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* Record Office," and its substruction, upon which the back so that the diameter is greater near the summit than it is of the Senatorial Palace is raised. There still remains a in the middle.” The capitals have been called lonic, bu massive wall built in the early Roman style, and intended Mr. Woods says that the epithet can hardly be applied to apparently as a facing to the lower part of the hill; it is them with justice. The six columns which stand in a line. about one hundred and twenty feet in length, and ten in were the front of the portico of the building; the two height, and some of the blocks of stone of which it is columns behind, belonged to the side of the portico. formed, are between seven and eight feet long. A part of Till within a recent period, these remains were commonly this wall may be seen in the engraving referred to, upon assigned to that “Temple of Concord" in which Lentulus the left side. Above it stood the Tabularium, presenting and the other accomplices in Catiline's conspiracy were in front a range of pillars and arches, which preserved brought before the senate for trial by the order of Cicero, their original appearance till modern times; but a maga and from which they were taken to the Mamertine prisons, zine for salt having been formed here, in the fifteenth cen there to meet the fate which we have described in speaking tury, that substance is said to have destroyed the piers, of those dungeons. The classical enthusiasm of travellers and rendered it necessary to take them down and replace | used consequently to be at its height when they stood them by the continued wall which now exists. Some before these columns. “For my own part," says Middleton, capitals, and nearly the whole line of the architrave, are “ as oft as I have been wandering about in the very rostra all that is to be seen externally of the ancient edifice; the of old Rome, or in that temple of Concord where Tully modern wall has blocked up the vaults, and rendered them assembled the senate in Catiline's conspiracy, I could not visible only from the inside.
help fancying myself much more sensible of the force of his In the same Engraving the reader will perceive three eloquence; whilst the impression of the place served to fluted Corinthian columns, triangularly arranged, which warm my imagination to a degree almost equal to that of we have there designated as a fragment of the temple of his old audience." Twenty years ago a more sensitive Jupiter Tonans, or “ Jupiter Thundering.” Augustus was visiter was still more powerfully affected. “The Ionic porjourneying by night while engaged in an expedition tico of the Temple of Concord," says the author of Rome in against the Cantabri in the north of Spain, when the the Nineteenth Century, “stands in the Roman Forum. At lightning flashed in front of his litter and killed one of his the sound of its name, the remembrance tlashed upon my attendants who was lighting him on his way; on his return mind that it was here that Cicero accused to the assembled to Rome, the Emperor erected a temple to Jupiter Tonans, senate the guilty conspirators leagued with Catiline ; and upon the Capitol. The columns in question are supposed
entering its grass-grown area, I felt with enthusiasm which to have formed a corner of the portico of that temple; “but brought tears into my eyes that I now stood on the very spot what is the evidence for identifying it with their remains," his feet had then trod." The writer certainly wept in the says Dr. Burton, “I do not know." The building of wrong place; for it has been proved beyond a doubt that Augustus was restored by Septimius Severus and his son these are not the remains of the Temple of Concord. The Caracalla; and we can still read upon the frieze the letters real site of that edifice was discovered in 1817, when its RESTITUER-evidently a part of Restituere or Res cella or area was uncovered, and some decisive inscriptions tituerunt, intimating that some persons had restored it. were dug up; the spot is
were dug up; the spot is a little further north, and a little Till the French took possession of Rome, these columns | higher up the hill. It is there that the traveller must now remained buried for two-thirds of their height in that vast | shed his tears,-if indeed he be bold enough to shed them accumulation of soil which rose at the foot of the hill | anywhere, after such a warning. to the base of the Senator's Palace, and formed a platform The new claimant of these columns is the Temple of of dirt and rubbish over which carts are seen driving in the Fortune. That this goddess was worshipped on this hill, old views of Rome. They are of white marble, forty-six close to the temple of Jupiter Tonans. is proved by the feet and a half in height, and four feet eight inches in diame testimony of an inscription; we know, too, that a “ Temple ter at the base; Mr. Woods speaks of them as affording a of Fortune " was burnt in the time of Maxentius, the comcurious testiniony of the luxury and magnificence of the petitor of Constantine. The period of its restoration might Roman architecture. “Upon the lateral frieze," says Dr. ihus agree with that assigned by architects to the restora. Burton, “there are several ornaments connected with sacri tion of the edifice of which the columns are a remnant. fices, such as the Albogalerus, or cap which the Flamen Dialis (Priest of Jupiter) wore; the Secespita, or iron
THE PANTHEOX. knife with an ivory handle used by the same priest; the Capedunculus, or dish; an axe, a hammer, the aquamina.
“ As St. Peter's," says Simond, " affords the best sample rium, or jug; the aspersorium, or instrument för sprinkling of modern art in Rome, so does the Pantheon exhibit ihe the iustral water: all of them used in the rites of Jupiter, most satisfactory and best preserved specimen of ancient which may be another argument that these remains are
| art; for, notwithstanding the injuries it has sustained at rightly named." Mr. Woods mentions one still stronger, the hands of barbarians of all ages, no signs of natural that the carving on the priest's helmet or cap represents a
decay are yet visible; and with this magnificent model winged thunderbolt.
before their eyes, it appears strange that the architects of A short distance to the left of this fragment, and a little St. Peter's should not have accomplished their task more beyond the limit of the Engraving in which it is seen, stand worthily. The Pantheon seems to be the hemispherical eight columns of oriental granite-six in front and two summit of a modern temple taken off and placed on the behind,-supporting an architrave upon which we read, ground; so it appears to us, at least, accustomed to see
cupolas in the former situation only; for to the ancients, SENATUS. POPULUSQUE. ROMANUS.
the summit of a modern temple might appear the PapINCENDIO. CONSUMPTUM. RESTITUIT.
theon raised in the air." * The senate and people of Rome, restored [the building] This majestic edifice is in the very heart of modern consumed by fire." "This inscription," says Mr. Woods, | Rome; it is closely surrounded with buildings, and its situ" has been thought to indicate a republican era, since there | ation tends as much as possible to dissolve the spell that is is no mention of any Emperor; but the architecture contra over it.-“ It is built in the dirtiest part of modern Rome," dicts any such idea, and the present remains are now with / says the author of Rome in the Nineteenth Century; "and more probability assigned to the fourth century." “We the unfortunate spectator, who comes with a mind filled may regret the destruction of this temple more particularly," | with enthusiasm to gaze upon this monument of the taste says Dr. Burton, “because at no very distant period it was and magnificence of antiquity, finds himself surrounded nearly perfect, and wantonly destroyed. Poggio, who wrote by all that is most revolting to the senses, distracted by inin the beginning of the fifteenth century, tells us that the cessant uproar, pestered by the crowd of clamorous begwhole of the temple, with part of the portico, was burnt to gars, and stuck fast in the congregated filth of every de. make lime; and that the pillars were thrown down after he scription that covers the slippery pavement; so that the came to Rome. Andrea Fulvio relates the same story; and time he forces himself to spend in admiring its noble porthis may perhaps furnish us with too true an insight into tico generally proves a penance from which he is glad to the cause of so many majestic edifices having entirely dis-be liberated, instead of an enjoyment he wishes to protract. appeared. When this temple was restored after the fire, it We escaped none of these nuisances, except the mud, by was probably done in haste, and the materials were em- | sitting in an open carriage to survey it; the smells and the ployed in it which belonged to different buildings: for it beggars were equally annoying. You may, perhaps, form has been observed that neither the diameters of the pillars some idea of the situation of the Pantheon at Rome, by. nor the intercolumniations are equal. One of them nas imagining what Westminster Abbey would be in Coventevidently been made up of fragments of two different pillars, Garden market,--but I wrong Covent-Garden by such a
parallel; nothing resembling such a hole as this could / any services done to mankind, owe all the lionours now exist in England, nor is it possible that an English imagi- paid to them to their vices or their errors, whose merit, nation can conceive a combination of such disgraceful dirt, like that of Demetrius in the Acts, was their skill of filthy odours, and foul puddles as that which makes the raising rebellions in defence of an idol, and throwing king vegetable-market in the Piazza della Rotonda at Rome.” doms into convulsions for the sake of some gainful im.
The Pantheon is now known by the name of the Church posture. And as it is in the Pantheon, it is just the same of Santa Maria ad Martyres, or, more commonly, by that in all the other heathen temples that still remain in of La Rotonda. It was dedicated by Pope Boniface IV. Rome; they have only pulled down one idol to set up to the Virgin, “ and as he moved to this place the remains another, and changed rather the name than the object of of saints and martyrs from the different cemeteries, enough their worship." to fill twenty-eight wagons, it received the additional title The Pantheon is said to have been erected by Agrippa, of ad Martyres." Gregory IV., in 830, dedicated it to all the intimate friend and councillor of Augustus, twenty-six the saints. Upon the subject of this change of name from years before the Christian æra, in memory of the emperor's “ all the gods" of antiquity to “ all the saints" of the victory over Antony, and it was then dedicated to Jupiter Popish Church, the remarks of Middleton, in his celebrated | Ultor, (or the Avenger,) and all the Gods. The term Panletter from Rome, will be read with interest. “ The theon itself is a compound of two Greek words, signifying noblest heathen temple,” he says, “ now remaining in the " all" and "God;" but it appears that among the ancients world is the Pantheon, or Rotunda, which, as the inscrip-themselves there was a doubt as to the original application tion over the portico informs us, having been impiously of this name. Dion Cassius, writing in the third century, dedicated of old by Agrippa to Jove and all the gods, was says, “It is perhaps called so because, in the statues of piously consecrated by Pope Boniface the Fourth to the Mars and Venus, it received the images of several deities. Blessed Virgin and all the Saints. With this single excep. But, as it appears to me, it has its name from the convex tion, it serves as exactly all the purposes of the Popish form of its roof, giving a representation of the heavens." as it did for the Pagan worship, for which it was built. There is, however, a great deal of obscurity connected with For, as in the old temple, every one might find the god of every point of the ancient history of this edifice. Its orihis country, and address himself to that deity whose reli- ginal destination is a matter of dispute; some say that it gion he was most devoted to; so it is the same thing now; was a part of the Baths of Agrippa, of which some sup. every one chooses the patron whom he likes best; and one | posed remains are to be seen in its neighbourhood. “The may see here different services going on at the same time | Abate Lazari," says Sir John Hobhouse, “has done his utat different altars, with distinct congregations around most to prove this structure a bath, or, at least, not a temthem, just as the inclinations of the people lead them to ple; or, if it were a temple, he would show that a temple the worship of this or that particular saint.
does not always mean a religious edifice, out sometimes “And what better title can the new demigods show to a tomb, and sometimes the mast of a ship, and that the the adoration now paid to them, than the old ones whose Pantheon' was a band of soldiers; however, as our Panshrines they have usurped? Or how comes it to be less theon is neither one nor the other of these three, we need criminal to worship images erected by the Pope, than those not embarrass ourselves with the name, which was a diffiwhich Agrippa or that which Nebuchadnezzar set up ? culty even in ancient times." If there be any real difference, most people, I dare say, The opinion that the vast cell of this edifice did belong will be apt to determine in favour of the old possessors; to a bath, is certainly not so ridiculous as at first sight it for those heroes of antiquity were raised up into gods, and might appear. “Every round edifice," says Forsyth, “that received divine honours, for some signal benefits of which contains alcoves, is now perhaps too generally pronounced they had been the authors to mankind, as the invention of to have been the exhedra, or the calidarium of ancient arts and sciences, or something highly useful and neces- / baths. Such is the Temple of Minerva Medica, and such sary to life; whereas, of the Romish saints, it is certain, originally was the Pantheon. The Pantheon a bath! that many of them were never heard of but in their own Could that glorious combination of beauty and magnifilegends or fabulous histories; and many more, instead of cence have been raised for so sordid an office? Yet, consider it historically; detach the known additions, such as chapels or recesses are formed out of it; each of them is the portal, the columns, the altars; strip the immense decorated with two pilasters, and two Corinthian columns. cylinder and its niches of their present ornament, and you There is a seventh recess opposite o the entrance, and will then arrive at the exact form of the calidaria now ex entirely open. Above the great cornice, which is of white isting in Rome."
marble, rises an attic, from the entablature of which Cameron, the author of a learned work on ancient baths, springs the great vault of the dome. says decidedly that this magnificent edifice served as a vestibule to the Baths of Agrippa. “ This supposition," he
THE BATHS. remarks, “ will not appear to be void of foundation, if we « As the Romans," says Dr. Adam,“ neither wore linen nor consider that in the most considerable baths, such as those used stockings, frequent bathing was necessary both forcleanof Caracalla, Dioclesian, and Constantine, there was a liness and health, especially as they took so much exercise. room, both in form and situation, exactly similar to the Anciently they had no other bath but the Tiber. They Pantheon, and apparently destined to the same use. It indeed had no water but what they drew from thence, or does not much regard our present argument to inquire, from wells in the city and neighbourhood." When, by whether the Pantheon was entirely built by Agrippa, or means of the aqueducts that were built, the city came to be whether it had from ancient times served for religious pur- | fully supplied with water, numerous baths were constructed, poses, and was only repaired by him, since we know that, both by private individuals and for public use. While the among the Romans, even in private houses, the great hall, republic lasted, these were of a simple and unostentatious or atrium, was considered as a place sacred to religion; kind; utility, and not show, being consulted in their form and that in this room the statues of their ancestors were placed, arrangement. Under Augustus they began to assume an and here they paid their adorations at the altars of their air of luxury and grandeur; those appropriated for the pubhousehold gods."
lic use then, too, acquired the name of Therme,-a word It seems to be generally admitted, that the whole edifice derived from the Greek, and signifying literally “warm was not erected at once; the differences in the materials waters."-" The luxury in which the Roman Emperors inand in the workmanship, the want of correspondence indulged in the construction of their baths,” says Dr. Burton, the design, and the partial settlements which have taken " is almost incredible. The expression of Thermce which plare, are all adverse to the opinion that it was. Mr. is now applied to so many ruins, is certainly not wholly corWoods refers to a French architect, who seems to have rect; but we have sufficient evidence that immense build. satisfactorily ascertained that the building never could
ings were raised merely for this purpose. Some were have been originally finished without a portico, as it is intended for the Summer, others for the Winter. First of commonly supposed that it was. The masses of brick all the Emperors erected them for their own private use, work which are joined to the circular body of the edifice, but subsequently public ones were constructed which were in order to bring out a straight line to receive the portico, open to all. Sextus Rufinus reckons eight hundred. were carefully examined; but neither on their face, nor on Mecænas is said to have been the first who introduced the face of the circular cell itself, were there any traces of warm baths at Rome." the method of completing the building without a portico. We have an interesting description of the luxury and The conclusion was drawn, that no finishing ever could magnificence which characterized the baths of the Romans have taken place on either, but that the present portico, or under the immediate successors of Augustus, in a letter writsomething analogous to it, must have existed from the ten by Seneca; and at the same time we have a picture of the first. Mr. Woods himself inclines to the opinion, that the rude simplicity of those which were used in an earlier age. cell is actually posterior to the portico, instead of the We give it in the version of an old translator, published in portico being an addition to the cell, and in support of it he 1614, with some slight alterations. mentions two circumstances. “The first is, that the use of
« Of the countrie-house of Africanus, of his building unburnt bricks was only recently introduced into Rome in
and baih, which was neyther gornished nor neat. the time of Agrippa, as appears from the manner in which Vitruvius speaks of them, and the first effort would scarcely "Lying in the verie towne (villa] of Scipio Africanus, I be one of this magnitude and importance. The second write these things unto thee, having adored the spirit of circumstance is, that the marble employed in the portico him and the altar which I suppose to be the sepulcher of so and pronaos is Pentelic, while that within is Carrara." great a man....... I saw that towne builded of fourThe latter species of marble was not used till much later square stone, a wall compassing about a wood, towers also than the former.
set under both sides of the towne for a defence. A cisterne The external appearance of the edifice will be best laid uuder the buildings, and green places which was able understood by a reference to our engraving*. The portico to serve even an armie of men. A little narrow bathe, is one hundred and ten feet long by forty-four deep, and is somewhat darke, as the olde fashion was. None seemed supported by sixteen columns of the Corinthian order. Each warme for our ancestors except it were obscure. Great of the shafts of these columns is of one piece of oriental pleasure entred into me, beholding the manners of Scipio granite, and forty-two feet in height; the bases and capitals and of us. In this corner that horrour of Carthage, to whom are of white marble. The whole height of the columns is Rome is in debt that it was taken but once, washed his forty-six feet five inches ; the diameter just above the base, bodie, wearied with the labours of the countrie: for he exeris four feet ten inches, and just beneath the capitals, four cised himselfe in worke, and he himself tilled the earth, as feet three inches. The interior of the rotunda has a the fashion of the ancients was. He stood upon this so diameter of nearly one hundred and fifty feet; the height base a roofe,-this so mean a Moore sustained him. But from the pavement to the summit was originally the same, | now who is he that can sustaine to be bathed thus ? Poore but the floor has been raised seven or eight, to a level with and base seemeth he to himself, except the walls have the pavement of the portico. The light is admitted only shined with great and precious rounds, except Alexanby a circular opening in the dome, twenty-eight feet in drian marbles be distinguished with Numidian roole-caste, diameter ; through this aperture a flood of light diffuses except the chamber be covered over with glasse, except itself over the whole edifice, producing "a sublime effect," stone of the lle Thassus, once a rare gazing-stocke in but only showing all its beauties “by permitting every | some church (temple), have compassed about our ponds passing shower to deluge its gorgeous pavement." The into which we let down our bodies exhausted by much rain is carried off by a drain to the Tiber, but from the low labour; except silver cocks have poured out water unto situation of the building in the Campus Martius, the us. And as yet I speake of the conduits of the comwaters of the Tiber, when it is swollen, find their way up mon sort; what when I shall come to the bathes of freedthe drain, and flood the interior. Myriads of beetles, scor- men? What profusion of statues is there,-what profusion pions, worms, rats and mice, “joint tenants of the holes in of columns holding nothing up, but placed for ornament, the pavement," may .then be seen retreating before the merely on account of the expense ? What quantity of waters, as they gradually rise from the circumference to waters sliding downe upon staires with a great noise ? To the centre of the area, which is a little elevated above the that delicacie are we come, that men will not tread but upon rest of it. A beautiful effect, says Dr. Burton, is produced precious stones. In this Bathe of Scipio, there be verie by visiting the building on these occasions at night, when small chinckes, rather than windowes, cut out in the stonethe moon is reflected upon the water through the aperture wall, that without hurt of the fense they should let the of the dome
light in. But now they are called the bathes of moths, it The wall of the rotunda is twenty feet in thickness : six any be not framed so as to receive, with most large windows,
the sunne all the day long, except they be batned and * See Saturday Magazine, Vol. X., p. 201.
coloured (sunburnt) at the same time, except from the bathing vessel they look upon both land and sea. But in Ruins of several Thermæ are to be seen in Rome: the old time there were few bathes, neither were they adorned | most extensive and best preserved are those of Titus. with any trimming up. For why should a thing of a Antoninus, Caracalla, and Diocletian. farthing worth be adorned, and which is invented for use, and not for delight? Water was not poured in, neither did
BATIS OF CARACALLA. it alwaies, as from a warm fountain, runne fresh. But, О the “EXCEPT the Coliseum," says Mr. Carne, " no ruin is so good Gods! how delightful it was to enter into those bathes, deeply interesting as the Baths of Caracalla. In their sesomewhat darke and covered with plaster of the common cluded site, apart from the many piles of ruins around sort, which thou diddest know that Cato, the overseer of the which the steps of strangers are constantly passing as on buildings (@dile), or Fabius Maximus, or some one of the | a thoroughfare, a luxuriant foliage hanging on the walls, Cornelii, had tempered for you with his owne hand ? For they carry the imagination of the visiter to far distant and the most noble ædiles performed this duty also of going into different scenes, when voluptuousness and splendour reigned those places which received the people, and of exacting in every part. Some edifices are more impressive in their cleanliness, and an useful and healthie temperature ; not ruin, than others in their entireness. When the sunset is this which is lately found out, like unto a setting on fire, so thrown on the waving foliage, and falls through many a that it is meet indeed to be washed alive, as a slave convicted vast arch and gateway, one is tempted to believe that such of some crime. It seemeth to me now to be of no difference, | is the case here. A great number of workmen were em whether the bathe be scalding hot or be but warme. Or ployed in making excavations; a bath had lately been dishow great rusticity do some now condemn Scipio, because covered, with a descent of marble steps, and a pavement of into his warm bathe he did not with large windowes (of fine mosaic." transparent stone) let in the light? O miserable man! He The ruins of these baths, to use the expression of knew not how to live; he was not washed in strained water, Forsyth, show us " how magnificent a coarse rufiian may but oftentimes in turbid, and, when mure vehemently it did be." They form the principal ruin on Mount Aventine: rain, in almost muddy water."
there is much more of the ancient building remaining, Amongst many luxurious habits for which Pliny cen than there is of either the Baths of Diocletian or those of sures the Roman ladies of his time, is the practice of Titus. Dr. Burton, speaking of the general appearance of having their bathing-rooms Hoored with silver. In the the remains, says, that they look not unlike the ruins of fourth century, Ammianus Marcellinus attempted to con- some of our old castles in England; next to the Coliseum. vey a notion of the enormous extent of the public baths, they present the greatest mass of ancient building in by saying, that they were built "in the manner of pro- Rome. The length of the whole is generally said to be vinces." This writer reckons sixteen public baths in the 1840 feet, and the breadth 1476. Simond, however, tells city of Rome; of these, the principal were those of us, that he“ paced the outside of these ruins, and found Agrippa, Nero, Titus, Domitian, Antoninus, Caracalla, and them to be about 1200 feet on a side, equal to thirty-five or Diocletian. All these edifices, though differing in size, forty acres, and nearly commensurate with the garden of and many other respects, agreed in the general outline of the Tuileries." Adopting this latter measurement, we may their plan. They were surrounded by extensive gardens, say rougbly, that the ruins are spread over a square each and oftentimes decorated with a spacious portico. The of whose sides is a quarter of a mile,--or that they occupy different halls and apartments of the main building were a surface equal to a sixteenth of a square mile. used for various purposes, some for bathing and swimming, Eustace gives a spirited description of the ancient buildand the usual athletic exercises, others for conversation, ing.--" At each end," he says, “were two temples, one to and for the recitation of poets and the lectures of philoso Apollo, and another to Æsculapius, as the tutelary deities phers. They were splendidly fitted up, and were furnished of the place, sacred to the improvement of the mind, and with collections of books.
the care of the body; the two other temples were dedicated The attachment of the Romans to the practice of bathing to the two protecting divinities of the Antonine family, continued undiminished till the time of the removal of the Hercules and Bacchus. In the principal building were, seat of empire to Constantinople. After this period, says in the first place, a grand circular vestibule, with four halls Cameron, "We have no account of any new Thermæ being on each side, for cold, tepid, warm, and steam baths; in the built, and suppose that most of those which were then fre-l centre was an immense square for exercise, when the quented in the city of Rome, for want of the imperial patron weather was unfavourable to it in the open air; beyond it age gradually fell into decay. It may, likewise, be remarked, / a great hall, where sixteen hundred marble seats were that the use of linen became every day more general; that placed for the convenience of the bathers; at each end of great disorders were committed in the baths, a proper care ibis hall were libraries. This building terminated on both and attention in the management of them not being kept sides in a court surrounded with porticoes, with an odeum up; and that the aqueducts by which they were supplied for music, and in the middle a spacious basin for swimming. with water were, many of them, ruined in the frequent Round this edifice were walks shaded by rows of trees, invasions and inroads of the barbarous nations. All these particularly the plane; and in its front extended a gymnacauses greatly contributed to hasten the destruction of the sium, for running, wrestling, &c., in fine weather. The baths...... It is probable that the Romans rosorted whole was bounded by a vast portico, opening into exhedræ, to the baths, at the same time of the day that others were or spacious halls, where the poets declaimed, and philosoaccustomed to make use of their private baths. This was phers gave lectures to their auditors." generally from two o'clock in the afternoon, till the dusk of One of the apartments in these baths was famous in the evening: this practice, however, varied at different times. ancient times under the appellation of Cella Solearis. Notice was given when the baths were ready, by the Spartian, who lived in the early part of the fourth century, ringing of a bell; the people then left the sphæristerium, speaking of Caracalla, says, “At Rome he left some and hastened to the caldarium, lest the water should cool. astonishing baths, which bear his name. There is a room But when bathing became more universal among the in them called Cella Solearis, which architects say could Romans, this part of the day was insufficient, and they not possibly have been constructed in any other way. Cross gradually exceeded the hours that had been allotted for bars of brass or copper are said to be placed over it, upon that purpose. Between two and three in the afternoon, which the whole vaulting rests; and the space is so great, was, however, the most eligible time for the exercises of that skilful mechanics say that the same effect could not the palæstra. Hadrian forbade any but those that were be produced by any other means." Alter writer says sick to enter the public baths before two o'clock. The that sixteen hundred seats of polished marble were made Thermæ were by few emperors allowed to be continued for the use of the persons bathing. . open so late as five in the evening. Martial says, that after The author of Rome in the Nineteenth Century gives four o'clock, they demanded a hundred quadrantes of those the following description of a visit to the present ruins :who bathed. This, though a hundred times the usual "We passed through a long succession of immense halls, price, only amounted to nineteen pence. We learn from open to the sky, whose pavements of costly marbles, and the same author, that the baths were sometimes opened rich mosaics, long since torn away, have been supplied by earlier than two o'clock. He says, that Nero's baths were the soft green turf, that forms a carpet more in unison with exceeding hot at twelve o'clock, and the steam of the water their deserted state. The wind, sighing through the immoderate. Alexander Severus, to gratify the people in branches of the aged trees that have taken root in them their passion for bathing, not only suffered the Thermæ to without rivalling their loftiness, was the only sound we be opened before break of day, which had 'never been per heard ; and the bird of prey which burst through the thick mitted before, but also furnished the lamps with oil, for ivy of the broken wall far above us, was the only living convenience of the people."
object we beheld. These immense halls formed part of
the internal division of the Thermæ, which was entirely | ance, who, in his ardour for antiquities, was on the point of devoted to purposes of amusement. The first of these descending in the bucket to the bottom of it. We could halls or walled enclosures that you enter, and several of not succeed in stopping him, till we called in the testimony the others, have evidently been open in the centre. They | of the old woman who opens the door, in corroboration of were surrounded with covered porticoes, supported by im- our own, to prove that the well is not antico, but was made mense columns of granite, which have long since been for the use of the pigs that now revel undisturbed in all the carried away; chiefly by the popes and princes of the luxuries of these imperial halls." Farnese family. In consequence of their loss, the roofs fell Some splendid specimens of ancient sculpture have been with a concussion so tremendous, that it is said to have been discovered in these baths. The Farnese Hercules, of which felt even in Rome, like the distant shock of an earthquake. all our readers have doubtless heard, was dug out of these Fragments of this vaulted roof are still hanging at the ruins in 1540. At first the legs were wanting; they were corners of the portico. The open part in the centre was found in 1560, when they came into the ne probably destined for athletic sports. Many have been the Prince Borghese, who refused to give them up. They were doubts and disputes among the antiquaries, which of these afterwards joined to the body; but in the mean while a fresh balls have the best claim to be considered as the once won- | pair of legs had been executed by a modern artist under derful Cella Solearis. All are roofless now; but the most The direction of Michel Angelo, and these may now be seen eastern of them, that which is farthest to the left on in the Farnese palace at Rome. The name of Farnese entering, and which has evidently had windows", seems | Hercules was given to this statue because Paul the Third, generally to enjoy the reputation. Besides these enormous who was the reigning pope, and whose property it became, halls, there are, on the western side of these ruins, the re was a member of the Farnese family. Another very fa. mains of a large circular building, and a great number of mous statue, which was dug out of the ruins, is the Toro smaller divisions, of all sizes and forms, in their purpose Farnese, or Farnese Bull, which was discovered in 1546. wholly incomprehensible. Excepting that they belonged A celebrated Flora was also found here in 1540,- the year to that part of the Thermæ destined for purposes of amuse in which the Farnese Hercules was discovered. ment, nothing can now be known; and though the immense . In page 41, we have given a view of the Baths. The extent of the baths may be traced far from hence by their engraving in page 45, represents the Farnese Villa and the wide-spreading ruins, it is equally difficult and unprofitable ruins of the Palace of the Cæsars on the Palatine bill; we to explore them any further. In the last of these halls described them in a former number. That in page 48, there is a deep draw-well; and in one of our many visits to represents the side of the celebrated church or Basilica of these ruins, we found a young Englishman of our acquaint- | S. Giovanni Laterano, or St. John Lateran, which we shall
• Other writers say that there is no appearance of windows. | describe hereafter.
LONDON: Published by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER; West STRAND; and soli by all Bookseliers.