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FACTS IN COMPARATIVE ANATOMY. | FLOWERS.-Flowers, of all created things the most inno
cently simple, and most superbly complex,-playthings for The means employed by Nature to prevent a bird
| childhood, ornaments of the grave, and companions of the falling from its perch during sleep, are purely mecha. | cold corpse in the coffin ! Flowers, beloved by the wannical, and in no respect depend on the voluntary act dering idiot, and studied by the deep-thinking man of of the animal itself. The effect is produced by means science ! Flowers, that of perishing things are the most of a strong tendon, which is fixed to the upper part heavenly Flowers-that unceasingly expand to hearen
their grateful, and to man their cheerful looks-partners of of the bone of the leg; this
human joy, soothers of human sorrow; fit emblems of the tendon passses through a
victor's triumphs, of the young bride's blushes: welcome to tendinous loop at A, then
the crowded halls, and graceful upon solitary graves. over the joint at B, then
Flowers are, in the volume of nature, what the expression down the back of the bone
“God is love" is in the volume of revelation. What a to c, where it unites with
desolate place would be a world without a flower! It
would be a face without a smile-a feast without a welcome. smaller tendons connected
Are not flowers the stars of the earth, and are not our stars with each of the toes; the
the flowers of heaven? One cannot look closely at the effect of this arrangement is,
structure of a flower without loving it. They are emblems that the more heavily the
and manifestations of God's love to the creation, and they body of the bird presses
are the means and ministrations of man's love to his fellowdownwards, as sleep pre
creatures; for they first awaken in his mind a sense of the vents its using the volun
beautiful and good. The very inutility of flowers is their
elegance and great beauty; for they lead us to thoughts tary muscles of the leg by
of generosity and moral beauty, detached from and supewhich it is kept in an erect
rior to all selfishness; so that they are pretty lessons to position, the more the joint
nature's book of instruction, teaching man that he liveth of the leg at b is bent, and
not by bread or from bread alone, but that he hath another consequently, the long ten
than an animal life.—Chapter on Flowers. don we have noticed is drawn tighter, and the toes brought
ES NOTHING together, and forced to clasp
Most writers like on something to dilate, with increased firmness, the
And some on anything would spend their time; perch on which the bird rests. This movement of the But everything is now in such a state toes is easily shown, by taking the leg of a fowl after
That " nothing" best befits my humble chime. it is removed, previous to being cooked, and finding
Hail! then, the subject; and All hail! the bard the tendon we have spoken of; the power it possesses
"Who can write well on nothing !"-Few beside
Would claim this meed !-but yet, with due regard of bringing the toes together can easily be proved.
To others' rights, my chaplet I'll divide ! Nature, in all her works, however dissimilar they may
What art thou, Nothing ?- Nothing but a name! appear at first sight, appears to have formed her crea
Yet so connected with all earthly ties, tures with reference to one type or pattern. In man, the That Glory, Reputation, Pleasure, Fame, most perfect of her creation, we
All end in thee-from whom they took their rise! find the bones and muscles of the
What's Friendship? Nothing !--Love? an emptier hand most elaborately developed,
[Pride? and we find the same number of
Honour?-Wealth ?-Splendour? - Dignity ? - and
I asked the tombs-(with solemn sculptures crowned)bones, in various states of deve
“Nothing !"- a hollow moan from each replied. lopement, and more or less per
Yet much depends on Nothing !--Nothing known, fectly formed in every other part
Nothing is wanted ; and the vacant breast, of the creation; sometimes, some
Where Ignorance erects his leaden throne, are enlarged at the expense of
Asks nothing to secure its placid rest ! others, and at other times, the
He that " says nothing."-though a very dunce, whole of them are nearly obli
May often for an imp of wisdom pass : TROT terated, but still there is always
He that prates everything, betrays at once an indication of every part which
The empty head-less stored with brains than brass, is to be found in the more per
Nothing !-Why thou art something-like a theme !
One which, the more I search, the more I find : fect type from which they are
And, should Invention fail, through toil extreme, a derived. The pectoral fin of a
Right well I know that thou art still behind! whale is an illustration in point;
In by-gone days, what time I tuned my lyre in this case, although the animal
Anxious to gain the meed of lasting fame, b o seldom uses its fin except to assist
To what fond heights did not my Muse aspire ! it in swimming; all those bones
She looked for due applause—when Nothing came! that occupy the place of the hand
On graver themes I next my powers essayed, are perfectly formed, enabling the
And turned the page of philosophic lore, creature to clasp its young to its
(Ah! vainly to my aching sight displayed !).
What was my meed ?-neglect, and nothing more! breast when in danger; the re
I do not like thee! Yet I find thee ever maining bones which occupy the BONES OF THE FIN OP
Meddling with each design and rising scheme; place of the bones of the arm THE WHALE.
Sure to succeed my very best endeavour, are short, and imperfectly formed, the two bones of And prove my hope is-Nothing but a dream! the fore-arm being soldered, as it were, together ; I am of Nothing, and to Nothing tend! outwardly these bones are not visible, the whole On earth I Nothing have, and Nothing claim ;fin being covered with skin and fat.
Man's noblest works shall know one common end,
And "Nothing" crown the tablet of his name.
Enough! I've proved the ancient dictum wrong, We do, indeed, but little, if we do not induce our children
That “nothing out of nothing can be made;" to think, to compare, and to apply,—to draw religious and
And if of Nothing I have sung too long, moral inferences; and, in short, to extract from nature, from
'Tis but the fault of many of my trade! -NEMO. history, and from everything they see, read, or experience,
LONDON: lessons which will guide their future conduct, and promote
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. their everlasting welfare.—Mrs. John SANFORD.
PUBLIBHED IN WEEKLY NUMERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PART
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anti RUINS OF FORE ABBEY, IN THE COUNTY OF WESTMEATH. 37000 in 6919 901 20 Sub toys do di
k adt a boyislo 318 FORE, Foure, or Fowre, is an ancient corporate town
to go out of his doors all his life after, and accordingly
here he remains, pent up all his days; every day he saith in the parish of the same name, and the barony
| mass in his chapel, which also is part of, nay, almost all his of Demifore, in the county of Westmeath, Leinster. dwelling-house, for there is no more house, but a very It is a place of very trifling importance at the present small castle, wherein a tall man can hardly stretch himself day, though it sent two members to the Irish House at length, if he laid down on the floor, nor is there any of Commons up to the period of the Union. It is passage into the castle but through the chapel. He hath
servants that attend him at his call in an out-house, but situated upon the north side of the hill or rising
none lyeth within the church but himself. He is said by ground which interposes between it and Lough Lene.
the natives, who hold him in great veneration for his sancIn a curious description of the county of Westmeath,
tity, every day to dig, or rather scrape, for he useth no other written by Sir Henry Piers, Bart., in the latter part of tools but his nails, a portion of his grave; being esteemed the seventeenth century, and inserted in Vallancey's of so great holiness, as if purity and sanctity were entailed Collectanea, we have an account of the town of Trim on his cell, he is constantly visited by those of the Romish
religion, who aim at being esteemed more devout than the at that period.
ordinary amongst them ; erery visitant at his departure, The town is said to have been anciently a town or uni- leaveth his offering or (as they phrase it) devotion on his versity of literature, and that its name signifying in the altar ; but he relieth not on this only for a maintainance, Irish tongue, the town of books, and the mentioned lake but hath those to bring him in their devotion, whose devo(Lough Lene), the lake of learning, may seem to give tions are not so fervent as to invite them to do the office in countenance to this, as also an island in the said lake person ; these are called his proctors, who range all the bearing the same name, which is said to have been the counties in Ireland, to beg for him, whom they call “ the retiring place of the learned who taught here. But if this Holy Man in the Stone:” corn, eggs, geese, turkies, hens, town were not a mart of learning, surely it was of devotion, sheep, money, and what not; nothing comes amiss, and there being in it no less than the ruins of three parish | nowhere do they fail altogether, but something is had, inchurches, more by two than the greatest and best town of somuch, that if his proctors deal honestly, nay, if they our country hath, one monastery, one church or cell of an return him but the tenth part of what is given him, he anchorite, the sole of the religious of this kind in Ireland." | may, doubtless, fare as well as any priest of them all; the
only recreation this poor prisoner is capable of, is to walk of this anchorite, Sir Henry Piers gives the fol.
on his terras built over the cell wherein he lies, if he may lowing minute and amusing account:
be said to walk, who cannot on one line stretch forth his * This religious person at his entry, maketh a yow neyer | legs four times VOL. XI.
The ruins of whicu we have given a view in our this story in that formality related, is infinitely believed by engraving, are the spacious remains of a monastery a generation credulous enough, and who boast of miracles, in the valley, at the foot of the town. This was a
and adhere to tradition how unlikely soever it be, if it seem
to set but the least gloss or varnish on that religion, or the priory of Canons Regular, built by St. Fechin, about
relatives thereof that they so tenaciously adhere to. the year 630; the founder died of the plague in 665, after having, as is said, ruled over three thousand monks in this Abbey. The annals of the Abbey
PASSING GENERATIONS, make us acquainted with some particulars concerning “TaE deaths of some, and the marriages of others,” the town. The records of the years 827, 870, 970, says Cowper, “ make a new world of it every thirty 1025, 1096, 1095, 1112, 1114, 1149, and 1169, are years. Within that space of time, the majority are but a series of plunderings and burnings. In 1025, I displaced, and a new generation has succeeded. Here the “Ferman Fechin, or glebe lands of Fore, were and there one is permitted to stay longer, that there plundered and burnt by the tribe of Criochan, on the may not be wanting a few grave dons like myself to eve of the nativity.” In 1209, Walter de Lacie re make the observation.” founded this Abbey, under the invocation of St. Man is a self-survivor every year; Taurin and St. Fechin, for monks of the order of St. Man like a stream is in perpetual flow. Benedict, whom he brought for that purpose from
Death's a destroyer of quotidian prey : the Abbey of St. Taurin, in Normandy; he made it
My youth, my noontide his, my yesterday;
The bold invader shares the present hour, a cell to that Norman Abbey, since which period it
Each moment on the former shuts the grave has generally been called the priory of St. Fechin
While man is growing, life is in decrease, and St. Taurin. We learn, also, from these annals,
And cradles rock us nearer to the tomb. that in the year 1436, on the 26th of May, King
Our birth is nothing, but our death begun, Edward the Third laid a tax by letters patent, to
As tapers waste that instant they take fire. —Yooxg. continue for twenty years, on all things brought to Yet, infinitely short as the term of human life is, market in this town, or within three miles of the when compared with time to come, it is not so in same, or in the towns of Molingar and Multifernam, relation to time past. An hundred and forty of our and within three miles of the same, also on all goods own generations carry us back to the Deluge, and going out of the said towns,—for the purpose of nine more of ante-diluvian measure to the Creation, raising a sum of money sufficient to defray the ex- | - which to us is the beginning of time; “ for time pense of paving the town, and to build a ditch or itself is but a novelty, a late and upstart thing in stone wall for the better security of His Majesty's respect of the ancient of days *." They who remember English subjects against their Irish enemies, who had their grandfather, and see their grandchildren, have thrice burnt the said town to the ground.
seen persons belonging to five out of that number, This monastery presents a large pile of simple and and he who attains the age of threescore has seen two unornamented masonry: the chapel is still in a generations pass away. “The created world,” says tolerable state of preservation, and has three narrow- Sir Thomas Browne, “is but a small parenthesis in pointed windows. The valley in which this Abbey eternity, and a short interposition, for a time, between is placed, must, in the time of its prosperity, have such a state of duration as was before it, and may be been a delightful retreat ; the outline is still good, after it." There is no time of life, after we become and nothing is wanting but wood, to render it an at, capable of reflection, in which the world to come tractive spot in modern days; the approach to it from must not to any considerate mind appear of more the east was protected by a strong fort, of which the importance to us than this; no time in which we earthen mounds only remain.
have not a greater stake there. When we reach the Besides the ruins of this Abbey, there are still to threshold of old age, all objects of our early affections be seen the remains of the three churches alluded to have gone before us, and in the common course of by Sir Henry Piers, in the extract already quoted. mortality a great proportion of the later. Not with
One of these churches, (he says,) is called St. Fechin's, out reason, did the wise compilers of our admirable one of our Irish saints. The chief entrance into this liturgy place next in order after the form of matri. church is at the west end, by a door about three feet broad mony, the services for the visitation and communion and six feet high. This wall is hard upon, if not altogether, of the sick, and for the burial of the dead. --The three feet thick; the lintel that traverseth the head of the
Doctor. door is of one entire stone of the full thickness, or near it,
* Dr. S. Johnson. of the wall, and to the best of my rememberance, about six foot long, or perhaps more, and in height about two foot or more; having taken notice of it as the largest entire | THERE is music wherever there is harmony, order, or prostone I had at any time observed, especially so high in any portion; and thus far we may maintain the music of the building, and discoursing of it with an ancient dweller in spheres; for those well-ordered motions, and regular paces, the town, I observed to him, that of old time they wanted though they give no sound unto the ear, yet to the undernot then engines even in this country for their structures ; standing they strike a note most full of harmony. Who the gentleman smiling as at my mistake, told me, that the soever is harmonically composed, delights in the harmony saint himself alone, without either engine or any help, of sounds; which makes me much distrust the symmetry placed the stone there, and thereon he proceeds in this of those heads which declaim against all church-music. formal story of the manner and occasion of it; he said, For myself, not only from my obedience, but my particular the workmen having hewn and fitted the stone in its genius, I do embrace it; for even that vulgar and tavern dimensions, and made a shift with much ado to tumble it music, which makes one merry, another mad, strikes in to the foot of the wall, they assayed with their joint forces me a deep fit of devotion and profound contemplation of to raise it, but after much toil and loss of time, they could the first composer; there is something in it of divinity more not get it done. At last they resolved to go and refresh than the ear discovers. I will not say with Plato, the soul themselves, and after breakfast to make another attempt | is an harmony, but harmonical, and hath its nearest symat it; the saint also, for as the story goes he was then pathy unto music; thus some whose temper of body agrees, living and present, advised them so to do, and tells them and humours the constitution of their souls, are born poets, he would tarry till their return; when they returned, behold though indeed all are naturally inclined unto rhyme.they find the stone placed exactly as to this day it remains, l'SIR THOMAS Brown. over the door. This was done, as the tradition goes, by the saint alone; a work, for my part, I believe impossible to be TIME cures every wound, and though the scar may remain done by the strength of so many hands only as can imme- and occasionally ache, yet the earliest agony of its recent diately apply their force unto it: however, I assure you infliction is felt no more, SIR WALTER SCOTT.
ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BIBLE FROM THE | tombs and temples of Egypt, recently made public by MONUMENTS OF ANTIQUITY.
the discoveries of enterprising travellers, are probably No. I
more ancient than any other edifices in the world.
We have every reason to believe that many of them INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. ILLUSTRATIONS PRE
| existed in the days of Moses, perhaps even in the VIOUS TO THE CALL OF ABRAM.
time of Abraham ; and we shall find as we proceed, From the earliest ages, monuments have been erected striking proofs that the Jewish legislator saw and to commemorate remarkable events: when Jacob comprehended the symbolic representations on the made a league with his father-in-law Laban, he “ took walls of the Pharaohs, which now offer mysteries a stone, and set it up for a pillar; and he said unto that cannot be interpreted. We may, therefore, reahis brethren, Gather stones, and they took stones, and sonably expect to find singular confirmations of made an heap.” (Gen. xxxi. 45. 46.) It was soon Scripture truth, in an examination of the monuments discovered that simple tradition was insufficient to contemporary with the sacred historian. The paintpreserve the meaning of these memorials, and those ings and the sculptures on which he gazed are also by whom they were erected carved upon the stones offered to our view; the customs and manners which some image or picture by which the event might be he described in words, Egyptian artists depicted in known; the picture was subsequently changed for an the very same age. After the lapse of three thousand inscription, and that this practice was very ancient, years, we are enabled to compare two contemporary appears from the words of the patriarch Job. « Oh records so different in their nature, that there can be that my words were now written.... That they were no ground for suspecting one to be derived from the graven with an iron pen and lead in the rock for other, and we can demonstrate the historical verity of ever!” (Job xix. 23, 24.) It is evident that such the Pentateuch, not only by undesigned coincidence, monuments possess great historical value; they are but by the testimony of a hostile and persecuting not so liable to accidents as books and manuscripts, people, they are easily understood, and generally known. But these monuments not only illustrate the acBut such monuments will not by themselves form a counts given of Egypt by the writers of the Old history, because they only record a single event Testament; they serve also to explain many peculiariwithout taking any notice of its causes or its conse- ties in the social condition of the chosen people of quences. They are rather evidences by which the God. The connexion between them began in the truth or falsehood of a written history may be deter days of Abraham, who visited Egypt, and found there mined. Thus, a history of England which denied | a settled government, with the head of which he the fact of the great fire of London, would be con- entered into terms of friendly relationship; the victed of falsehood by the monumental column which Israelites were brought into closer union with the commemorates that calamity; and the truth of the Egyptians when they colonized the land of Goshen, accounts given of the Knights Templars in England, during the administration of Joseph ; they shared their armour, their dress, and their high rank, is the slavery and degradation of that people when an proved by their effigies in the Temple Church. The intrusive dynasty tyrannized over the land, and remains of the Roman palace discovered at Bignor, “another king arose who knew not Joseph.” Moses, in Sussex, show that the arts of Rome were intro- who was “ learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians," duced into Britain at the same time as her arms, and undoubtedly adopted many of their usages when he that this island had attained a high degree of civili- prepared the civil code of laws for the people over zation previous to the invasion of the Saxons. In whom God had placed him as a leader and a legisgeneral, the more ancient any history is, the fewer lator ; finally, this connexion was maintained through are the monuments by which we can estimate its various alternations of war and peace, until the truth; but there is one important exception,—the Egyptian power in Asia was overthrown by the Bible. Though far the most ancient record of trans Assyrians. actions in the world, its veracity is established by | | It was a very ancient tradition in the East, that countless monuments in different lands, and the re pillars were erected before the Deluge by some of the searches of modern travellers daily add fresh con- antediluvian patriarchs, and that they were not defirmations to its important truths.
stroyed by the awful catastrophe of the Flood. It This is especially shown by the recent discoveries is, indeed, improbable that tradition alone could have in Egyptian antiquity. No other nation has entered preserved so many particulars of the primeval innoso minutely into details on its monuments as the cence of man, his residence in Paradise, his temptaEgyptians; they have left us accurate representations tion, and his fall, as we find among all ancient of public events, private occupations, and domestic nations, unless some such memorials had existed. manners. Wars, battles, and sieges; the mustering Even the means by which man was seduced from his and divisions of the army, the triumphal processions allegiance, the 'temptation of the serpent, are more that rewarded the victors, the miserable fate that or less distinctly shown in the mythology of every awaited the captives; in peace, we see the religious ancient nation. The craft of the serpent, its enmity ceremonies of the priests, the gorgeous pomp of the to the human race, its representation of an evil princourt, the amusements of the people, and even the ciple possessing extraordinary power and malignity, games of the children. Every detail of horticulture are found among the articles of popular belief in and agriculture is depicted faithfully in the tombs ; every nation possessing ancient records, from China all the occupations of life are represented in the to Peru. The fact that religious worship was offered chambers of death.
to an animal so repulsive in its form, and so maligThe book of Job is one of the most ancient com- | nant in its nature, can only be explained by their positions in the world: the best critics have agreed ancestors having preserved the memory of the evil that it was written before the age of Moses, and some which Satan, disguised in that form, had inflicted on eastern traditions make the patriarchal model of the human race. patience a contemporary with Abraham. But ancient Among the Egyptian monuments, we find one as it is, the passage we have already quoted shows representation of an interview between a woman and that monumental records existed previously, and per- a serpent, which immediately suggests to us the petuated the memory of remarkable events. The circumstance of Eve's temptation. The artist has
managed to give the animal such a look of intelli- | is confirmed by the Egyptian monuments. On the gence, as fully to justify the proverbial expression, most ancient of them, we find numerous repre. “Be ye wise as serpents;" and the horror depicted on sentations of houses and fortresses, but tents or the woman's countenance may be supposed to arise tabernacles are exceedingly rare,-a clear proof that as much from the sinfulness of the proposal made to their use does not belong to the first stages of human her by the tempter, as from the singularity of an advancement. animal being endowed with the power of speech. An important invention is attributed to Lamech's
second son Jubal ; "he was the father of such as handle the harp or organ." (Gen. iv. 21.) We shall have so many occasions to refer to the musical instruments of the Egyptians and the Israelites, that we need here only remark that the monuments fully confirm the Scriptural account of the antiquity of the invention. The harp, and the ougab, or pipe of unequal reeds, which our translators have rendered “organ," are found depicted on the tombs and temples which bear the most unquestionable marks of a very ancient date.
Still more remarkable is the acount given of TubalCain : he is called "an instructer of every artificer in brass and iron.” (Gen. iv. 22.) We must in the first place remark that the word translated “instructer," literally signifies “a whetter," and that the word rendered “brass," means properly “native copper." Now the monuments clearly show that the art of working in metals had attained a high degree
of perfection at a very early period. From the Egyptian monuments, also, we obtain a The accompanying engraving exhibits the furnace confirmation of the Scriptural account of the early or forge used by the Egyptians. The double bellows discovery of some of the arts necessary in social life. worked by the alternate pressure of the feet, and In the Book of Genesis, three very important dis- | inflated by raising the top with a rope held in the coveries are attributed to the sons of Lamech : the hands, does not differ materially from those used in first is the pasturage of cattle by wandering shepherds. small smelting operations of the present day. From “Jabal was the father of such as dwell in tents, and the use of the word “whetter," it appears that the have cattle." (Gen iv. 20.) It has always been the sacred historian decribes forging as a more ancient custom in the East to call a man “ the father of process than casting, and this is amply confirmed by any thing or circumstance for which he was remark- | the monuments on which the former employment is able ; thus, one of Mohammed's companions was common, and the latter rare. The order of the words named Abu-Horeira, that is, “the father of a cat," | also intimates that copper-works were more common on account of his partiality to that animal. Jabal is than iron, which is quite in accordance with the called “father" here, in the sense of inventor or acknowledged fact that the latter metal is rarely teacher, and the passage means that he was the first found in its native state. From the monuments, it to adopt a nomade life. Hence, also, it follows that is evident that most, if not all, of the Egyptian men had stationary habitations before they began to weapons, tools, and utensils, were formed of copper, use tents or moveable dwellings; for Cain “builded for they are painted of the greenish colour which a city, and called the name of the city after the name copper assumes, when it becomes oxidized by exof his son Enoch," (Gen. iv. 17;) whereas tents were posure to the air. not used until the seventh generation from Adam. The traces of the traditions respecting the general This singular fact, so different from what profane Deluge, must next engage our attention; and the writers usually relate about the progress of society, peculiar nature of the inonuments themselves scems