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THE city of Segovia is the capital of the province of generation of art. The styles of different periods are that name in the ancient kingdom of Old Castile in united in the Alcazar, and the interior is not the Spain. It is the ancient Segovia, a Celtiberian city least curious part of the building. The principal embellished by Trajan; its name not having been staircase is constructed in the best taste; most of the changed: it stands on a hill, of which the Everma apartments are adorned with carved work and gilt waters the base. The Arabic gate, and the Alcazar, wood. In the largest hall is contained a collection an old castle flanked with turrets, and built on a of wooden statues, representing the kings of Oviedo precipitous rock, may still give the stranger some Leon, and Castille, from Fabila the First, who reigned notion of the flourishing state of Segovia under the in the eighth century, to the time of Queen Joan, Moorish domination. But these sink into insignifi- surnamed the Foolish, the mother of Charles the cance when compared, or rather contrasted, with the Fifth. The Cid, and his famous horse Babicio, are work of Trajan, the aqueduct with a double range of also represented: and there is, too, the real or suparcades, by which water has heen conveyed into the posed saddle of the same courser, which contributed town for seventeen hundred years: it consists of 109 more than once to the victories of its master. The arches, the largest nearly 90 feet in height, from the pupils in the royal school of artillery, founded by ground to the conduit, and the length of the space Charles the Third, now meet in this ancient edifice. which they cover exceeds 2530 feet. If Trajan raised The city was formerly well known for its cloth, and de structure so costly, it may readily be admitted that it still possesses a great many looms, four fullers' Segovia, in ancient times, was a much more important mills, and three large washing-places for wool. place than it is at present. Other works of past The Cid mentioned above, but whose real name days still serve to recall the ancient splendour of the was Rodriguez Diaz de Bivar, was born at Burgos town; but sumptuous temples have given way to about the year 1040. He attained great distinction in time, or the more destructive efforts of ignorance and the intestine wars that for a long period desolated the barbarism.
country after the dismemberment of the Moorish The Cathedral is the finest modern edifice in the empire. At twenty years of age he was admitted to city: it was built in the sixteenth century, and its the rank of knighthood, by Ferdinand the First, demi-gothic style announces the period of the re- 1 King of Leon and Castille. After taking part in Vol. X.
qeveral intestine wars, he gave offence to Alphonso | history, as I have learned it from himself in different the Fifth, and was banished from the council of the languages. monarch. He then left Castille, taking with him | Pausanias' relates that a book by Hesiod was many of his relations and friends, but he continued written on leaves of lead, and Herodotus: mentions active in the service of his king.
the use of skins by the Ionians when papyrus was Five Moorish kings (chiefs) having united them- scarce, which seems to show that he wrote on pa. selves for the purpose of ravaging the province of pyrus, or the manufacture of the paper " reeds of Rioja, Rodriguez went out to meet them, accompanied | Egypt * which grew by the brooks." Pliny* saw, in by his friends and followers : having gained a com the house of Pomponius Secundus, a nobleman and plete victory, he imposed tribute on them, in the poet, the books of the Gracchi', written with their name of the king of Castille. Being recalled to the own hands, on papyrus, and adds, that the works of court he received the Moorish deputies in the presence / Virgil', Cicero', and Augustus Cæsar were written on of Alphonso, who saluted him by the title of el Seid, the same materials. Pliny mentions linen books, and which in the Moorish language means lord: from this Virgil alludes to books that were made of the inner circumstance he obtained the name of The Cid. At rind of the elm. There are authorities for believing the siege of Toledo in 1086, he contributed materially that some short epistles were folded up without a to the capture of the city. He was again, however, roller, and that Homer (who wrote about 900 B.C.,) banished from the court, notwithstanding his services, alludes to a tablet of this kind. I may here also the king never having forgiven him his first offence. mention the waxen hand-tablets (pugillares) of the This was a proposal he made to the rest of the ancients, inscribed with the point of the style t, and nobles, by which Alphonso was obliged, at his coro-smoothed with its flat end; their common-place nation, to swear that he had no part in the murder books; their paper of the rind of the papyrus ; of the last king, his own brother: this ceremony con- 1 their ink of the cuttle-fish f, or lamp-black, described cluded by the Cid calling down the vengeance of by Pliny; their pens mentioned by Juvenal; their heaven upon all perjurers.
reeds for writing; and the pen-knives and scissors of During this second exile he continued his enter- | Byzantine writers'. prises against the Moors, and obtained many signal The Roman slaves and freedmen sometimes tranvictories over them. After the death of Hiaja, the scribed the author's writing, or wrote from his Moorish king of Toledo, the Cid made himself master | inditing, according to Horace "o; “Go boy, and write of the city, and established himself there along with this quickly in the book.” It may be inferred from his companions in arms, in 1094. Here, although Cornelius Nepos", that the slaves of Pomponius he acted with sovereign authority, he refused to take Atticus had a literary education. the title of king, and acknowledged himself as tri | The Librarius transcribed manuscripts, and I conbutary to the king of Castille. He died at Valencia jecture that he sold them. We read that Nileus 13 in 1099. This, it appears, is the true history of this sold the libraries of Aristotle", and Theophrastus '5, to celebrated man, whose exploits have formed the Apellicon " of Teios. Polybius alludes to the sale of foundation for many fabulous and romantic tales. his own works. Perhaps, too, the author might
occasionally sell his own writings. The word for
bookseller, bibliopola,) is as old as Martial's 17 A SHORT HISTORY OF BOOKS.
Epigrams. THERE is a useful and agreeable acquaintance whom we take up occasionally, and set aside when we are " Pausanias was the author of a History of Greece; he tired. Our eyes are engaged by his narratives, to
| flourished at Rome, A. D. 170. which our ears are spared the trouble of listening,
* An old Greek poet, who wrote on agriculture, B. C. 907.
1 3 Herodotus was the father of Greek history; he flourisher! the which makes him an agreeable companion to the B, C, 445. indolent and the dull of hearing. He bears reproaches
• See Saturday Magazine, Vol. IV., p. 208. with apathy, and approbation with indifference; and
* A celebrated writer on Natural History, he was smothered
to death by ashes in an eruption of Mount Vesuvius, h. D. 79. when he gives advice, which by the by he seldom
5 The Gracchi were a celebrated political family of Rome, does unless we look for it, he does it in so general a who lived B.c. 120. manner, that we are apt to believe that he means & Virgil, a great Roman epic poet; wrote in the time of somebody else, and are spared the pain of blushing.
Augustus Cæsar, during whose reign Christ was born.
i Cicero was an illustrious orator, statesman, and philosopher After he becomes a favourite, he appears in a soiled
of Rome; he died B. C. 43. and tattered surtout, which in full dress is generally
+ See Saturday Magazine, Vol. V., p. 51. of red, or blue, or brown leather. He never asks for
# Ibid, Vol. I., p. 232. refreshment, nor does he accept of any if offered
8 Juvenal was a Roman satirist, who died in the time of
Trajan, A, D. 128. him. On the other hand, he often dissuades us from
9 The Byzantine historians were writers who Aourished at eating and drinking to excess. The fire has been Constantinople, after the seat of government had been removed fatal to many of his family at Rome, Constantinople, thither by Constantine the Great, A. D. 328. Buda, Peking, Susa, and other cities, as we learn
10 Horace was a great lyric poet, who first wrote lyric odes in from history; yet he does not like to be too far from
the Latin language in the reign of Augustus Cæsar.
Il Cornelius Nepos wrote his elegant biographies in the reign it, as his constitution is injured by the damp. He of Augustus ; he was the intimate friend of Cicero and Atticus. continues with discernment where he is made wel. 12 Pomponius Atticus was an intimate friend of Cicero. He come, whether from congeniality of disposition, or
was a most learned man, and an excellent Greek scholar; his
residence at Athens gained him the name of Atticus. willingness on our part to attend to his admonitions.
13 A scholar well known for possessing all the writings of This is a good symptom, for neither friends nor books Aristotle. are to be always chosen like pieces of music, from
14 Aristotle was a Greek philosopher, who wrote on morals their being in harmony with our feelings, but some
and natural history. He was tutor to Alexander the Great, and
died B. C. 322. times from their discordance or habit of correcting
15 A pupil of Aristotle ; he wrote on some subjects in natural them. A person is known by his books, is a common history and morals; he died B. c, 108. remark; and the acquaintance alluded to is A BOOK. I 16 A philosopher celebrated for his possession of the works of Having been accustomed, if I may resume the figure,
Aristotle and Theophrastus; he died B. c. 86. to pass some hours in the week, I may say most
17 Martial was a celebrated writer of epigrams. He was a
Spaniard by birth, but resided principally at Rome: he died A. Du days, in his society, I shall give a short account of his 104, in the seventy-fifth year of his age.
The word volume came from the rolls of papyrus,, a Phænician author, is stated to have collected the which were rolled upon the umbilicus, or rolling-stick. materials of his history from the registers of the The outer part of the volume, which was exposed to towns and temples of Phænicia. view, (I conclude the back of the papyrus,) was But all the books placed in such depositories above coloured with purple, or perhaps red, as we learn from ground have perished, whilst the oldest rolls in existOvid 18; if the subject of the work was cheerful, the ence have been preserved under ground, viz., in the title was written in red letters, and suspended from ruins of Herculaneum, and in the crypts of Thebes the cornua, or ends of the roller, which were occa and other places where mummies were deposited. sionally coloured. The volume was polished with Hitherto the oldest rolls were reckoned Justinian's thc pumice-stone, and anointed with the oil of cedar, “ Chart of Plenary Security,” (I believe, in the royal and placed in a box of cypress-wood, to preserve it library of Paris,) and a copy of the Bible at Tours, from the moths. .
mentioned by Montfaucon, who died before the Perhaps I may be allowed to conjecture that the discovery of the treasures of antiquity at Herculaneum. volume was scaled, to enable, the property to be as. And now it may be asked, When and why were certained by the author's signet. Some thought, and rolls of papyrus laid aside for the stitched books? might have continued to think, that the titles of these It is related, I think, in the life of Homer ascribed volumes were written on leather covers or wrappers, to Herodotus, that the Iliad was originally styled a buckled round the volume with thongs; but the rhapsody. If this word literally means a stitching existence of these wrappers or thongs cannot be of odes or poems together, as in modern bookbinding, proved from any classical authority. It appears, on it would show the date of stitched books, which for the the other hand, from a painting discovered at Hercu- future I shall call books, to be of remote antiquity. In laneum, that the title of the book was written on a the mean time, the Herculaneum manuscripts on rolls label suspended from the ends of the roller. This of papyrus, show that the Greeks and Romans of that painting represents a Muse with a box, perhaps of age preferred papyrus to parchment, though the latter cypress, full of books by her side, placed upright in had long been made for writing at Pergamus, and the box, with the labels exposed to view. This box doubtless in other places ; sheep being more general will give us an idea of the inside of an ancient library, than paper-reeds. The Greek Christians of the Lower by analogical reasoning, as the size of Hercules was Empire appear to me to be the first who made books guessed at in ancient times by the length of his foot. of parchment, instead of rolls of papyrus ; whether For instance, if this and other such boxes were it was that papyrus could not be got from Alexandria, placed on shelves with the mouth outwards, and the occupied by the Saracens, or for any other reason. labels hanging down, an ancient library was like a Secondly. A book should " look its part" exterregistrar's office, in which the rolls of vellum or records nally, as well as possess internal merit: it should be are so placed with the title of the records hanging large enough to maintain its place upon the shelf by down, and in this case, the librarian of old was a sort | dint of weight, according to Aristotle's principle of of custos rotulorum, or keeper of the rolls. But if dignity for the human form, namely, magnitude the mouth was placed upwards, and the box was without impediment to activity Books maintain placed on a shelf with one of the sides outwards, or their place in libraries, and sometimes are admitted facing the room, the library looked something like into them by means of their size, as well as their the tiers of drawers in a common shop, particularly merit. Books that are too small are liable to be overif the contents of the box of volumes were painted looked, or hidden among larger books, or to be swept on the front. The position may be conjectured but away with waste paper upon trivial occasions. cannot be proved from any classical author, nor from Thirdly. Books are not so liable as rolls to the Vopiscus, Lipsius, or Lomeierus, or any other who humorous objection of the Greeks, that “a great has written on libraries.
book is a great evil,” which there is reason to think The Alexandrian library is said to have contained was partly owing to the trouble required for unrolling 700,000 of such rolls or volumes, great and small, a large volume of papyrus, in order to read it, and which gives an idea of immense labour. But I do for rolling it at the other end as it was read. In this not think that the ancient libraries with their rolls, sense the Iliad itself was a great evil or inconvenience, whether in boxes, or lying horizontally with their and so was the Odyssey, though not in any other. titles dangling down, looked so handsome as modern A good Cyclopædia now-a-days is not considered a libraries, with their rows of well-bound books, and great evil. their titles gilt on the backs.
But rolls were not entirely laid aside after books It may be inferred from Horace's Art of Poetry, came into use, for we find that the Greeks in the that Roman authors used to read their compositions middle ages had rolls of parchment called Kontakia, to their friends, and sometimes to their flatterers; wrapped upon a stick about a palm in length, like but books approved of by good critics, particularly the classical umbilicus. Other manuscripts with two Tarpa, in the time of Horace, were admitted into the rollers, and made of metal, are still used by the Palatine library founded by Augustus. This library Jewish Rabbins, who used to bring to Cambridge was afterwards struck by lightning, and the remains Hebrew manuscripts of the Scriptures, written on of the books in later ages are said to have been such two-fold Kontakia. The writing was elegant, burned, by order of Pope Gregory the First.
whatever was its accuracy; and the columns or The custom of depositing books in temples is of pages were divided by spaces, and were parallel to Asiatic origin, and may be traced in Scripture. By the rollers. We read that “when Jehudi had read the command of Moses, “ the Book of the Law was three or four leaves, he cut the roll with a penknife deposited in the ark of the covenant of the Lord;" | and cast it into the fire until the roll was consumed." and, after the building of Solomon's temple, “the The word leaves may mean columns, as a roll has no Levites brought up the ark and the tabernacle of the leaves. congregation to the oracle of the house, to the most The Greeks of the middle age had books of cotton, holy place, even under the wings of the cherubim." | which they call Bombukine. The Latins call them It is probable that all the books of Scripture were Charte Bombice, and the Italians Bombaccio. deposited in the same holy place. Sanchoniatho, Manuscripts were frequently erased for the sake of 16 A celebrated Roman elegiac writer, in the reign of Augustus, | the parchment, in the twelfth, thirteenth, and four
teenth centuries, but the cotton manuscripts generally | labour, by the substitution of small letters for capitals. escaped. Montfaucon found but one instance to the Such is the difference between Greek and Latin contrary,
capitals and small letters, that Homer and Horace The lives of illustrious Romans, written by Pom- would find it difficult to read, without instruction, ponius, are said to have had their portraits; and a their own books as they are now printed. manuscript in Colbert's library, of the date of 1059, Another relief was the system of abbreviation, or had the picture of the Empress Eudocia, standing the junction of two or more letters into one, after between the emperor and her son Constantine Por the ninth and tenth centuries, which are reckoned the phyrogenitus. So much for the antiquity of pictures ages of elegant Greek writing. Some words were in books.
gutted of their vowels, like oriental writing, and Before we mention printed books, it may be sum- others of their consonants, so that writing was reduced marily observed, that some ages after the Christian era, to a kind of short hand, in which the beauty of the work of transcribing was partly transferred to the thought and composition was not displayed in the cloister, and partly, perhaps, conducted without the best light. Politian " and Picus of Mirandula used pale of the church. In short, as ecclesiastics were the abbreviated characters, which could not be deciphered most learned order in the middle ages, we find that by their literary executors. monks and others, belonging to monasteries and The most effectual remedy for all the disadvantages churches, were employed in composing, copying, and of transcribing was printing, invented, according to even in binding and stitching books.
some, by Guttemburg, but, according to others, by There was a writing-room called Scriptorium in John Faust, of Mentz, in the year 1450. By this monasteries, and the transcribers were sometimes the art, thousands of copies can be struck off with far feebler monks, who “were considered as to sleep, greater facility than formerly a very few could be and refreshments." Such had the privilege of ap- | written. proaching the fire, perhaps in the hall or refectory, The European monks and ecclesiastics, who had to dry their parchments. The transcribers, perhaps bitherto been the principal guardians and transcribers not in holy orders, were called Grammateis, or Scribes. of sacred and secular literature, during many cenThe Calligrapher was so called from writing well, the turies, were, as may be imagined, the first to patronize Tachygrapher from writing quickly, the Chrysographer printing. Accordingly they introduced it early into from writing gilt letters, and the Cryptographer from their religious houses at Subiaco, Rome, Tours, Paris, writing secrets. It appears from Suidas ", that seven | Westminster, Oxford, and other cities. quick writers, and several Calligraphers were sent The title of the early printed books was generally to Ambrosius, a friend of Origen's?', to transcribe. to be gathered from the subscription at the end, When they were employed in another person's house, which was similar to the subscriptions to the old in writing elegant copies, they sat up till the fourth monastic manuscripts : but as it was deemed prefer. watch. Their medicine to preserve the eyes, or, able that the title-page should precede the book, perhaps, heal them when injured by writing, was rather than the book the title-page, it happened, in partly made of salt, and from its supposed excellence time, that the title-page was placed first, and books was called dodecatheon, in allusion to twelve principal came to be printed, bound and lettered, in the present heathen deities.
manner, which seems to have reached the acmé of · The invention of Cryptography, or writing secrets *, elegance and convenience, and is therefore not likely is ascribed to Mecænas”, but it is probably older ; to be changed for any other. Nay, such is the and being serviceable for politicians and intriguers, beauty of modern books, that rows of wooden forms, it was carried to great perfection by Julius Cæsar, cut and painted to resemble books, are not uncommon by changing the powers of letters, as putting 6 in the libraries of modern times, a thing unheard of for a, &c.
among the ancients. The Tabularius wrote or copied instruments in the To conclude with oriental books. In Bootan they Registry, or Tabularium, and the Notaries wrote make good paper of the bark of a tree called Deah: notes of things which concerned the public, and also Tibetian books consist of narrow leaves, or slips, of authentic copies of instruments. But there are the fibrous root of a small shrub. The letters are manuscripts of the date of 914, which have the printed from blocks of wood, and these leaves are signature of Baanas, Notary to Aretas, of Cæsarea: enclosed between two slips of wood, which make the hence it would appear that Notaries, in time, were covers. Printing, in Tibet, is confined to sacred employed in more general writing.
subjects and learned compositions, by the influence After the writing was finished, the initials of chap- of the hierarchy. The Chinese print from blocks of ters were ornamented by the Illuminator, perhaps wood, and perhaps they introduced the art into Tibet. the Chrysographer, or worker in gold, with the figures | The books of the Hindoos are made of the dried of men, birds, fishes, flowers, or other fancy-work, in leaves, called oly, of the tree called Palmyra. The blue, or white, or gold. There are many fine specimens leaves are slips, about two inches broad. The of manuscripts so illuminated, in the libraries of letters are written with an iron style, and are lightly most of the cathedrals, of the universities of Cambridge powdered with lamp-black. These leaves are pulled and Oxford, the British Museum, the King's Library, when green, and preserve their verdure, and it is and in those of many individuals of rank, taste, and said that insects do not destroy them. The Chinese fortune.
books are shaped like those of Europe; the covering As books increased by time in the different coun is of white paper, or straw-coloured silk. These tries of Europe, the labour of transcribing them books have a slight but elegant appearance. increased also; and it was attempted to lighten this Thus the style is used in India, and the leaf, as in
the time of the Sibyls, is a real leaf, whence the 19 Suidas, a learned Grook loxicographer, who flourished A. D. 1100.
word folio was derived. In China and Tibet, there 20 A learned Grook author and Christian martyr, who died
is a system of printing which differs from that of A, D. 254.
G. P. T. See a paper on Socrot Writing, in the Saturday Magasine, Vol. VIII., p. 244.
4° Politian and Picus were two eminent scholars of Roma ; %. The prime minister of Augustus Cæsar, and a great patron they lived in the fifteenth century, in the revival of learning of learned men.
under Leo the Tenth.
THE STRANDED BARK AND THE LIFE-BOAT.
THE PHYSIOLOGY OF A LOCOMOTIVE She strikes, and she reels, and her high towering mast,
ENGINE. Like thic forest-oak, bends in the hurricane-blast,
Of all the creations of the mechanist, the nearest And the billows, whose awful tops seen in the clouds,
approach to an organized living animal is undoubtedly Dash high o'er the wretches that fly to her shrouds.
a Locomotive Engine. Again she hath struck, and the turbulent air Is filled with wild horror, and shrieks of despair:
It is impossible not to be struck with this analogy, Few moments must free her from breakers and spray,
when we see the iron limbs of the machine gathering Or entomb them in ocean for ever and aye.
their strength, and hear the suppressed heaving of Forsaken her helin, that, the dark waters o'er,
its breath-the huge pulses of its heart-beating llad oft steered her safe to the sheltering shorc;
quicker and quicker, until the load hooked to it-a And her beautiful pennant, that streamed ever bright,
burden for a ship-is borne far out of sight with the Like the sunbeain by day, and a meteor by night, Now twines round her topmast (how changed since the
velocity of the wind *. On a closer examination, this morn!)
analogy which it presents of animal to mechanical Or, piecemeal, the sport of the tempest, is torn.
life, becomes yet more apparent. No peal of alarm was discharged from her deck;
The spark of life giving to the animal its active But the voice of despair from the perishing wreck
being, and extinguishing it in death, has its parallel Found an echo in hearts, that, in every wild form,
in the principle of the mechanical life of the maIlave encountered the demon that yells in the storm ;
chine,—the fire lighted in its furnace. As the one And that spirit which makes them in danger more brave, Only rose with the scene; on the tempest-tost wave
must be fed, and from its food renews continually its They launched their light bark, and, in gallant array, living energy, so must the other. The only difference Dashed from shore, with a true hearty British huzza. is in the diet,—the animal is carnivorous or grami. Far, far as the eye of the gazer could roam
nivorous, the machine is carbonivorous; the one There was nothing but breakers and billows of foam ;
lives on the vegetable productions of the earth in a One moment she seemed in the boiling surge lost,
recent, the other in a fossil state. The next, we beheld her still struggling, but tost
Thus fed continuAt the merciless power of the deep booming sea ;
ally, the life once given to the animal continues until But still forward she kept on her perilous track
its joints, and sinews, and nerves; its organs of diOh, sailor-boy! sailor-boy! many for thee
gestion, deposition, and absorption, are accidentally Are the sighs and the tears that will welcome thee back.
deranged, or by continual use worn out. And so of Now high o'er the billows majestic she rides,
the machine : the fire once lighted, and the fuel With her twelve noble rowers all lashed to her sides; Relax not one effort-one moment may save,
whence the principle of its active being renovates itself Or entomb them for ever beneath the dark wave;
being supplied, it continues its state of mechanical For, hark! the last cry of despair is ascending,
activity until some pipe is accidentally burst, or some As shivering they cling to the topmast, and rending
wheel or joint broken, or until, by wear and tear, the The heavens with their outcry-one effort, one more,
sides of its furnace, or boiler, or the joints and thews And 'tis gained, like a thunder-cloud, burst upon shore
of the engine, are disabled from performing their The gazers' applause, as the life-boat steered round them. But who shall describe the poor rescued, or tell
| respective functions. With what feelings these greater than conquerors found
The food of the animal is elaborated in its stomach them,
into the chyle, which contains the principle of its As half naked, half dead, from the rigging they fell; nourishment, and a residuum; whence, as it passes Or lifelessly sunk on their foreheads, as though
through the intestines, the chyle is separated and The last torment was past-drained the last cup of wo?
absorbed into the lacteals, and thence poured into And now, with the shipwrecked and destitute crew, The billows are foaming around them, and loud,
the blood, and conveyed through the infinite ramifiLike the roar of artillery, the tempest-charged cloud
cations of the arterial system, until the living Breaks o'er them in thunder ; still o'er the dark sea
principle and the nutritive principle are eventually, They push their light bark in its perilous track
by some inscrutable means, assimilated from it into Oh, sailor-boy! sailor-boy! many for thee
the life and organization. Are the sighs and the tears that will welcome thee back.
And so the fuel of the machine separates itself in The sea-gull flew wildly and mournfully round,
the furnace (its stomach), into the heated air (the As if on the deep shoreless ocean she'd found Some exiles, condemned o'er the wide world to roam;
chyle of the machine), and a residuum (of cinders); Then, light as the billow, and white as the foam,
and the heat (the living principle), passing with the Winged her way on the breeze to her tempest-rocked air through a system of pipes (its arterial system), home.
is absorbed into the water of the boiler, and made On the tiptoe of hope and of fear we beheld,
immediately to operate as living power, through the As their bark through the billows the rowers impelled;
medium of the steam-cylinder and piston (the great But, at length, in smooth water we saw her safe moored, And what was the boon for the danger endured ?
muscular organ of the machine), whence, by the Avaunt, selfish hearts! what at first had inspired
crank-rod (the great sinew), it reaches the wheels Brought its own bright reward, all the boon they desired; | (the organs of locomotion—the legs), or is carried 'Twas enough to have saved, from the jaws of the grave, off by the eccentric to manipulate the slide-valves, Hearts that beat like their own, true, undaunted, and and minister to the vital action of the machine; brava
having in both these respects its parallel, in the
distribution of the living powers of the animal to The Arab lives on equal terms with his steed. Having
its organs of voluntary and involuntary motion. no other habitation than a tent, himself, his wife and family, his mare and her foal, rest peacefully together;
There is here, too, another parallel. The heated and little children are often seen to climb, without fear, air of the furnace is carried through the water of the upon the inoffensive creatures, which permit them to play boiler to which it is to give off its heat, but not in an with and to caress them without injury. An Arab never | undivided channel; it is made to pass through it not beats, but speaks to his horse, and seems to hold a friendly
by one great tube, but by a great number of small intercourse with it; while the faithful servant evinces
tubes; because, that by thus dividing it, the same equal attachment to its master, and is so tractable, as readily to stop at that master's bidding in the midst of its quantity of air is brought in contact with a much most rapid course.--Domesticated Animals.
* This is no figure of speech : it has been calculated by Smeaton,
that a wind such as would be called a high wind, does not trayel al Osd friends are best. King John used to call for his old the rate of more than 30 or 35 iniles an hour, and a scorm or tempest shoes; they were easiest for his feet. -SELDEN.
at not more than 50 miles