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degrees, that is, at a right angle with respect to each | this point is called the focus of the mirror, and is other. The experiment succeeds better, if the top always at the distance of one-half the radius of the of the box is covered in. The effect of this arrange circle, of which the mirror forms a part, from the face ment is singular ; if a person looks in at that side of of the mirror. If a glass bottle, half full of water. the box which is open, the two mirrors, if neatly joined, is held before a concave mirror, at a greater distance will appear as one, and the spectator will be surprised to find, that if he raises his right hand to his head, his reflected image will appear to raise the left hand in the same manner; this is caused by the image which is received by the right hand mirror, being reflected in the first instance to that on the left, which, by a second reflection, conveys it to the eye of the spectator. Three plane mirrors arranged in the following manner form a very amusing optical puzzle. Make a triangular box, each side
from it than its focus, and the spectator retires to a of which shall be eight
short distance, the image of the bottle will appear teen inches wide, and
reversed, and seem to be in front of the mirror. But seven or eight in height,
the most singular thing is, that the water will appear, having a small hole in
in the image, not to occupy its usual place, but to fill the centre of each side ; place in the interior three
that end of the bottle nearest the neck, while the pieces of looking-glass so as to fill the box completely, but let the silvering be scraped away where
part it really does occupy will appear empty. If the
bottle is reversed, of course well corked, the water the openings in the sides occur. Prepare now three pieces of card-board, of the same height as the box,
will naturally run to that part which is lowest,
namely, the neck; but in the reflected image it will and six inches wide ; paint different subjects upon each, such, for instance, as the front of a building,
appear to occupy the bottom of the bottle. It the cutting away the board where the gateway occurs,
cork is now taken out, and the water allowed to
escape, that part of the bottle which is in reality and painting on the back of the same board a pic
empty, and becoming more so, will, on the contrary, ture, representing an interior view of a building of the same description; these three paintings on card
seem as if it were filling ; but as soon as all the board are then to be placed as seen in the engraving,
liquid has run out, the illusion ceases, and the bottle
appears to be empty. The effect produced by this and the top of the box covered with ground glass.
experiment, is simply an illusion of the mind, arising The effect of this arrangement of the three mirrors, is, that each opening will present a different view, and
from the knowledge we possess of the properties of all the views will appear as if formed on an hexagonal
liquids to remain at the lowest part of any vessel
which may contain them, assisted also by the colourbase, that is, the box will seem to have six sides.
less nature of water, for if a coloured liquid is emTo render the illusion more perfect, considerable pains must be taken in arranging the subjects, and
ployed, this illusion does not take place. several trials must be made; a small object, also,
A very beautiful illustration of the properties of having some relation to the subject, may be placed at
the concáve mirror is shown at most of our optical
exhibitions, which, when well done, produces a most each of the angles so as to hide the place where the glasses join.
That beautiful instrument, the kaleidescope, is formed by a peculiar arrangement of two oblong plane mirrors, in a metal or paste-board tube. In forming one of these amusing instruments, it is necessary that
B the two mirrors should be so placed, that the distance between the edges A and B should be an even or an odd part of the circumference of the tube in which they are placed, and
| perfect illusion. A concave mirror A B, is placed bethe plates of glass must be
hind a black screen, in which a moderately sized hole about six times as long as they
is cut; below this hole, on the same side as the are wide. In using the instrument, it is necessary mirror, an artificial flower is fixed in a reversed that the eye should be placed exactly in the centre of position, and strongly illuminated ; on the other side the circle at one end of the tube, and the object that of the screen a small bracket is placed, supporting a is to form the picture, close to the mirrors at the flower-pot filled with earth or moss : if an observer other end.
stands at some distance from the screen, with his eye The effect produced by
on a level with the hole, a beautiful image of the the reflecting powers of
flower will appear, as if springing from the flower. concave mirrors, is, under
pot, and so distinct, that you might almost suppose certain circumstances, ex.
you could touch it. tremely curious, and at first sight inexplicable. If a number of parallel rays
LONDON: of light reach a concave
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. mirror A, B, they will be
PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTILT PARTI reflected from that mirror, and meet in a point at P; Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenaers in the Kingdom,
REFECTORY AND CHURCH OF ST. SERGE, IN THE MONASTERY OF THE TROITZA, (THE HOLY TRINITY), NEAR MOSCOW
SKETCHES OF RUSSIA.
to the threshold of his cell, was blinded by a splendour
infinitely more dazzling than the blaze of the full noonNo. VII.
tide sun, in the midst of which, he discerned the "Holy INTERIOR OF THE MONASTERY OF TROITZA (THE Mother of God,” accompanied by the apostles John and HOLY TRINITY).
Peter: he threw himself at her feet, but the blessed Virgin
bidding him to rise, addressed to him these encouraging HAVING in a former paper given a general account words, Fear not, fear not, thy prayers have risen up on of this remarkable place, we now proceed with high, and thy disciples shall be protected during thy life descriptions of some of the most famous of the
and after thy death, for I will be ever present in this place,
and it shall henceforth flourish beneath the shadow of my buildings within its precincts.
wing. On entering, an avenue of linden-trees conducts to
The sunny vision faded away, and the awe-struck worthe most stately of the buildings, the Cathedral of shipper rising, tremblingly called his brethren, to impart to the Assumption (Oospensky Sabor), a construction of them, the glad tidings. They hastened to offer up their the sixteenth century, under the reign of the man thanksgivings, and the day of the Vision of the Virgin, is monster, Ivan the Terrible. The vaulted interior now held in holy veneration. roof springs from four massive pillars, which, placed It may, perhaps, be necessary to remind the reader, at equal distances from each other, and from the that these are the words, not of an ignorant besotted sides, divide the building, as it were, into nine com- monk of the dark ages, but of a high dignitary now partments; the walls, to the very summit, are covered living, a man of good sense, learning, and piety. with fresco paintings, designed to illustrate some What an inexplicable anomaly is the mind of man! story of holy writ, most wretchedly executed, but The belfry tower, upwards of 260 feet in height, is gaudy as glaring colours, aided by a profusion of an elegant structure of modern date; its five square tinselly gilding, can make them. The iconastas, or stories, adorned with columns and statues, contract screen, separating the holy place of the chancel from as they rise one above the other, and are surmounted the body of the church, consists of rows of pictures by a rich mass of gilding intended to represent the of saints, in squares, not unlike those of a chess- irregular form of a rock, upon the summit of which board, and divided by small gilt pillars supporting a is a gilt ball, and a large and highly decorated cross cornice of gilding which separates each row, Several of gilded copper. Thirty-five pounds' weight of individuals of distinction are here interred, and their ducat-gold was employed in the decoration of the tombs are shown, but no monuments. Near the roof and ball. This building contains a fine set of Cathedral is a church dedicated to St. Nicon, where bells, thirty-eight in number, of which fourteen chime his relies repose,
the quarters. One of the largest, presented by the Beyond is the Cathedral of Troitza, (the Trinity.) | Empress Anne, weighs 140,000 lbs. The portraits of which is built over the tomb of St. Serge. It forms, Peter the Great, and several others of the imperial although small, the principal sanctuary within the family, figure upon it in basso-relievo. The view from (claustral) walls. The roof of the church, and that the summit, towards the south, is extensive, and of the chancel, are, together with the ball and cupola presents a pleasing diversity of wood and water, and crosses, richly gilt with ducat-gold. The shrine over a tolerably well-cultivated country; a description of the saint, in which his relics are preserved, is of of scenery very far from common in Russia. solid silver, elaborately chased and thickly gilt; it is A small building in front of the Cathedral of the covered by a massy canopy, and supported by Assumption, covers a well of remarkably pure water, columns of the same metal, and in the same style. | the spring of which is under the altar of the CatheIt was presented by the Empress Anne in 1737, and dral itself. No peculiar powers are attributed to it, weighs more than 1000 lbs. An image of Saint nor is it considered sacred. A lay monk is staSerge, which is placed in a panel of the shrine, and tioned to supply the water to pilgrims, and to sell regarded by the common people as possessed of images painted by the brethren, which do no very miraculous virtues, is an object almost of their great honour to their pictorial talents. A small adoration. It is of this, that Peter the Great made obelisk, near the well, serves as a sun-dial ; on its use as a palladium, in his wars with Charles the marble sides are inscribed the most remarkable events Twelfth. The iconastas of solid silver, slightly black connected with the convent; it is now surrounded ened by time, is adorned with two immensely rich by the cannons that once thundered from the battleimages of the Trinity, given by one of the tzars of ments. the sixteenth century.
The refectory and church of St. Serge, shown in To this shrine, glittering with gold, and silver, and the accompanying Engraving, form a large, and not precious stones, the votive offerings of wealthy devo. | inelegant building: the exterior is remarkable chiefly tees and princely penitents, pilgrims of every rank and for the strange variety of colours with which it is age, -forgetful for the moment of the artificial dis- painted; the solid masonry between the pillars is tinctions of real life --flock indiscriminately to kiss hewn in small squares, precisely in form like the rind the forehead and the hand of the relies, and to obtain of a pine-apple, every angular side of wbich is of a the benediction of the monkish priest. Near this different shade. The roof, 210 feet in length, and spot is the cell of St. Serge, called the Seraphion 63 in breadth, is remarkable for the ingenuity of its chamber, where also several canonized worthies are mechanical contrivance, being supported only on the buried. In this room, legends say, he had frequent external walls. intercourse with heavenly visitants. The present The treasury (riznitza,) consits of ten halls filled metropolitan, Philarete, gives the following account of with the most costly objects, such as the sacerdotal one of these revelations :
vestments, panagions, mitres, palls for shrines, and At midnight. Serge, having been on his knees before the coverings for altars; bibles, missals, chalices, and image of the Virgin, ehanting hymns in her praise, and
crosses, all blazing with an inconceivable profusion imploring her intercession to bring down the blessing of of pearls, diamonds, and precious stones of every the Highest upon the community, rose for an instant's kind; the books themselves are bound in gold and repose; then suddenly grasping the arm of his disciple silver, and studded with gems. Michael, and gazing fixedly on the door, he exclaimed,
One altar-piece is “ Watch, watch, my son ! we are about to have a heavenly
estimated at a million and a half of roubles, about visitant." A clear celestial voice then broke upon their ears,
36,0001., and the dress worn by the abbot on festivals, saying, “Behold the ever pure Virgin !" Serge, advancing is estimated at 18,0001. There are a vast number of smaller astar-pieces covered with pearls and gems; , which, relative to the history of Russia, are of high these were made up from the loose jewels of the antiquity; others are very curiously illuminated, and treasury, (of which there were at one time nearly adorned with miniatures of the saints. A very cutwo bushels,) in order to prevent their appropriation to rious book on astrology is also shown. There is a meet the exigences of the state, during the long war, missal, written, if we mistake not, in letters of gold as after having been consecrated, they are no longer on bladder, and most exquisitely illuminated. The available to secular purposes. The tattered saccos of monastery, once peopled by 300 monks, is now occuSt. Serge is shown, as well as the shoes that were pied by only 100, who are divided into ten bodies, taken from his feet on the discovery of his remains, lodging in as many separate buildings; but a semiand several utensils of wood rudely fashioned by his nary has been added, which receives 300 students, of own hands. “These," said the monk who pointed which one-half are educated at the expense of the them out to the writer of this article, " these are our Crown; the others are on the foundation. None but real riches; we prize them above gold or jewels." the children of the secular clergy are admitted. The greatest curiosity is an agate of pale gray colour, Their course of study embraces theology, Greek. on which nature has traced, in a shade of rich pur Latin, and one or two modern languages; after plish black, the image of a crucifix upon a rock, with having passed through which, they are at liberty a monk at his devotions before it. Utterly discarding, either to enter into the world, or to embrace the ecof course, the idea of anything miraculous, we should clesiastical profession. not be inclined to dispute its genuineness, since, far It would render this article unnecessarily tedious, from being a solitary instance, it is well known, that were we to prolong our description by a detail of in the British Museum, there is still preserved a dark the six other churches, the buildings within the walls stone on which nature has distinctly traced the for the accommodation of the monks, the schools, portrait of Chaucer ; Pliny also mentions an agate the hospital, and the imperial palace, the latter on which appeared Apollo holding a harp, and sur- scarcely deserving the name, and completely unfurrounded by the Nine; and at Venice, Ravenna, at nished, with a desolate, shrubless, weedy garden in Pisa, others of similar kind are exhibited, some, front. perhaps, a little indebted to human ingenuity. If we are not mistaken, there was, 'not long since, a re FAMILIAR ILLUSTRATIONS OF GEOLOGY. markable stone of this kind, in the possession of a
No, I. lapidary at Edinburgh, representing a clearly-defined portrait of George the Fourth.
COMMON Soils,-LOAM, CLAY, SAND,-FLINT, Among other curiosities, abundance of relics are
. CAALK, MAGNESIA,-Rocks. shown, including, of course, a morsel of the true I SEE you turning up the earth with your plough. . cross, and a piece of the rod with which Moses smote and this you have done for many years. Has it ever the rock of the Wilderness, but they are by no means occurred to you to inquire, what this earth, which you kept as objects of adoration, nor are they ever viewed | have had to deal with for so long a time, really is ! as such by the most ignorant, but simply as curiosities. You tell me that the soil of this field is a sandy-loam, The bodies of the saints (moshtschi) are the only that of the one below a clayey-loam, that others have objects of veneration; these, closely enveloped in a a fine rich soil, and the one by the side of the comcement, into the composition of which enter some mon a hungry soil. odoriferous gums, a portion of the face alone left When I ask you what is loam? you tell me that visible, are enclosed in a silver or plated shrine, the it is a mixture of clay and sand ; that when the clay cover of which is removed on solemn festivals, and is very abundant, it forms clayey loam ; when much a rich pall of embroidery thrown over; the public less in quantity, sandy loam ; whilst the rich soil is are then admitted, and throng in crowds to see chiefly composed of the same materials, varying in and kiss them. In appearance they much resemble proportions, and usually containing in addition much the Egyptian mummies, the head being bound up in vegetable and animal matter in a state of decay. You the same way; the features are scarcely distinguish | further inform me, that a hungry soil consists chiefly able, while the white teeth, in contrast with the dark of sand and gravel, with very little clay. ebony hue of the shrunk and shrivelled features, give Very good; as far as it goes, this is all very well a ghastly appearance, that creates a feeling of loathing But suppose we carry the inquiry a little further, and which a stranger has some difficulty to overcome. | inquire what are meant by the terms clay and sand: There is a department in connexion with the Synod, You at once reply that clay is clay, sand is sand, ani expressly for the preservation of the bones of saints, gravel is gravel. Well then, let us look more closely a certain number of which is deposited on its con. into the origin and construction of the soil, which is secration, in every church throughout the empire. perhaps, the best general term we can use for the Although this is the case, the rubric of the church ground, or earth, of the fields and gardens. Such in strictly enjoins upon all priests, "most diligently to quiries well become all intelligent minds, but to the watch, lest the ignorant be tempted to render them a farmer in particular, the subject possesses very con. superstitious worship."
siderable interest, for on the proper culture of the soi The monuments of the tzars, in remote ages, were the success of the agriculturist must chiefly depend. regarded with a veneration almost approaching that Soil, as we have already settled, may be loamy paid to the relics of saints and martyrs. Petitions sandy, clayey, gravelly, or of other denominations addressed to the monarch were deposited upon one according to the proportions in which the material: of the tombs of the tzars, whence none but the that compose it are brought together. sovereign in person had the right to remove them, Now there are in nature certain substances, per making death, the leveller of all distinctions, the me- haps seven or eight in number, which are properly diator between the suppliant and his sovereign. This called PURE EARTHS, because chemistry has not ye singular and impressive custom ceased on the re discovered in them a composition of two or more moval of the seat of government to St. Petersburgh. materials. Consequently, they are pure, simple The library contains about 6000 volumes of theology, mineral substances, and are designated Eartus in th history, antiquities and science, well classified and scientific meaning of the term. Of these simple sub arranged, together with 200 manuscripts, some of stances, or pure earths, it might be sufficient for ou
present purpose to notice three, namely,—those very sphere and other chemical causes. Thus, the sand well-known substances, Flint, Clay, and Lime ; for of and clay which compose a loamy soil, is produced by these three, in various combinations, by far the the decay of the hardest rocks, and by the friction of greatest part of the mountains of the globe, the the fragments in running waters. When the decomplains at their feet, and the whole of what we com position of limestone-rocks takes place in a similar monly understand by land, soil, mould, earth, &c., manner, the lime so brought down, and becoming are composed.
mixed with the sand or clay, forms what is called a You must not, however, imagine that all the world | Marl, or marlaceous loam, well known to the agriis composed of these three substances, but merely that culturist as a most valuable soil. they form by far the largest proportion of the solid portions of our globe. They are constantly intermixed with foreign matters, for instance, metals, (particu
THE HURRICANE IN BARBADOS larly iron,) and acids, (as carbonic acid,) in immense
IN 1831. quantities. It is this acid combined with lime, that The only thing remarkable in the weather for Ju.y, forms carbonate of lime, which is the true limestone 1831, in Barbados, was the unusual quantity of rain ; rock, and also chalk. Limestone and chalk require it, indeed, is said to have rained almost incessantly. to be burnt in kilns of intense heat, in order to drive | The trade-winds, however, blew moderately and off the carbonic acid, by which the pure lime is set steadily from the proper quarter, and the atmospheric free, or, as it were, released from its bondage,
temperature was uncommonly uniform; the maximum Alkalies also occur, such as soda and potassa, is noted at 86°, and the minimum at 79o. giving variety to rocks composed of the above mate- Towards the end of the month thunder and lightrials,
ning were of frequent occurrence, and electric clouds As I am talking to an agriculturist, I will just hung over the island. In Bridgetown, the 1st of mention a fourth pure earth,—MAGNESIA, which is August commenced fine, with light breezes from the found in some places in considerable quantities, and north-east, but by nine A.M. the weather had changed, existing occasionally mixed with limestone. Mag. | the wind blew strongly, and the remainder of the day nesia is the farmer's enemy, on account of its was wet and cloudy, and in some parts of the island pernicious influence on vegetables. Some years the thunder was very severe, particularly in the ago, before knowledge became so general as it now neighbourhood of Chalky Mount, in the district of is, a young farmer took possession of a farm in Scotland, where the lightning shattered a small house, a part of the country, where the limestone rock killed a white child, and wounded the mother. abounds. Having the means of obtaining an abun- On the tenth morning of the month, it was remarked dance of lime at a cheap rate, he manured his land that the sun rose without a cloud, and shone rewith it unsparingly, in the full expectation of a splendently through an atmosphere of the most transgrateful return in abundant crops. He was, how- lucent brightness ; at six A.M, the thermometer stood ever, doomed to disappointment. In every direction at 80°, at eight it rose to 85°, and at ten, to 86°; at stunted and blighted plants met his eye, and it was which hour the gentle morning-breeze, which had, up evident that the means he had used to improve his to that moment, fanned the country, died away ; ocland, had had a directly contrary effect, and that the casionally, after this, high winds sprang up from the soil was injured. In his perplexity he mentioned the east-north-east, but soon subsided. Calms generally circumstance to a chemist, who was visiting in the prevailed with puffs from between the north and northneighbourhood, and from him he learned, that the east points of the compass. At noon the mercury limestone-rock which had afforded him the lime with stood at 87°, and at two P.M. 88°; at four it had sunk which he manured his fields, contained a portion of to 86o. At five, the writer from whom this account magnesia, and that magnesia was baneful to vegetable is taken was in the country, about a mile and a half life, and had caused the failure of his crops.
to the northward of Bridgetown. He remarked that Flint, the pure earth of which I first spoke, is the clouds were gathering very fast from the porth, found in its greatest purity in rock-crystal. It forms and the wind commenced blowing strong from the a large proportion of granite, in which it occurs in same point. A shower of rain fell at this time, after bright, and often colourless crystals. These crystals which there was a remarkable stillness, which was are detached in immense quantities by the decay of made more impressive by the dismal darkness of the the felspar and mica, two other substances which clouds on the horizon all around. This dark imenter into the composition of granite.
penetrable body of cloud extended up towards the The decomposition of granite is effected by the zenitn, leaving there an obscure circle of light apagency of the atmosphere and by water. The crys-parently about 35° or 40° of the celestial concave in tals are washed from the hills by the rains, and are diameter. This dismal circle remained at rest a few rolled, rubbed, and ground, against each other, and seconds only, when the scud of it was seen to be in a against larger fragments. The finer portions rubbed state of ebullition. The dense mass of cloud all off form sand, coarse or fine according to circum- around, was also agitated and separating; bodies of stances, and the larger portions left are rounded into it were dispersed to all points of the compass. From gravel.
six to seven P.m. the weather was fair and the wind It will, perhaps, surprise you, when I tell you how moderate, with only occasional slight puffs from the much of a good soil consists of absolute flint; that north ; the lower and principal stratum of clouds is, sand formed of ground flint. It is said, that in passing fleetly to the south, while the higher strata loam, eighty-seven parts in a hundred are fine sand, and scud seemed driven with almost equal rapidity to and the remaining thirteen clay. When soil has a every point of the compass. reddish or yellowish colour, it indicates the presence After seven o'clock the sky was clear, and the air of iron. Decayed animal and vegetable matter, as is calm, and this continued till after nine, when the wind well known, gives great additional richness to the soil. began again to blow from the north. At half.past
Clay is the chief material of which slate-rocks are nine it freshened, and showers of rain fell at intervals, composed; it also enters largely into the composition up to half-past ten o'clock. About this period distant of other rocks, and is released or disengaged from its lightning was observed in the north-east and northcombination with them by the action of the atmo-west, and squalls of wind, with rain, came from