Comines,) to bring the whole affair to a tyme to come to be said of hym, that he should send his

conclusion, they consulted what place was most convenient people into the Kyng of Englande or prince's lande, or to

for the interview of the two kings, and persons were take townes, cyties, castles, or fortresses, without defyance;

appointed to survey it; the Lord du Bouchage and I were wherefore he was counselled to send to defy the Kyng of

chosen for our master, and the Lord Howard, one Cha. Englande. And so he dyd, by his letters closed, and a

langer, (as the writer calls Sir Anthony St. Leger,) and a

Herald for the King of England. Upon our taking a view Breton varlet bore them.

of the river, we agreed the best and securest place was This proceeding of sending the defiance by a Picquiny, a strong castle some three leagues from Amiens, “varlet,” is said to have been resorted to, because the belonging to the Vidame of Amiens, which had been burnt Black Prince had arrested the messengers whom not long before by the Duke of Burgundy; the town lies Charles had sent to cite him to appear before the

low, the river Somme runs through it, and is not fordable

near it. On the one side, by which our king was to come, French Court of Peers, to answer the complaints

was a fine champain country, and on the other side it was which had been lodged against hiin touching the im

the same, only when the king of England came to the river position of several obnoxious taxes in the province of he was obliged to pass a causey, about two bow-shots long, Guienne. The appearance of the “varlet" upon such with marshes on both sides, which might have been of an errand, in the court of Edward, produced con very dangerous consequence to the English, if our intentions siderable sensation.

had not been honourable. And certainly as I have said

before, the English do not manage their treaties and capituThe kyng and his counsayle had great despite that a

lations with so much cunning and policy as the French do, varlet should thus bringe his defyance, and sayd howe it was nothing appertenant that the warre between two such

let people say what they will, but proceed more ingenuously great princes as the kyng of Englande and the Frenche

and with greater freedom in their affairs, yet a man must

be cautious and have a care not to affront them, for 'tis kyng should be published by a varlet: they thought it had

dangerous meddling with 'em. After we had fixed upon been more metely that it should have been done by a pre

the place, our next consultation was about a bridge, which late, or by some valyant man, baron, or knyght; how beit

was ordered to be built large and strong, to which purpose they sawe there was no remedy. Then they counsayled

we furnished our carpenters with materials. In the midst the kyng that incontynent he shoulde sende a great army

of the bridge there was contrived a strong wooden grate, or into Ponthieu to kepe the frontiers there, and specially to

lattice, such as the lions' cages are made of, the hole the toune of Abbeville, the which he was in great danger of

between every bar being no wider than to thrust in a man's losing. The kyng was content so to do: and so there was

arm, the top was covered only with boards to keep off the appointed to go thither the Lorde Percy, the Lorde Nevyll,

rain, and the body of it was big enough to contain ten or the lorde of Carbesson, and Sir William of Wynsore, with

twelve men of a side, with the bars running cross to both CCC. men, and M. archers. And in the mean season,

sides of the bridge, to hinder any person from passing over whyle these lordes made them redy and were come to Dover

it either to the one side or the other; and in the river there to passe the sea, there came other tidynges out of Ponthieu,

was only one little boat to convey over such as had a mind the wbich were nothing joyfull. For as soon as the Erle

to cross it. Guy of St. Poule, and Sir Hewe of Chastellon who were at then maisters of the Crosbowes of France, thought by This method of arranging an interview between all likely hod, that the kyng of Englande was defyed, then two enemies, desirous of becoming friends, was not they drew towards Ponthieu, and had sent secretly their a novel one. It had been put in practice in 1419, commandement to the knightes and squires of Artoyse,

and when the Dauphin of France, (afterwards Charles Heynalt, Cambresis, Vermandose, Vyen, and Picardy, that they should incontynent come to them; and so they dyd

the Seventh,) and John Duke of Burgundy met on to the nombre of six score spears, and came to Abbeville.

the bridge of Montereau, or Faut-yonne; but upon And they set upon the gates, for it was do determined that occasion the barrier was furnished with a wicket, before, and so the men of warre entered without doyng of bolted on both sides, "by means of which, and by any hurt to any of them of the toune. Then Sir Hewe of consent of both parties, they might pass to either." Chastelon, who was chefe leader of these men of warre,

During the conference, the Duke, at the invitation of went streyght where as he thought to fynde the Seneschall

the Dauphin, as some say, drew back the bolt upon of Ponthieu, Sir Nicolas Lovayng, and dyd so moche that he founde him, and toke him prisoner. Also they toke a

his side of the wicket, and passed through, when he riche clerke and a valyant man, tresourer of Ponthieu ; so was immediately attacked and slain, with some of his that day the Frenchmen toke many a riche prisoner, and attendants. Louis, (who was the eldest son and the Englishmen lost all that they had in the town of successor of Charles the Seventh,) had not forgotten Abbeville.

a deed which fixed so black a stain upon his father's A few miles to the south-west of Abbeville, and early life, and he therefore desired particularly that on the road between it and Amiens, stands the small in the arrangements for his interview with Edward, town of Pecquigny, which is remarkable in our history " there should be no passage from one side to the as having been the scene of that curious interview other.” He related to Comines the story of the Duke between Edward the Fourth and Louis the Eleventh, of Burgundy's murder, and commanded expressly at which the two sovereigas conferred and ratified a that there should be no door," for," said he, “if there treaty of peace upon a bridge thrown across the had not been one then, there had been no occasion Somme, with a strong wooden grating, “such as the of inviting the duke on that side, and that inconlions' cages are made of," between them. The terms venience (as he styles the murder,) had been pre. of the treaty had been previously arranged by their vented,” &c.


The barrier being finished, (says Comines,) and the on the walls of the towns were termed warders; we place fitted for the interview as you have already heard; | frequently find them noticed by that accurate narrator the next day, which was the 29th of August, 1475, in the of matters of antiquity, the late Sir Walter Scott. morning, the two kings appeared. The king of France

who has thus described the appearance of this watchi came first, attended by about eight hundred men at arms: 1 on the king of England's side his whole army was drawn in the evening, in his poem of Marmion.''. 'ITE up in oriler of battle; and though we could not discover

The warriors on the turrets high, '. " their whole force, yet we saw such a vast number both of

Moving athwart the evening sky, horse and foot, that the body of troops that were with us

· Seemed forms of giant height : seemed very inconsiderable in respect of them, but indeed

Their armour, as it caught the rays, , the fourth part of our army was not there. It was given

Flashed back again the western blaze, out that twelve men of a side were to be with each of the

In lines of dazzling light. kings at the interview, and that they were already chosen

Saint George's banner, broad and gay, out of the greatest and most intimate of their courts. With

Now faded, as the fading ray us we had four of the king of England's party to view what

Less bright, and less, was flung; was done among us, and they had as many as ours on their

The evening gale had scarce the power side, to have an eye over their actions. As I said before,

Tc wave it on the Donjon Tower, our king came first to the grate, attended by about twelve

So heavily it hung. persons of the greatest quality in France; among which

The scouts had parted on their search, were John Duke of Bourbon, and the Cardinal his brother.

The castle gates were barred; i It was the king's royal pleasure (according to an old and

Above the gloomy portal arch, common custom that he had) that I should be dressed like

Timing his footsteps to a march, him that day. The king of England advanced along the

The warder kept his guard; Causey, (which I mentioned before,) very nobly attended,

Low humming, as he paced along, with the air and presence of a king: there were in his

Some ancient border-gathering song." " -": train his brother the Duke of Clarence, the Earl of Northumberland, his Chamberlain called the Lord Hastings, An armed watch was continued in after-times as a his Chancellor and other peers of the realm; among which local guard, when the necessity for soldiery became there were not above four drest in cloth of gold like him

unnecessary, on account of the more civilized state of self. The king of England wore a black velvet cap upon

the community. Cities, towns, and boroughs, achis head, with a large Hower-de-luce made of precious stones upon it." He was a prince of a noble majestick presence,

cording to the number of their respective inhabitants, his person proper and straight, but a little inclining to be fat; were bound to maintain a certain number of men for I had seen him before when the Earl of Warwick drove watch by night, and for ward by day, and hence the him out of his kingdom, then I thought him much hand- | division of London and other places into wards, of somer, and to the best of my remembrance my eyes had which the alderman was more especially the magigi never beheld a more beautiful person. When he came

trate. The watch had power to search out all sim. within a little distance of the rail, he pulled off his cap and bowed himself within half a foot of the ground; and

proper, or even suspected persons, and to keep them the king of France who was then leaning over the barrier in custody till the following day. In Edinburgh, received him with abundance of reverence and respect: they not much more than thirty years have elapsed since embraced through the holes of the grate, and the king of the watch were armed with battle-axes. From this England making him another low bow, the king of France military origin of the police, the name of serjeant is saluted him thus. Cousin, you are heartily welcome, there still applied to an officer of the watch

still applied to an officer of the watch. is no person living I was so ambitious of seeing, and God be thanked that this interview is upon so good an occasion.

. The first notice we have of a nightly watch in The king of England returned the compliment in very

the city of London, is in the year 1263, during the good French, then the Chancellor of England (who was a disputes between King Henry the Third and the citiprelate and bishop of Ely) began his speech with a pro zens. During this troublesome time, a strong guard phecy, (of which the English are always provided,) that at was kept in the city, and by night a party of horse, Picquigny a memorable peace was to be concluded between

supported by some infantry, incessantly patrolled the the English and Frenclı: after he had finished his harangue the instrument was produced which contained the articles

streets. This guard gave rise to a gang of thieves, the king of France had sent to the king of England. The

who, under pretence of being part of the foot-patrol, Chancellor demanded of our king whether he had sent the and ordered to search for strangers, got into and said articles and whether he had agreed to 'em ? the king robbed many houses. In order to prevent such replied yes; and king Edward's being produced on our practices for the future, a standing watch was ap. side, he made the same answer. The Missal being brought

pointed in every ward. and opened, both of the kings laid one of their hands

In 1509, at the beginning of the reign of Henry upon the book, and the other upon the true cross, and both of 'em swore religiously to observe the contents of the

the Eighth, that monarch made his entry into the truce, &c.

city in state, and was received by the citizens with After a further conversation for a short time, the

great pomp and pageantry. The watch, which had two kings retired from the barrier at the same time,

in those days become a large and well-constituted “or very near it," and mounting their horses rode

body, were paraded before him; and the king was so off, the king of France to Amiens, and the king of

pleased that he returned shortly afterwards to the city, England to his army.

accompanied by his queen and the principal nobility, - It is singular that more than five hundred years

when the procession was repeated, and afterwards it before this meeting at Pecquigny, William Longue

was continued every Midsummer-night. épée, (or Long-sword,) Duke of Normandy, the son

The march was begun by the city music, followed and successor of the illustrious Northman chieftain,

by the Lord Mayor's officers in parti-coloured liveRollo, who founded that principality, was murdered

ries; the sword-bearer on horseback, in beautiful at the same place by Arnulf, Count of Flanders,

armour, preceded the lord mayor, mounted on a whom he had met there for the purpose of adjusting

stately horse, richly trapped, attended by a giant and some feudal dispute.

two pages on horseback, three pageants, Morris dancers, and footmen; next came the sheriffs, pre

ceded by their officers, and attended by their giants. THE ANCIENT WATCH AND WARD.

pages, pageants, and morris-dancers; then marched Our present police is a modification of the armed a great body of demi-lances, in bright armour, on force, employed in former times for the protection of stately horses ; next followed a body of carabineers, fortified towns, and for the purpose of giving notice in white fustian coats, with a symbol of the city arms of the approach of friend or enemy. The men placed on their backs and breasts; then marched a division

of archers, with their bows bent, and shafts of arrows !

THE YOUNG CHEMIST. "" by their sides ; next followed a party of pikemen in

No. X is liian their corslets and helmets ; after whom marched a column of halberdiers in their corslets and helmets,

EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION. and the march was closed by a great party of bill. I stated to you in our last description that the mere men, with helmets and aprons of mail, and the whole alterations in the heat of the weather caused the body, consisting of about two thousand men, had

expansion and contraction of metals, and as iron is now between every division a certain number of musi

so very abundantly used in buildings, the engineer cians, who were answered in their proper places by has not only to understand this fact, but also to guard the like number of drums, with standards and en

against its effects. signs, as veteran troops.

Supposing, for instance, that a large iron beam was This nocturnal march was illuminated by 940 | firmly secured at each end, on the tops of two stone cressets, 200 whereof were defrayed at the city ex piers or columns : it would expand by the heat of a pense, 500 at that of the companies, and 240 by the Summer's day, and force the columns out of their city constables. When on usual duty, two men were

upright position: it would contract in the cool of the appointed to each cresset, one to carry it, and night, and draw them back again; and such operation “ another to beare a bag with light and to serve it ; going on for months together, the columns, supposing so that the poor men pertaining to the cressets, taking them to be of one stone, would be rendered unsteady; wages, besides that every one had a straw-hat, with or if of several pieces of stone, the cement would fall a badge painted, and his breakfast in the morning away from the joints, and they would fall to pieces.. amounted in number to almost 2000." An old poet! Now in building iron bridges, this property of the thus notices these cressets :

expansion of iron must be guarded against, or other....... Let nothing that's magnifical,

wise it would greatly damage the stone piers. I beSr. Or that may tend to London's graceful state,

lieve that it is generally done by allowing a space for 971, Be unperformed, as showes and solemn feasts,

the iron to expand, and not bolting it firmly to the to : Watches in armour, triumphs, cresset lights, -90 ,- Bonfires, bells, and peals of ordnance,

masonry; but it is the business of the practical engi.?!!, And pleasure.

neer to devise the best means of doing this properly. The cressets here mentioned were a sort of iron

You would, at first thought, deem it a bit of pleapan, containing burning pitch, or other combustibles, santry, if I told you that the iron columns in the carried at the end of a long pole; they appear to

| Quadrant of Regent-street, London, are taller and have been employed in many of the pageants of the

larger in a hot than in a cold day; but if you reflect citizens.

for a moment on what I have said, you will perceive at UTIBIOO9 70

once that such must be the case, not only with them,

but with all other iron or metal columns or bars, grees

exposed to the influence of heat and cold. son Cid

If, as in our first experiment, the small bit of copper-wire expanded so much as to be incapable of

passing into the gauges, how much greater must be

38 the expansion of a larger mass of metal; but yet it mi nos

cannot be detected by the eye; it is only to be done od garn

by very close and accurate measurement. is

Many artisans who construct beautiful and delicate bubur

machinery, have to guard against the expansion of ,9210d sdt bolig

metals; the watchmaker in particular has to do this, 2949idt

If you examine the works of this watch, which is Otsg-toot


a very common one, you will find that all the whcels bas

xehto have steel pins or axles, and that they work in brass

boles. Now what is this done for Why, in the first place, the extreme strength of a bit of steel renders it fitter for the pin or axle than brass, because the latter is soft, and would bend; but there is another reason, which is this. You have already seen that stcel does not expand so much as brass; and therefore when the watch is worn in the pocket, the heat of the body causes both metals to expand; but the

steel pin expands less than the brass hole, and there1 - za

fore the pin has always free motion.

But supposing that the works of the watch were

constructed exactly the reverse, that is, with brass 31 OTTO

pins and steel holes ; why, after being worn in the warm

pocket for a short time, the watch would stop its Lowollo stil bau

movements, because of the brass pins expanding so

much more than the steel holes. 1!11!' 'RESSETS OF THE ANCIENT WATCIT OF LONDON.

Expansion by heat also affects the tone of bells, The yearly pageant of the watch on Midsummer- and the wires of stringed instruments. night was discontinued, by desire of the king, in Here is a small handbell ; remark the shrill tove it 1539, on account of its great expense to the city, produces. I will now heat it over the flame of this but it was again set on foot in 1548, during the reading-lamp, so that it may expand. Now listen; mayoralty of Sir Thomas Gresham ; but in about how much less shrill the tone is, because for the time twenty years after, this marching watch and its pro- being there is a larger mass vibrating the original cession were entirely remodelled, and a standing tone returns as the bell cools. Watch much more useful and less expensive, ap. If a pianoforte is tuned in a cold room, it will be Pointed in its stead.

out of tune when the room is heated, -because some 101PNA




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