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the north-north-east, which continued, with inter- | been distinguished, so overpowering were the horrible mediate calms, till midnight.
roar and yelling of the wind, and the noise of the The thermometer during the whole of the evening tumultuous ocean, whose frightful waves threatened had varied with remarkable activity ; during the to sweep into the abyss all that the other elements calms it stood at 86°, but at other moments it fluc- | might spare. Such, indeed, was the appalling scene, tuated from 83° to 85o. After midnight the continual that the heart sank in despair, and the mind became flashing of the lightning was awfully grand, and a altogether bewildered, and with many, their reason for gale blew fiercely from between the north and the a time was shaken from her throne. north-east.
I have heard many of my friends declare that they At one A.m. of the 11th, the tempestuous rage of felt it quite impossible to give any expression of the the wind increased. The storm, which at this moment sensations which then distracted, confounded, and in came from the north-east, suddenly shifted to the a manner. benumbed, all their faculties. The sight north-west. The upper regions of the air were from and the hearing were overpowered, and the excess of this time illuminated by incessant lightning, but the horror refused admission to fear One friend told me quivering sheet of blazing fire was far surpassed in that, when his senses in some measure returned, he brilliancy by the darts of the electric fluid which were found himself standing up against the wall of the exploded in every direction. It was, however, at room in which he was sleeping when the hurricane a little after two o'clock A.M. that the astounding commenced. The roof had been removed from the roar of the hurricane rushed from the north-north- house, and every article from the room, except some west, and north-west, with a horror and impetuosity fragments of the wall that had been blown down : that no language can describe, or mind conceive. how he had escaped destruction he knew not. Some of my friends who heard it, compared it to the The unparalleled fury of the tempest continued agonizing shrieks of millions of human beings in the without any interruption till four o'clock. It blew last agony of despair; and said that there was some from the west and southward of west, and was attended · thing most heart-rending and most piercing in the with what was considered the dashing of heavy rain, wail or scream, which never ceased. About three, but, from what many have told me, that this rain the wind occasionally abated, but only to return in was quite salt, I am inclined to think it was the waves gusts from the south-west, the west, and the north- of the sea carried inland by the force of the wind. west, with accumulated fury. Fiery meteors were After five o'clock the storm now and then abated, observed by more than one person to fall from the during which lulls, the falling of substances which heavens, and one friend told me, he saw one in parti- had apparently been carried high into the air—the cular, of a globular form and deep-red hue, descend shrieks of suffering victims—the cries of the terrified perpendicularly from a great height, and he remarked inhabitants and the mournful howling of the dogs, that it fell evidently by its own specific gravity. On were all distinctly heard, and awakened in the mind approaching the earth its motion was accelerated, and of the listener a fearful apprehension of the scenes of it became of a dazzling whiteness, and elongated in death and misery with which he was surrounded. At form ; and, dashing on the ground in one of the paved about half-past five the wind suddenly moved round squares of the town, it splashed around in the same to the east, and though it may be said that the hurrimanner as melted lead would have done, if thrown cane still raged (sometimes veering to the south) until out of the furnace, and was instantly extinct, though seven o'clock, it was not with that force which had the brilliancy and spattering of its particles, when it been previously experienced. reached the earth, gave it the appearance rather of a At eight o'clock strong breezes blew from the eastglobe of quicksilver.
south-east, and about that hour the dense body of A few minutes after the appearance of this pheno- cloud that hovered over the island began to break up, menon, the deafening noise of the wind sank into a and at ten A.M. the sun looked down for a few solemn murmur, or, more correctly, it resembled a moments upon a scene of wretchedness and misery distant roar, and lightning, which since midnight had more sickening to the human heart than any, perhaps, played in flashes and forked darts with scarcely any that was ever witnessed. The humble cot, and the intermission, seemed for half a minute to hover | most costly mansion, had alike been hurled to debetween the clouds and the earth, moving frightfully, struction. Parents beheld their children, and children and with a novel and surprising action. There seemed their parents, husbands their wives, and wives their a vast body of vapour almost touching the houses, husbands, buried in the ruins, or strewed around which apparently caught fire from the clouds, and them, disfigured corpses; others, with fractured conveyed it, flaming, downwards, while another thou- limbs, and dreadful mutilations, were still alive, and sand torches were lighted from the earth, and mounted many of them rescued from under the fallen buildto the sky.
ings; and it was dreadful to hear their heart-piercing While this strange phenomenon continued, the cries of agony. Many streets in the town were totally earth was felt to vibrate, in a manner and in time impassable, from the houses having been lifted up from answering with the action of the lightning. Twice, or their foundations, and thrown in one mass of ruins more, when the coruscations were more brilliant and into the roads. Masses of rubbish, broken furniture, severe, but less rapid in their motions, the earth re- ships' spars, packages of merchandise, huge blocks of ceived corresponding shocks. The moment this sin- | mahogany, seemed to have been washed up, and gular alternation of the lightning passing to and from carried by the wind or the tide to great distances, the earth ceased, the hurricane again burst from the so as completely to block up the streets and highwestern points with a violence exceeding all that ways. had as yet been experienced, and hurling before it The whole face of the country was laid waste, the fragments of every unsheltered structure of human scarcely any sign of vegetation existed, and what did industry. The strongest buildings were found to remain was of a sickly green. The surface of the vibrate to the very foundation, and the surface of the earth appeared as if fire had passed over it, scorching very earth trembled as the destroyer passed over it. and burning up everything. The few trees that were No thunder was at any time heard, and, as every one still standing were stripped of their boughs and concurred in reporting, had the cannon of a million of foliage, and appeared as withered trunks. batteries been discharged, their sound could not have! The garrison of St. Ann's, which is about two miles distant from Bridgetown, and considered the called iron-wood and with which, for hardness, no head-quarters of our West India force, presented a European wood can be compared far more deplorable appearance than did the citadei | To those who were exposed in the open fields, the of Antwerp after all the battering which the French heavens often appeared as all on fire, with balls of could bestow upon it. An officer of the commissariat, | fire flying in all directions, and bursting exactly like his three children, with a female relative, and two ser shells from a mortar. A piece of lead, weighing about vants, were buried in the ruins of their habitation, | 150 pounds, was carried more than 600 yards; and and perished. The number of non-commissioned one weighing 400 pounds, was lifted by the wind and officers and soldiers, and of women and children, that carried to a distance of 560 yards. I mention these were killed, was only forty-three ; but about three striking facts which were fully ascertained, to show hundred, including all classes, were very seriously | the force and strength of the hurricane. There are hurt. The total number of persons killed in the several instances recorded, of children having been island, or who died of their wounds, was about 2,500, blown from the arms of those who were endeavouring and the number of wounded exceeded 5,000, while to escape with them, and who were afterwards found the amount of property destroyed was estimated at alive, and recovered. At Mount Wilton, a negro nearly two millions and a half, island currency. woman had her head severed from her body by a Many extraordinary circumstances, and most ex. | slate which had been carried from the roof of a traordinary escapes, are recorded, -none certainly | dwelling house at Bloomsbury, nearly a mile from more extraordinary than that related to me by my where she stood. I might mention a thousand other late excellent friend Colonel Diggens, then barrack accidents and hair-breadth escapes, but I believe I master at St. Ann's.
have said enough to give the reader a tolerable idea A mother, a daughter, a female slave, and a child of the awful nature of this visitation, and the ruin and of two years of age, were living together in a cottage | misery which it entailed upon Barbados, to which near his garden-wall. When the hurricane was at island its fury was chiefly confined. The only other its height, they heard the roof of their cottage going island to which it extended, with any great degree of off, and immediately rushed to the door for safety, violence, was St. Vincent's, where property to the the daughter carrying the child. At the same instant amount of more than 160,0001. was destroyed. the door was blown from its hinges and fell down,
[From Sır Andrew Halliday's West Indies.] and, in the horror of the moment, the young lady dropped or lost the child, and during the night it was no more heard of. Next morning, the mother and EASY LESSONS ON CHRISTIAN EVIDENCES. daughter were found alive, in an open space of ground
III. near the ruins of their cottage, and conveyed to the residence of Colonel Diggens. The person who had
ANCIENT Books. discovered these females, and had conveyed them to You have been taught that Christians--even those a place of shelter, then went to assist the Colonel in who have not received what is called a learned edu. extricating his horses from the ruins of their stable ; , cation,-ought to have some good reason for being while so employed they heard the cry of an infant, Christians; and not to believe in our religion, as the and, upon examining around, discovered at a little Pagans do in theirs, merely because their fathers did distance from them a child about two and a half so before them. But some persons suppose that, years old, perfectly naked, and black with cold. This however strong the evidences may be for the truth of was the child which had been lost, when the mother Christianity, these must be evidences only to the and daughter had made their escape from their cottage. learned, who are able to examine ancient books, and A wall, nine feet high, divided that cottage from the to read them in the original languages; and that an garden of Colonel Diggens, and the conjecture was, ordinary unlearned Christian must take their word that the child had fallen from the arms of the young for what they tell him. lady, and dropped upon the outer door of the cottage, | You do, indeed, read in English the accounts of which had just then blown down, and that, by some what Jesus and his Apostles said and did, and of strange swirl of the wind, this door had been lifted up what befell them. But the English book which we with the child upon it, carried over the nine-feet wall, call the Bible, professes to be a translation of what and deposited in the Colonel's garden, where both it was originally written in Greek and Hebrew, which and the child were now found.
you do not understand. And some one may perhaps I have often seen the hero of this adventure, who ask you, how you can know, except by taking the was from that moment adopted by the kind-hearted word of the learned for it, that there are these Greek Colonel. Many persons, I was assured, in their en- and Hebrew originals which have been handed down deavours to escape into the open streets, were cut in from ancient times? or how you can be sure that our two by the shingles blown from the roofs of the translations of them are faithful, except by trusting houses, and I myself saw, at the residence of the to the translators? So that an unlearned Christian Venerable Archdeacon Eliot, a branch of a tree must, after all, (some people will tell you) be at the through which a fragment of a shingle had passed, | mercy of the learned, in what relates to the very and which had been retained in its position by a large foundations of his faith. He must take their word nail that went across the fissure. If we consider (it will be said) for the very existence of the Bible in the yielding nature of the branch, and the blunt edge the original languages, and for the meaning of what of the shingle, we shall be able to form some idea of is written in it; and, therefore, he may as well at the force which could propel it through so hard a once take their word for everything, and believe in substance, so as to split the branch as if a wedge had his religion on their assurance. been driven through it.
And this is what many persons do. But others At the residence of Thomas G. B. Bushy, Esq. a will be apt to say, " How can we tell that the learned piece of soft deal was driven into the branch of a have not deceived us? The Mohammedans take the fustic-tree : it was believed that this deal had been word of the learned men among them; and the Pa. blown from the naval hospital, a distance of one-third gans do the same; and if the people have been im. of a mile. It was a soft fir deal, and the branch posed upon by their teachers in Mohammedan and through which it had penetrated is one of the species Pagan countries, how can we tell that it is not the same in Christian countries? What ground have we days, and put forth as a trans.ation from an ancient for trusting with such perfect confidence in our | book, there are many other learned men, of this and Christian teachers, that they are men who would not of various other countries, and of different religions, deceive us ?”
who would be eager to make an inquiry, and examine The truth is, however, that an unlearned Christian the question, and would be sure to detect any forgery, may have very good grounds for being a believer, especially on an important subject. without placing this entire confidence in any man. And it is the same with translators. Many of He inay have reason to believe that there are ancient these are at variance with each other as to the preGreek manuscripts of the New Testament, though he cise sense of some particular passage; and many of never saw one, nor could read it if he did. And he them are very much opposed to each other, as to the may be convinced that an English Bible gives the doctrines which they believe to be taught in Scripture. meaning of the original, though he may not trust But all the different versions of the Bible agree as completely to any one's word. In fact, he may have to the main outline of the history, and of the disthe same sort of evidence in this case, which every courses recorded; and therefore an unlearned Christian one trusts to in many other cases, where none but a may be as sure of the general sense of the original madman would have any doubt at all.
as if he understood the language of it, and could For instance, there is no one tolerably educated, examine it for himself; because he is sure that who does not know that there is such a country as unbelievers, who are opposed to all Christians, or France, though he may have never been there himself. different sects of Christians, who are opposed to each Who is there that doubts whether there are such other, would not fail to point out any errors in the cities as London, and Paris, and Rome, though he translations made by their opponents. Scholars have may have never visited them? Most people are fully an opportunity to examine and inquire into the convinced that the world is round, though there are meaning of the original works; and therefore the very but few who have sailed round it. There are many bitterness with which they dispute against each other, persons living in the inland parts of these islands proves that where they all agree they must be right.' who never saw the sea; and yet none of them, even All these ancient books, in short, and all the translathe most ignorant clowns, have any doubt that there is tions of them, are in the condition of witnesses placed such a thing as the sea. We believe all these, and many in a witness-box, in a court of justice, examined and other such things, because we have been told them. cross-examined by friends and enemies, and brought
Now suppose any one should say, “How do you face to face with each other, so as to make it certain know that travellers have not imposed upon you in that any falsehood or mistake will be brought to light. all these matters, as it is well known travellers are No one need doubt, therefore, that the books of apt to do? Is there any traveller you can so fully our English New Testament are really translated trust in, as to be quite sure he would not deceive from ancient originals in Greek, and are, at least, not you?" What would you answer? I suppose you forgeries of the present day; because unbelievers in would say, one traveller might, perhaps, deceive us ; Christianity would not have failed to expose such a or even two or three might possibly combine to pro forgery. But in the case of the books of the Old pagate a false story, in some case where hardly any Testament, we have a remarkable proof that they one would have the opportunity to detect them ; but could never have been forged by Christians at all; in these matters there are hundreds and thousands because they are preserved and highly reverenced by who would be sure to contradict the accounts if they the unbelieving Jews in various parts of the world were not true; and travellers are often glad of an at this day. These are the Scriptures which the opportunity of detecting each other's mistakes. Many Jews of Beræa were commended for searching with of them disagree with each other in several particu- | diligent care. In these they found the prophecies to lars respecting the cities of Paris and Rome; and if which the Apostles were accustomed to refer, as it had been false that there are any such cities at all, proving that Jesus was the promised Christ, or Mesit is impossible but that the falsehood should have siah. And the history goes on to relate that the been speedily contradicted. And it is the same with consequence of their searching those Scriptures was the existence of the sea, the roundness of the world, that “ many of them believed." and the other things that were mentioned.
It is in the same manner that we believe, on the word of astronomers, that the earth turns round
The instinctive love of self-preservation in coilaren
amongst the higher classes, is seldom so active as in those every twenty-four hours, though we are insensible ot,
who are less objects of care and solicitude; because, being the motion; and that the sun, which seems as if you
| accustomed to depend on the watchfulness of others, they could cover it with your hat, is immensely larger lose that quick perception of danger which is as natural to than the earth we inhabit, though there is not one infants as it is to animals. The cagerness for knowledge, person in ten thousand that has ever gone through | also, which is born with all children, becomes surfeited by the mathematical proof of this. And vet we have over-indulgence, and enervated by too much aid, But the
curiosity of young people should be excited on all useful very good reason for believing it; not from any
subjects, and ought to receive such assistance as shall cnstrong confidence in the honesty of any particular | courage their own minds to work out the rest. Si. astronomer, but because the same things are attested by many different astronomers, who are so far from combining together in a false account, that many of them rejoice in any opportunity of detecting each
THE BREAD FRUIT TREE,
(Artocarpus incisa.) other's mistakes
Now an unlearned man has just the same sort of Tuss tree, whose fruit is so useful, if not necessary, reason for believing that there are ancient copies, in to the inhabitants of most of the islands of the South Hebrew and Greek, of the Christian sacred books, Seas, has been chiefly celebrated as a production of and of the works of other ancient authors, who the Sandwich Islands; and is not confined to these mention some things connected with the origin of alone, but is also found in all the countries bordering Christianity. There is no need for him to place full on the Pacific Ocean. It was first discovered by confidence in any particular man's honesty. For if Europeans, on the coast of Malabar; afterwards it any book were forged by some learned men in these was met with at the Molucca Islands, Java, Batavia,
Otaheite, &c. The fruit of the trees which are grown, which is dug for that purpose, generally in the house, at Otaheite is considered better adapted for food than and neatly lined at the bottom and sides with grass : any other sort, being entirely free from seeds.
the whole is then covered with leaves, and heavy Rumphius, who met with this tree in the Ladrone stones laid on them : in this state it undergoes a Islands, describes it as somewhat larger than our second fermentation, which renders it sour, after apple-tree : the fruit hangs on boughs like apples, which it suffers no change for some months. It is and is of the size of a penny loaf, with a thick, tough taken out of the hole as it is wanted for use, and rind, which, when full ripe, turns yellow. The natives being made into balls, is wrapped up in leaves ang gather it before the fruit is quite ripe, and bake it till baked. After it is dressed, it will keep five or six the crust is pretty black : they then rasp it, and there weeks. remains a pretty loaf, with a tender, yellow crust, It is not the fruit alone of this valuable tree which and the crumb of it as soft and sweet as a new-baked is useful to the inhabitants, but they form their garroll. The fruit is in season for about eight months ments of the fibres of the bark, and the wood is in the year, and in order to have it in good order, it employed in the construction of their dwellings. As ought to be baked fresh every day. “But,” says if nothing might be wanting to render the gift of the Rumphius, “there is a remedy for this, which is, bread-fruit tree, in every respect beneficial, it is a cutting the loaf into slices when it is new, and drying plant propagated with so much ease, that “If a man them in the sun, by which they are changed into the plant ten trees in his life-time, which he may do in pleasantest rusk that can be caten.”
one hour, he will as completely fulfil his duty to his Captain Cook describes the tree as equal to a ! own and future generations, as the native of our less middling-sized oak, and the fruit as large as a small temperate climate can do, by ploughing in the cold child's head. He compares the taste to that of Winter, and reaping in the Summer's heat, as often crumb of bread mixed with Jerusalem artichoke. | as these seasons return." • The fruit is also cooked in a kind of oven, which The climate of the English islands in the West renders it soft, and something like a boiled potato, Indies being of about the same temperature as that not quite so farinaceous as a good one, but more so of Otaheite, the English government entertained the than those of a middling sort.” Of the bread-fruit, idea of transporting a number of these trees to they also make three dishes, by putting either water, Jamaica. To this end, in 1791, they despatched to or the milk of a cocoa-nut to it; then beating it to a Otaheite, a vessel of 400 tons burden, named the paste with a pestle, and afterwards mixing it with ripe Providence, together with a small tender named the plantains, bananas, or a sour paste which they call | Assistant. These were under the command of Capmahie.
tain Bligh, whose providential escape after the mutiny As there are four months in the year, during which of his crew, on a previous attempt to remove this the fresh bread-fruit is not to be obtained, they pre- valuable tree, is so well known *. They reached Otaserve a portion of it in the following manner. The heite in the beginning of April, 1792, and arrived in fruit, as usual, is gathered just before it becomes ripe, the West Indies with their cargo in January, 1793. and being laid in heaps, is closely covered with leaves : | The fruit produced by these trees has been in great in this state it undergoes a fermentation which ren- abundance ; but it is said not to be so large, or so ders it disagreeably sweet; the core is then taken fine flavoured, as that which is produced in its native out entire, which is done by gently pulling out the country. stalk, and the rest of the fruit is thrown into a hole, l . See Saturday Magazine, Vol. III., pp. 203, 243.
2679, 1837. Competence
S PRICE TONE PENNY,
GENERAL VIEW OF THE LAKE OF WINDERMERE, FROM THE EAST. The human mind at all times, but more especially | most of them thatched with straw. A little further when free from present cares, takes pleasure in con- on, at the top of a rocky and almost perpendicular templating the wild beauties of nature; and among bill, stand a few rude-looking houses, and a little such objects sylvan scenery, the grove, the grotto, church, called Ings Church. Some way further on is the clear blue lake, and the lofty rugged mountain an old bridge, built over a beautiful clear river, runwith its foaming cascades, have peculiar charms. ning rapidly over some large stones. Understanding that in no part of England were all About a mile further on, I came to the top of a these delightful objects to be seen to greater advan- hill, from whence there is a magnificent view of the tage than in Westmoreland, I made up my mind to famous Lake Windermere, studded with its numerous pay a visit to those romantic regions.
islands, and surrounded by an amphitheatre of lofty Early on a fine summer's morning, about the and rugged mountains. Nothing more grand or middle of June, I set out on foot from the town of picturesque can be imagined than this natural panKendal. The sun was shining brightly, and the orama, and vain indeed would be the attempt to morning was rather warm ; I, therefore, proceeded describe a scene which is far beyond description. leisurely along, enjoying the delightful scenery of the The point from which I viewed it is the side of a wild country around me. Along the right side of the large range of hills, that form the eastern boundary road ranged steep and lofty mountains, on whose of the lake, and sufficiently high for the tourist to ridges were browsing thousands of little black-faced look down upon all the objects in the wide-extended horned sheep ; it was wonderful to see these nimble vale below, a circumstance of great importance, and animals skipping, almost with the agility of monkeys, which a painting cannot imitate. The valley upon in situations where one would scarcely imagine any- which you gaze is winding and extensive, upwards of thing but a bird would venture. I walked at least twelve miles long, and every side enclosed with five miles before I met with anything like a public grounds which rise in a bold but varying form; in house, but at length reached the little village of Ste- some places bulging into mountains, abrupt and wild, velly, situated amongst wild rocks and roaring waters. though in most parts cultivated; in others, branching Near the rude old bridge stands the Angel and Child into rocks, craggy, pointed, and irregular. In other Inn, where I got a pretty good breakfast at a mode places are hills covered with noble woods, presenting rate charge. This village, which is in a very ruinous a gloomy brown shade, almost from the clouds to the condition, consists of about a dozen loosely con | reflection of the trees in the clear water below; thence structed houses, much like the Highland shielings, waving into slopes of cultivated enclosures, adorned