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of the wires being brass, and others steel or iron,
THE FACULTIES OF MAN. they have expanded unequally. Of all solid bodies Man is born with wonderful faculties into a wonder. known to the chemist, the metals are by far the most ful world ; and, as he journeys through this world, it expansile and contractile; but every solid substance is amazing what a mass of information he heaps expands by heat in some degree or other, although together; how his active, able mind can gather in we cannot ascertain it with such facility.
stores of knowledge from every side at every step. The metals are the most perfect conductors of heat He travels over his own globe, and marks the that we know of*, and the reason why this tin cup scenes and products of a hundred lands; the cusdoes not crack when I suddenly fill it with boiling toms, deeds and tongues of a hundred nations. He water, is because the heat is quickly conducted all over explores the heights above and the depths below. the tin, and it therefore expands equally inside and Nothing is too small for his notice, nothing too great outside.
for his measurement. From the loftiest mountain Earthy or stony bodies, either natural or artificial, that shoots into heaven, to the minutest flower that are very bad conductors of heat, and so is glass. If springs at his feet; from the huge animal that I pour boiling water into a glass, it is almost sure to stalks through the forest, to the insect which finds fly or crack, because the inside gets suddenly ex- its world on a leaf:--the fowl of the air, the fish of panded, and the heat is not immediately conducted the water, each stone that exists, each plant that to the outside ; so that the inside keeps getting bigger grows, each creature that moves—this immense and and bigger, and at last forces the glass to crack. varied host does Man note, and examine, and name,
The thicker the glass, the more certain is this to and arrange in due class and order. Nay, spurning happen, and therefore you generally see the thick the limits of his own earth, winged by his instrubottoms of tumblers drop out when hot water is poured ments, he bounds over the vast space around, trainto them, because the heat is yet more slowly con- | verses the heavens in every direction, and makes ducted through such a thick mass; but a very thin acquaintance with worlds at distances too prodigious glass may be suddenly filled with boiling water, even for conception. without cracking; such a glass as a Florence oil-flask, All this array of knowledge can man discover which, being exceedingly thin, conducts the heat and grasp by his own faculties, his own independent quickly from the inside to the outside, both expand exertions; by the activity of his own body, the equally, and no crack takes place.
sagacity of his own mind. And strongly does this If a lamp-glass is suddenly put over the flame of display his astonishing powers. Look at the Infant; the reading-lamp, it is almost sure "to fly," on account —what being so ignorant and helpless as that little of unequal expansion.
creature! Look at the Man towering aloft in the Such are a few remarks about the expansion of might of his intellect ;-and what expansive faculties solids by heat, and I shall next endeavour to show must they be, which have raised the helpless ignoyou the expansion of liquids by the same powerful rance of the Babe to those heights of knowledge in agent.
the Man! The fact is, where man can bring his * See Saturday Magazine, Vol. IX., p. 110; Vol. X., pp. 219, 238.
powers to bear, there he does wonders. Where eye can see and finger can touch, there man can search,
and detect, and comprehend, to a marvellous extent. TRUE liberty consists in the privilege of enjoying our own
So it is that the material world--this visible creation rights, not in the destruction of the rights of others.
of earth below and heaven above-is more or less PINCKARD.
within man's knowledge.
But then, there is another world, and that world The smallest trifle often makes a man miserable, whilst man's senses cannot reach, and there man's knowinnumerable mercies and blessings produce no thankfulness. ledge fails. It is a spiritual world, a world of things, WATSON.
which "eye hath not seen, ear hath not heard," and
therefore“ neither have they entered into the heart of THERE is something in the thought of being surrounded, even upon earth, by the Majesty on high, that gives a peculiar
man to conceive." There the mightiest in natural elevation and serenity of soul. To be assured in the lone
talents, the giant in earthly science, is again the igno. liest hour of unknown or neglected sorrow, that every sigh rant, helpless babe. He may inquire, and imagine, ascends to the eternal Throne, and every secret prayer can and argue, and conjecture, but he works in the dark. be heard in Heaven; to feel that, in every act of conscious He can never get one firm footing within the world rectitude, the heart can appeal, amidst all the contradictions I invisible whereon to stay his anxious soul. That world of sinners, to One who seeth not as man seeth, produces a lies on the map of his knowledge one huge void, which peace which the world can never give. Feeling itself, like Enoch, walking with God, the heart perceives a spirituality
reason may plant with her possibilities, and fancy fill and purity in every joy, a mercy and a balm in every
up with her figments; but of which he knows nothing, sorrow, and, exalted above the intrusions of an intermed and can know nothing, in clear and certain truth. dling world, has its “conversation in heaven." -MATHEW. Earth and Time are within his observation ; Heaven
and Eternity are beyond his cognizance. Old age is often querulous. It is one of its defects to be Here, then, is our position. We are hastening so; but let not this occasional weakness deceive you. You through the world we see into a world invisible and may be assured that naturally it has gratifications of its unknown. To it death will speedily introduce us, own, which fully balance those of earlier days, and which, if cultivated, would carry on the stream of happiness to its
Meanwhile every thoughtful mind must be intensely grave. If life has been rightly employed, it will also have
anxious to learn something of this awful world soon the visioned recollection of its preceding comforts to en
to be our own world; so much at least as will enable hance the pleasures which it is actually enjoying, My own us to do all we can to prepare for it. Whence can we experience in the sixty-seventh year of my age is, that gain this information ?-Not from the vain inventions notwithstanding. certain ailments and infirmities, and the of the poet, nor yet from the speculations of the privations they occasion, it is just as happy as all the pre | philosopher, dim and doubtful at the best. We must ceding seasons were, though in a different way,-60 happy, as to cause no regret that they have passed, and no desire
look to the mercy of the God, beneath whose eye this to exchange what is, for what has been. If youth has
world of darkness to us lies clear as the noon-day. hopes, and prospects, and wishes, that enchant it, age has All sure knowledge of that world, must be a revelation no inferiority even in this respect. -TURNER.
ENGLISH LAKE SCENERY
| its frowning peaks are partially clothed with stunted WORDSWORTH'S RESIDENCE AT RYDAL WATER. bushes, and lower down, its sides are dotted with
small white cottages, peering from amidst a thick No portion of the British islands presents stronger coppice wood. The hills facing this lofty eminence claims on the attention of the topographer, or on the are of less altitude, but they add not a little to the admiration of the lovers of the beautiful and sublime
beauty of the landscape, from the diversity of their in landscape, than the counties of Westmoreland and I forms and tints. Cumberland. Let us take a hasty glance at the great The value of lake-scenery arises rather from the features of this remarkable district,-mountain and idea of magnificence, than of variety. The scene is lake,—with especial reference to a subject with which
not continually shifting here, as on the banks of a they are associated, and on which it confers the
| winding river. A quick succession of imagery is highest interest,—the picturesque elysium where
| necessary in scenes of less grandeur, where little WORDSWORTH, “Nature's simple and unaffected
| beauties are easily scanned; but one like this demands bard,” has fixed his residence, apart from the bustle
contemplation. The eye surveys with feelings of adand turmoil of the world.
miration and delight, the unruffled basin of this First, a word or two on the hills. Wordsworth,
mountain “tarn,” reflecting as from the surface of a who has himself described the district with a poet's
mirror the varied colouring of the clouds, the light, pen, eloquently observes that the forms of the moun
and the surrounding hills; and every object in the tains are endlessly diversified, sweeping easily or
more distant scenery is softened into a cerulean blue, boldly in simple majesty, abrupt and precipitous, or blended with the deeper shades of the variegated soft and elegant. In magnitude and grandeur, they
woods, the reddish colour of the rocks, and the luxu. are individually inferior to the most celebrated of
riant green of the banks of the lake. those in some other parts of this island; but in the
Lough-zigy Fell, a high ridge in the immediate combinations wbich they make, towering above each neighbourhood of Rvdalmere
| neighbourhood of Rydalmere, towers above the other, or lifting themselves in ridges like the waves
surrounding mountains, and many of the adjacent of a tumultuous sea, and in the beauty and variety
lakes and waters may be seen from its summit. of their surfaces and their colours, they are surpassed
On a rising lawn to the south of Rydal Head, by none.
which rises close behind the house, stands Rydal The general surface of the mountains is turf, ren
Hall, the seat of the Rev. Sir Richard Fleming, Bart. dered rich and green by the moisture of the climate.
On the north and east it is sheltered by lofty mounIn other places, rocks predominate; and the soil is tains; in front, the view towards the south is exceed. laid bare by torrents and burstings of water from the
ingly fine, comprising the extensive vale of Winansides of the mountains in heavy rains. The outline
dermere, bounded by that lake. The mountain on and colouring of these immense masses, formed as the east is covered with wood, and has a picturesque they are by one mountain overshadowing another,
effect. Between Rydal Head and this mountain runs a “are perpetually changed by the clouds and vapours
narrow wooded valley, through which a considerable which float round them : the effect, indeed, of mist
stream, falling down a quick descent, along a rocky or haze, in a country of this character, is like that
channel, forms a succession of pleasing cascades. of magic.". Gilpin, in sketching the magnificent
A very curious phenomenon observable upon some scenery of this district, says, “ In many countries
of these mountains, which is called in the country a much yrander scenes are exhibited than these, moun.
helm wind, will sometimes arise so suddenly, and with tains more lofty, and lakes more extensive : yet it is such extreme violence, that nothing can withstand its probable there are few in which the several objects force. The experienced mountaineer, as he traverses are better proportioned, and united with more beauty."
these wild regions, foreseeing its approach, throws The origin of the lake, which is the next striking himself flat upon the ground. like the Arabian at the feature of this interesting country, is thus described
approach of the “simoom," and lets it pass over by the same ingenious writer :
him. Its rage, however, is only momentary, and the Its magnificent and marble bed, formed in the caverns and air instantly settles into its former state of calm. On deep recesses of rocky mountains, received originally the
Cross Fell, a lofty mountain on the borders of Cumpure pellucid waters of some rushing torrent as it came
berland, it is by no means of rare occurrence, and first from the hand of nature, arrested its course till the spacious and splendid basin was filled brimful, and then the blast seems to proceed from a cap or dense cloud discharged the stream, unsullied and undiminished, through which rests on the summit of the mountain. The some winding vale, to form other lakes, or increase the lakes are subject to something of a similar kind of dignity of some imperial river.
emotion, which the inhabitants of the country call a Let us turn now from the general features of this bottom wind. Often during a perfect calm, a violent “ land of the mountain and the flood," to the subject ebullition of the water, which is forced upwards by more immediately under notice.
some internal convulsion, will suddenly take place, RYDAL LAKE is a small but beautiful sheet of and present the agitation of a storm. As soon, howwater, in an amphitheatre of rocky mountains, about ever, as the confined air has spent its force, the cona mile and a half from Ambleside, on the road to vulsed surface immediately subsides, and dies away Keswick. The surface of the lake is adorned by two in lessening circles. Basingthwaite Water is said to be wooded islets, which with the verdant meadow and frequently liable to this singular phenomenon, hanging woods, that alternately environ the gracefully Amongst the most celebrated mountains of the indented margin of the water, combine to render it lake district, may be enumerated Helvellin, stretching an object of such beauty as immediately to fix the near a league and a half in one vast concave ridge, its eye, notwithstanding the grandeur of the surrounding lofty summit towering to the height of 3313 feet; scenery. The little river Rotha, winding round a | Cross Fell, which is considered by some to be still promontory, enters it on the north, and making its higher, being according to Jameson, 3383 feet above exit on the opposite side, falls into Winandermere. the level of the ocean; Skiddaw, Scaffel-Peak, and At the foot of Rydal Mount, on the right of the en- Bontomand, are scarcely inferior in altitude. graving, may be distinguished the home of Words- The celebrated pass, known by the name of “ Dunworth, where he has resided for several years. Rydal | mail-Raise,” which divides the counties of CumberHead, the summit of the mountain is of great height; land and Westmoreland, is at no great distance from Rydal water, and presents a scene of the most sub. | verse; and in its dim and mysterious meaning, the mists lime character. Dunmail- Raise, which gives its name seem to gather in the hollow of Helvellyn, and the forked
Skiddaw hovers in the distance. There is little mention of to the pass, is a rude monument, consisting of a
mountainous scenery in Mr. Wordsworth's poetry; but by monstrous pile of stones, heaped on each side of an
internal evidence one might be almost sure that it was earthen mound, and appears to be little known.
written in a mountainous country, from its bareness, its was probably intended to mark a simplicity, its loftiness, and its depth ! division between the kingdoms of England and Scotland, in the old time, when the Scottish border
BLACK COMB. extended beyond its present bounds. It is said, this This height a ministering angel might scloct : division was made by a Saxon prince, on the death For from the summit of Black Comb (dread name, of Dunmail, the last king of Cumberland, who was Derived from clouds and storms!) the ainplest range here slain in battle. But for whatever purpose the Of unobstructed prospect may be seen rude pile was fabricated, it has yet suffered little change
That British ground commands :- low dusky tracts,
Where Trent is nursed, far southward! Cambrian hills in its dimensions, and is one of those monuments of
To the south-west, a multitudinous show; antiquity which may be best characterized by the
And, in a line of eye-sight linked with these, scriptural phrase of “remaining to this very day."
The hoary peaks of Scotland that give birth Wordswortu, the founder of what has been To Tiviot's stream, to Annan, Tweed, and Clyde: styled the “Lake School of Poetry," whose genius Crowding the quarter whence the sun comes forth has cast such a halo over Rydal, and its adjacent
Gigantic mountains rough with crags; beneath,
Right at the imperial station's western base scenery, is a native of Cockermouth, in Cumberland.
Main ocean, breaking audibly, and stretched He was born in 1770, and is now in his sixty
Far into silent regions blue and pale ;seventh year. In 1803, he settled at Grasmere, in And visibly engirding Mona's Isle the immediate neighbourhood of his present residence, That, as we left the plain, before our sight to which he next removed. In the same year, he
Stood like a lofty mount, uplifting slowly married a Miss Mary Hutchinson, of Penrith, by
(Above the convex of the watery globe)
Into clear view the cultured fields that streak whom he has several children.
Her habitable shores; but now appears The simple yet majestic beauty which pervades so A dwindled object, and submits to lie great a portion of Wordsworth's poetry, is now uni.
At the spectator's feet. -Yon azure ridge, versally acknowledged, and has been thus ably de Is it a perishable cloud ? Or there scribed :
Do we behold the line of Erin's coast ? There is a lofty philosophic tone, a thoughtful humanity,
Land sometimes by the roving shepherd-swain infused into his pastoral vein. Remote from the passions
(Like the bright confines of another world) and events of the great world, he has communicated interest
Not doubtfully perceived.- Look homeward now! and dignity to the primal movements of the heart of man,
In depth, in height, in circuit, how serene and engrafted his own conscious reflections on the casual
The spectacle, how pure !-Of Nature's works, thoughts of hinds and shepherds. Nursed amidst the
In earth, and air, and earth-embracing sea,
A revelation infinite it seems; grandeur of mountain-scenery, he has stooped to have a nearer view of the daisy under his feet, or plucked a branch
Display august of man's inheritance, of white-thorn from the spray; but in describing it, his
Of Britain's calm felicity and power!—WORDSWORTH. mind seems imbued with the majesty and solemnity of the
Black Comb stands at the southern extremity of Cumberland : objects round hiin,--the tall rock lifts its head in the erect
its base covers a much greater extent of ground than any other
mountain in those parts; and, from its situation, the summit comness of his spirits; the cataract roars in the sound of bis 1. mands a more extensive view than any other point in Britain
RYDAL WATER, WEST MORELAND.
LONDON: Published by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. and sold by all Booksellers.
THE BELZONI SARCOPHAGUS. | resembling those drawings of her given by the learned
Montfaucon, and repeat the exclamation of Belzoni, when THE Sarcophagus, of which we give an Engraving | he declared that the day on which he found this treasure in the preceding page, was discovered by Belzoni, in was the happiest of his life. one of the tombs of the kings, at Thebes, in a manner
Viewed by lamp-light, the effect of the chamber is which we have already related *. It is formed of that
said to be much more impressive than in “ the hour beautiful variety of calcareous stone denominated an- 1 of mid-day splendour." tique or Oriental alabaster, of which it is supposed to
Seen by this medium every surrounding object, however furnish the largest specimen known. The term ala- admirable in itself, becomes subservient to the Sarcophabaster, in modern scientific language, is generally gus-the ancient, the splendid, the wonderful Sarcophagus applied to a comparatively soft substance which, in is before us, and all else are but accessories to its dignity chemical phrase, is a sulphate of lime, or a combination and grandeur: a mingled sense of awe, admiration and of sulphuric acid with lime;—it is, in fact, the gypsum
delight, pervades our faculties, and is even oppressive in its from which plaster of Paris is prepared. The mate
intensity, yet endearing in its associations.
Sir John Soane had the chamber thus lighted up in rial of the Sarcophagus in question, is a hard calcareous stone, to which the name of Arragonite has
the year 1825 on three evenings “during which the
rank and talent of this country, to an immense been given, because its peculiarities were first observed in specimens discovered in the Spanish 'kingdom of
number, including many foreigners of distinction, enAragon. It is a carbonate of lime-or a combination
joyed an exhibition as striking as it must have been of lime with carbonic acid-together with a very
This Sarcophagus was discovered by Belzoni, in the small portion of the earth of Strontian. This Sarcophagus forms part of the Museum which
course of the ten months during which he was in the was collected by the late Sir John Soane, at his house
employment of Mr. Salt *, in the year 1817. in Lincoln's-Inn Fields, and which, under the sanc
The collection, of which this Sarcophagus constition of an act of Parliament, was, shortly before his
tutes so splendid an ornament, was formed at a large death, vested in trustees for the use of the public.
expense, and through the labour of many years, by He thus describes it in his account of the Museum:
the late Sir John Soane, an individual somewhat This marvellous effort of human industry and perse
eccentric in his nature, but devoted apparently to verance, is supposed to be at least three thousand years old;
art. Moved by a laudable desire of preserving a it is of one piece of alabaster between nine and ten feet in collection which had been brought together with so length, and is considered of pre-eminent interest not only much care and expense, and probably instigated, in as a work of human skill and labour, but as illustrative of some degree, by a very natural desire of posthumous the customs, arts, religion and government of a very ancient fame, he conceived the design of bequeathing it to and learned people. The surface of this monument is
trustees for the use of the public, providing, at the covered externally and internally with hieroglyphics comprehending a written language which it is to be hoped the
same time, a fund for keeping it up. He found, howlabour of modern literati will render intelligible. ...... ever, that, to accomplish his purpose, it would be With no inconsiderable expense and difficulty, this unique necessary for him to obtain an Act of Parliament. monument was transported from Egypt to England, and Accordingly, early in the year 1833, he presented a placed in the British Museum, to the trustees of which it
petition for a Private Bill, which was passed on the was offered for two thousand pounds. After which nego
20th of April in that year, being entitled “An Act for tiation the idea of purchasing it for our national Collection was relinquished, when it was offered to me at the same
settling and preserving Sir John Soane's Museum, price, which offer I readily accepted, and shortly after I had | Library, and Works of Art in Lincoln's Inn Fields. the pleasure of seeing this splendid relic of Egyptian mag. | in the county of Middlesex, for the benefit of the nificence safely deposited in a conspicuous part of my public, and for establishing a sufficient fund for the Museum.
due maintenance of the same." The chamber in which it is placed is called the The preamble of this Act explains the motives and “ Belzoni chamber," and is thus described by a writer object of Sir John Soane. It recites that Sir John whose remarks are incorporated, by Sir John Soane, Soane “ hath, for many years past, been at great with his own account of his Museum :
labour and expense in collecting and establishing a On entering the sepulchral chamber, notwitstanding in Museum, comprising, among other valuable effects, tense anxiety to behold a work so unique and so celebrated
the Belzoni Sarcophagus, a library of books and as the Belzoni Sarcophagus, I confess that the place in
manuscripts, prints, drawings, pictures, models, and which this monument of antiquity is situated became the overpowering attraction. Far above, and on every side,
various works of art," &c., and that he is “ desirous were concentrated the most precious relics of architecture
that such museum, library, and works of art should and sculpture, disposed so happily as to offer the charm of be kept together, and preserved and maintained for novelty, the beauty of picturesque design, and that subli public use and advantage, and that a sufficient enmity resulting from a sense of veneration, due to the genius dowment should be established for the preservaand the labours of the "mighty dead." The light admitted
tion and maintenance thereof," &c. from the dome appeared to descend with a discriminating effect, pouring its brightest beams on those objects most
It accordingly provides for vesting the Museum in calculated to benefit by its presence.
I trustees after Sir John Soane's decease, and for giving The more (says the same writer, speaking of the Sarco- |
free access to it “at least on two days in every week phagus itself,) we contemplate this interesting memorial throughout the months of April, May, and June, and of antiquity and regal magnificence, the more our sense of at such other times in the same or other months as its value rises in the mind. We consider the beauty and the said trustees shall direct, to amateurs and stuscarcity of the material, its transparency, the rich and mellow hue, the largeness of the original block, the adap
dents in painting, sculpture and architecture, and to tation of its form to the purpose which was unquestionably
such other persons as shall apply for, and obtain ad. to receive a body enclosed in numerous wrappings, and
mission thereto, at such hours," &c, as the trustees doubly cased, according to the custom of the Egyptians. shall think fit. The act then empowers Sir John Soane We then examine the carving of innumerable figures, to invest 30,0001. in the 3 per Cent. Consols in trust, the doubting not that the history of a life fraught with the interest of which shall be applied to the keeping up most striking events is here recorded ; gaze on the beautiful features of the female form sculptured at the bottom
of the Museum and in the payment of the salaries of of the Sarcophagus, and conclude it to be that of the
a Curator and an Inspectress. It also contained a goddess Isis, the elongated eye and the delicate foot closely
* Belzoni asserts that he never was regularly employed by Mr.
Salt; but it seems very clear that he was, although he laboured * See Saturday Magazine, Vol. II., p. 254; Vol. IV., p. 154. | under a strange misimpression on the subject.