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tinued to enjoy considerable interest in the Castle and whither I have already stated he was taken in Deestates of Mitford for a long period of time afterwards.cember of the previous year. But be this as it may,

In the time of Edward the First, Roger Bertram, it is certain that it was in ruins about the year 1323; who had by some means contrived to obtain the for we learn that the inquest held in that year upon restoration of a considerable part of his estates, made the death of Sir Aymer de Valence, expressly states a grant of his Castle and other property at Mitford it to be then“ entirely destroyed and burnt." to his grand-daughter, Agnes de Bertram, who soon Such is a brief account of the eventful history of afterwards sold the same to Alianor, the dowager this very ancient edifice, which with great care I have Queen of England, and mother of Edward the First, endeavoured to deduce from the mass of information which queen enfeoffed Alexander de Balliol and to be found respecting it in every History of Northum. Alianor de Genevre his wife in the premises. After berland, up to the time of its final destruction by the the death of Alexander de Balliol, shortly afterwards Scots, in 1317 or 1318; after which it does not apwithout issue, Alianor his wife, who survived him, pear that it was ever rebuilt. married Robert de Stutteville, by whom she had two Its present condition and appearance arc taus sons, the eldest of whom, on the demise of his father, faithfully described by Mr. Hodgson:became entitled to the Castle and manor of Mitford, | The form of the mound (on which the ruins stand) is which he afterwards granted to Sir Aymer de Valence. somewhat elliptical, and the great wall of the castle encir

In the year 1317, one Sir Gilbert Middleton, incles the whole area of its summit in a line conformable with concert with other notorious freebooters, raised a

its brow. The keep is on its highest point, and at its

northern extremity; it is five-sided, each side being of difterrible rebellion in Northumberland against their

ferent dimensions, and the internal area being about 224 king and the armies of Bruce, which at that time

feet square, and divided into two vaulted rooms of good overspread the border-counties of England, after their masonry, having a stone staircase leading to them. One great and decisive victory over the English at Ban. of these rooms is supplied with two ducts in its wall, appanockburn in 1314. During this rebellion, and whilst

rently for the purpose of conveying water to it. These cells Mitford Castle was in the possession of the Valencia

are the only remains of the keep, all the upper parts of

which, as well as the outside stone staircase, leading to the family, a time when it is supposed to have been very

entrance door into its second story, are destroyed, and much neglected as a residence, and consequently the nothing now remains of it but the two cells already noticed, more easy of conquest, it was captured and garrisoned, The entrance to the little court which surrounded it was as were all the other castles of Northumberland, save from the second court, by a gateway through a thick bramthose of Alnwick, Bamborough, and Norham, by Sir

kin of stone, flanked on the south by a strong semicircular Gilbert Middleton, who was eventually taken prisoner

breast-work of earth. This was the strongest part of the

fortress, and overlooked the outer gateway and court, which here, in the latter part of the year 1317, and con

stood on the most northerly limb of the hill, and almost veyed to the Tower of London ; whence we are in

close to the foss-bridge; but all traces of this gateway, formed he was sentenced, on the 26th of June in the and of the walls of the outer court, excepting some lines of following year, to be dragged by horses to the gallows, their foundations, are now obliterated. The inner court and all his own, as also the property of his brother,

occupies the main part of the crown of the hill, and is now ordered to be confiscated.

employed as a garden and orchard, and measures, in the Few places suffered more severely than Mitford,

widest parts, about 240 feet both from north to south, and

from east to west. This part with the keep, to the outside from the hostile incursions which, for centuries after

of the walls, contains very little more than one acre. The the Norman Conquest, the Scots were ever and anon gateway leading to it was on the north-east side of the hill, making into the northern counties of England. On and the channel, five yards long, for the bar of its gate, the 25th of December, 1215, a period when it appears | still appears in the wall. to have been a place of considerable size and im Almost immediately succeeding this description of portance, it was reduced to ashes, as was also the the ruins of the Castle, we have a finely-wrought comadjacent town of Morpeth, by the armies of King parison, from the same pen, of its present condition John, in their desolating march into Northumberland. and accompaniments, with its former glories and It is not now accurately known, whether the Castles storied associations, which is so expressive of the of those places shared a like fate at that time; but feelings that more or less fervently possess the mind if they did, as is stated elsewhere, “it is certain that of every one conversant with the story of this ancient Mitford was soon after repaired, and put into a very edifice, on contemplating its dilapidated remains, that strong state of defence; for Alexander, King of Scot I cannot refrain from quoting it, were it for no other land, in May 1217, marched into England with his purpose than to give to language so beautiful and im. whole army, and after besieging the Castle of Mitford passioned of itself a wider circulation than it is fated in vain for seven days together, returned into his own necessarily to enjoy, in a work of such magnitude dominions."

and value as that is of which it forms a part. After Conflicting accounts prevail respecting the time alluding to the remains of some human beings that when this ancient fortress was finally destroyed. were disinterred a few years ago from among the Some state that it was reduced by fire during the rubbish within the walls of the Castle, wherein they time of Middleton's rebellion ; but we are told by had been entombed for the space of five centuries or Mr. Hodgson that Leland in his Collectanea affirm's more, Mr. Hodgson adds :that this was not the case. However, the latter in | How much is there for reflection in the fate and situation his Itinerary, says, It was beten down by the Kynge; of these remains of mortality; and when I suffer imaginafor one Sir Gilbert Middleton, robby'd a Cardunall \ tion, only for a little time, to lift up the curtain of history, cominge out of Scotland, and fled to his Castle of Mit.

and think I see from the opposite bank to the south, the ford." In addition to this, Dr. Lingard, in his History

armies of Scotland investing the moated plain upon which

s history this fortress stands; when I see showers of arrows and of England, informs us that (amongst many others)

javelins flying round its bulwarks, the neighbouring hamit was reduced by the Scots in May, 1318, after they iets and villages wrapped in flames, and hear the clashing had succeeded in effecting a surrender of the castle of arms, and the shouting of the besiegers and the beof Berwick, in the early part of that year. Hence, sieged,-how grateful it is to gaze again, and see the if the latter account be correct. Mitford Castle must peaceful scene as it now is,--the ruined keep, and its semihave been destroyed, if not during the time of Mid

circular wall that flank it on the south, overgrown with dleton's rebellion, very soon afterwards, and whilst the north “split with the Winter's frost;" the rude walls

trees and weeds; the massive ram part that incased it on that person was imprisoned in the Tower of London, and towers that environed the hill rising in shattered masses among elder-trees and thorns, or shadowed with groups of that he had prepared for the object of his malice. gigantic ash-trees; the moated and intrenched plain covered | In the pride of popular applause, Herod permitted with cattle; and, away beyond, the beautiful white walls of

| himself to be saluted with divine honours; and the new manor-house, the hoary remains of the old one, and the venerable church backed with orchards, and gardens,

“ immediately an angel of the Lord smote him, and and river-banks, all how lovely and luxuriant.

he was eaten of worms, and gave up the ghost." In The scenery around the village of Mitford and its the pride of wealth, the covetous man in one parable immediate neighbourhood is singularly beautiful and

thought of nothing but to “ eat, drink, and be diversified, and the prospect from the ruins of the

merry ;” and the rich man in another, thought not Castle extensive and interesting. Here the serpentine

of the beggar that “ lay at his gate full of sores,” course “of solitary Wansbeck's limpid stream" di

until the soul of the former was“ required of him vides a landscape of mingled loveliness and grandeur.

that night," and the latter “ lift up his eyes in hell, Verdant fields and parks, upon which groups of cattle

being in torments.” In the pride of youth, Rehoare seen serenely browzing, decline gently to its very

boam threatened to “ chastise his subjects with scormargin ; whilst at repeated intervals this peaceful

pions,” and was punished by the loss of his herepicture is heightened and improved by the precipitous

ditary authority. In the pride of bodily strength, Scaurs that rise in sublime contrast on the opposite

Goliath “ defied the armies of the living God," and brink; their huge outlines mirrored in the pellucid

was slain by the hand of a stripling, whom he had stream that meanders sweetly beneath. The church,

| disdained and cursed by his gods. In the pride of a modest and venerable pile, occupies a retired situa

female beauty and accomplishments, the heart of tion at the foot of the eminence on which the castle is

Herodias's daughter was hardened into the commissituate, bounded on the one side by the vicarage, and

sion of an act of wanton barbarity, in demanding on the other by the old manor house, whose “ivy

the head of John the Baptist; and the crime was mantled tower" is seen peeping from amid the tall

recompensed by the degradation and banishment of trees which embosom it, and a portion of the ad

her partners in guilt, if not by her own untimely joining churchyard, where :

destruction. In the pride of learning, the Greeks Each in his narrow cell for ever laid,

esteemed “ the preaching of Christ crucified to be The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep.

foolishness," and were judicially“ given over by God M. S. to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are

not convenient.” In the pride of a fancied equality, PRIDE, AND ITS EFFECTS.

and consequent disobedience to their rulers, Korah Pride is defined by a celebrated moralist, to be

and his company rebelled against Moses and Aaron, “ inordinate and unreasonable self-esteem.” Now

and “went down alive into the pit,” because “ they had where a man thinks too highly of himself, it is in

provoked the Lord.” Proud of their spiritual privithe course of nature that he should think too lowly leges, and of their descent from Abraham, the Jews of others, and it may be laid down as a general ! despised, rejected, and crucified the Lord of glory : axiom, that the concomitants of pride are scorn and

| and “his blood was on them and on their children," insolence towards one's fellow-creatures, and impiety

and “ their house was left unto them desolate.”. and irreverence towards God. " The proud have had / Would we see even a more decisive and alarming me greatly in derision,” was the remark of the

the remark of the proof of the origin of pride, and of its offensiveness Psalmist : and be laid his finger precisely on that to God, we may discover it in the disobedience of spring where irreligion has its origin, when he said,

Adam, which entailed sin, misery, and death on all “ the wicked, through the pride of his countenance,

his descendants ; or in the rebellion of the evil spirit, will not seek after God: God is not in all his

who first set the example of resisting the Almighty, thoughts.”

and was the primary cause of the wretchedness of These are the distinguishing marks of pride, where

man. Of such a quality as this, so selfish and mait is permitted to get dominion over the heart, and to

lignant, so contentious and over-bearing, so impatient influence the actions. However it be nourished, and

of control, so resolute in the attainment of its end, whatever be the shape it is invested with, its effects

and so unprincipled in the adoption of means, of a are uniformly hateful and pestilential ; uniformly

quality so pernicious to all “ the fruits of the Spirit, subversive of piety towards God and charity towards

and so signally branded by the displeasure of God; man, as well as injurious to the happiness of him

surely of such a quality it may well and safely be who is actuated by it. In the pride of exalted birth,

affirmed, that “it is not of the Father, but is of the Absalom, the son of David, broke the ties of religion,

world.” allegiance, and filial duty, and rebelled against his

Such being the nature, the tendency, and the confather, whom the Lord had anointed king over

sequences of Pride, these considerations might be Israel, and was violently cut off in the flower of his

supposed capable of suppressing it, even if the age. In the pride of arbitrary power, Jezebel usurped

matter on which it feeds, were much more worthy of the vineyard of Naboth by perjury and murder, and

encouraging extravagant self-esteem than it really is; " her carcass was eaten by dogs.” In the pride of

but, as it hath been well observed, majesty, “ the heart of Nebuchadnezzar lifted up,

.... Pride hath no other glass and his mind hardened" to forget his almighty Bene

To show itself but pride ; factor, and he was " driven from men, and his otherwise the mirror of reason and common sense, dwelling was with the beasts of the field.” In the no less than the mirror of revelation, could hardly pride of despotic authority, Pharaoh “ refused to let fail of exposing its folly and deformity.—Bp. MANT. the people of Israel go to serve the Lord,” and the Lord “ hardened his heart" for a punishment, be- PROVIDENCE has fixed the limits of human enjoyment by cause he had himself already hardened it by his sin. immovable boundaries, and has set different gratifications In the pride of victory, Saul “ rejected the word of at such a distance from each other, that no art or power the Lord, and the Lord rejected him from being king

can bring them together. This great law it is the business

of every rational being to understand, that life may no over Israel.” In the pride of royal favour, the insa

pass away in an attempt to make contradictions consistent, tiable ambition of Haman would not rest, “ so long

to combine opposite qualities, and to unite things which as he saw Mordecai, the Jew, sitting at the king's the nature of their being must always keep asunder. gate," until he himself" was hanged on the gallows" | Rambler.

NOTES ON FOREST TREES. No. VII. I grew not far off; probably in some woods near the town.

For in that description of London written by Fitzstephens, qooxsa ai 92199 20

ar net

! in the reign of Henry the Second, he speaks of a very pieb 1193

noble and large forest which grew on the boreal part of it, >Ys wat din

well stored with all kinds of timber, as well as with stags, tadt 9105

hinds, goats, wild cattle, &c.

Speaking of the fruit, he continues :TRO

But we give that fruit to our swine in England which is amongst the delicacies of princes in other countries, and being of the larger nut, is a lusty and masculine food for rustics at all times. The best tables in France and Italy make them a service, eating them with salt in wine, being first roasted on the chapplet; and doubtless we might promulgate their use amongst our common people, being a food so cheap and so lasting.

It is difficult to say why this tree has gained the name of the Spanish Chestnut, since it abounds in all the temperate climates of Europe. On the lower part of the Alps and the Apennines, forests of Chestnut trees abound; and here old Evelyn would have delighted in finding the peasantry employing this nut as an article of food ; not, however, from any predi. lection for the chestnut, but on account of the scarcity of other food, they are obliged to mix the meal of the nut in considerable quantities with their wheaten bread. Whatever value may be attached to the timber of the Chestnut, in magnitude and height it is found to exceed the oak.

The Tortworth Chestnut, on the subject of which

the lines at the head of this article were written, is in be

a garden at Tortworth, in Gloucestershire, belonging

to Lord Ducie. sved

Traditional accounts (says Sir T. Lauder,) suppose it to uth hair

have been a boundary tree in the time of King John, and I Hail! old patrician trees, so great and good,

have met with other accounts which place it in the same Hail ! ye plebeian underwood, Where the poetic birds rejoice,

honourable station in the reign of King Stephen How ! And for their quiet nests and plenteous food

much older it may be, we know not. Considerably older Pay with their grateful voice.

it probably was, for we rarely make boundary trees of Here nature does a house for me erect,

saplings and offsets. So late as in the year 1788, it proNature, the wisest architect,

duced great quantities of chestnuts, which, though small, Who those fond artists doth despise,

were sweet and well-flavoured.
That can the fair and living tree neglect,
Yet the dead timber prize.

Another celebrated Chestnut of a gigantic size,
Here let me, careless and unthoughtful lying,

grows at a place called Wimley, near Hitchin Priory, Hear the soft sounds above me flying

in Hertfordshire. In the year 1789, at five feet above With all the wanton boughs dispute, And the more tuneful birds to both replying,

the ground, its girth was somewhat more than Nor be myself too mute.

fourteen yards! Its trunk was hollow, and in part

open; but its vegetation was still vigorous. On THE SPANISH CHESTNUT, (Fagus castanea). one side, its vast arms shooting up in various forms, ALTHOUGH there are some doubts on the subject, this

some upright and others oblique, were decayed, and tree is generally believed to be a native of the British

peeled at the extremities, but issued from luxuriant islands, from the circumstance of its timber having

foliage at their insertion in the trunk. On the other been found forming the beams of many old buildings.

side, the foliage was still full, and hid all decay. " Gilpin thus describes it.

The Chestnut, in maturity and perfection, is a noble tree, and grows not unlike the oak. Its ramification is more straggling, but it is easy, and its foliage loose. This is the tree which graces the landscapes of Salvator Rosa. In the mountains of Calabria, where Salvator painted, the Chestnut flourished. There he studied it in all its forms, breaking and disposing it in a thousand beautiful shapes, as the exigencies of his composition required.

The Chestnut is not so much cultivated in England 'as in former years. Some have endeavoured to account for this by asserting that it is not so good a timber-tree as was supposed; for it decays at the heart, and will continue decaying till it becomes merely a shell ; and for this reason it has been less sought after and encouraged. This, however, is doubted by Gilpin, and Evelyn speaks decidedly in

drud favour of the timber of the Spanish chestnut: he

ram says,

lyd ht

19210 The use of the chestnut is (next to oak) one of the most

LEAVES AND BLOSSOM OF THE CHESTNUT. sought after by the carpenter and joiner: it hath formerly

| At Writtle, in Essex, a Chestnut-tree existed which built a good part of our ancient houses in the city of London, as does yet appear. I had once a very large barn near at six feet from the ground, measured upwards of the city framed entirely of this timber, and certainly they I forty-nine feet in girth..




The Tortworth Chestnut, already mentioned, mea- 1 ACCOUNT OF A SELF-TAUGHT SA sures at five feet from the ground, fifty feet in cir

PEASANT." eumference. Its main stem is seventy feet in height, | It is usual for the commissaries of excise in Saxony and its contents, by the usual measurement, nearly to appoint a peasant in every village in their district 2000 feet.

to receive the excise of the place, for which few are The Chestnut is best propagated by seed, sown in / allowed more than one crown, and none more than the Spring; the young plants being thinned and

three. weeded, and those that are left allowed to remain

Mr. Christian Gotthold Hoffman, chief commissary three years before they are removed.

of Dresden and the villages adjacent, in 1753, when auditing the accounts of some of these peaşants, was

told, that there was among them one John LUDWIG, WONDERS OF A WATCH.

a strange man, who, though he was very poor, and The common Watch, it is said, beats or ticks 17,160 times had a family, was yet continually reading in books, in an hour. This is 411,840 a day; and 150,424,560 a and very often stood the greater part of the night at year; allowing the year to be 365 days, and 6 hours.

| his door, gazing at the stars. Sometimes watches will run, with care, 100 years, so I

This account raised Mr. Hoffman's curiosity, and have heard people say. In that case, it would last to beat 15,042,456,000 times! Is it not surprising that it should

he ordered the man to be brought before him. Hoffnot be beat to pieces in half that time?

man, who expected something in the man's appearThe Watch is made of hard metal. But I can tell you of ance that corresponded with a mind superior to his a curious machine which is made of something not near so station, was greatly surprised to see the most rustic hard as steel or brass; it is not much harder than the flesh boor he had ever beheld. His hair hung over his of your arm. Yet it will beat more than 5000 times an hour; | forehead down to his eyes, his aspect was sordid and 120,000 times a day; and 43,830,000 times a year. It will

stupid, and his manner was, in every respect, that of sometimes, though not often, last 100 years; and when it does, it beats 4,383,000,000 times.

a plodding iguorant clown. Mr. Hoffman, after conOne might think this last machine, soft as it is, would | templating this unpromising appearance, concluded, wear out sooner than the other. But it does not. I will that as the supposed superiority of this man was of tell you one thing more. You have this little machine the intellectual kind, it would certainly appear when about you. You need not feel in your pocket, for it is not he spoke. but even in this experime

he spoke; but even in this experiment he was also there. It is in your body-you can feel it beat; it is your

disappointed. He asked him, if what his neighbours heart!

had said of his reading and studying was true? and Few observers of nature can have passed, unheeded, the the man bluntly and coarsely replied, "What neighsweetness and peculiarity of the song of the Robin, and its bour has told you that I read and study? if I have various indications with regard to atmospheric changes: the studied, I have studied for myself, and I don't desire mellow, liquid notes of Spring and Summer, the melancholy that you or anybody else should know anything of sweet pipings of Autumn, and the jerking chirps of Winter.

the matter." Hoffman, however, continued the conIn Spring, when about to change his winter song for the · Ferpai, he warbles, for a short time, in a strain so unusual,

versation, notwithstanding his disappointment, and as at first to startle and puzzle even those ears most expe

| asked several questions concerning arithmetic, and the rienced in the notes of birds. He may be considered as first rudiments of astronomy; to which he now expart of the naturalist's barometer. On a Summer evening, pected vague and confused replies. But in this, too, though the weather may be in an unsettled and rainy state, he was mistaken, for he was struck not only with he sometimes takes his stand on the topmost twig, or on the

astonishment but confusion, at hearing such replies as "bouse top," singing cheerfully and sweetly. When this is

would have done honour to a regular academic in a observed, it is an unerring promise of succeeding fine days. Sometimes though the atmosphere is dry and warm, he

public examination. * may be seen melancholy, chirping and brooding in a bush,

Mr. Hoffman prevailed on the peasant to stay or low in a hedge: this promises the reverse of his merry some time at his house, that he might further lay and exalted station. - Anecdotes of the Animal King

gratify his curiosity. In their subsequent conferences, he proposed to his guest abstract and difficult

questions, which were always answered with the utTRAIT OF MATERNAL LOVE.

most readiness and precision. The account wbich A FEMALE suttler of our corps, who had been with us this extraordinary person gives of himself and his during the whole campaign, returned from Moscow, carrying / acquisitions, is as follows: in a wagon five young children, and all the fruits of her

1 John Ludwig was born the 24th of February, 1715, industry. Arrived at the Wor, she regarded with horror

| in the village of Cossedaude, and was, among other the rapid stream, which compelled her to leave on its banks all her little fortune, and the future subsistence of poor children of the village, sent very young to school. her children. For a long time she ran up and down, The Bible, which was the book by which he was eagerly looking for a new passage, then returning in taught to read, gave him so much pleasure, that he despair from her fruitless search, she said to her liusband, conceived the most eager desire to read others, which, “We must, indeed, abandon all; let us now try only to

however, he had no opportunity to get into his possare our children." Saying this, she took the two youngest

session. In about a year, his master began to teach from the waggon, and placed them in her husband's arms. I saw the poor father closely hug the innocent creatures,

him to write, but this exercise was rather irksome and with a trembling foot traverse the river; while his than pleasing at first; but when the first difficulty wife, falling on her knees at the edge of the water, now was surinounted, he applied to it with great alacrity, gazed eagerly on him, and then raised her eyes to heaven: especially as books were put into his band to copy as but as soon as she saw him safely landed, she lifted her an exercise : and he employed himself almost night hands in gratitude to Providence, and leaping on her feet, ! exclaimed with transport, “They are saved, they are

and day, not in copying particular passages only, but saved." The anxious father, depositing his precious

in forming collections of sentences, or events that burden on the bank, hastened back, seized on two more of were connected with each other. When he was ten them, and again plunging into the waves, being followed years old he had been at school four years, and was by his wife, who bore the fifth on one arm, and with the then put to arithmetic; but this embarrassed him other hand clung fast to her husband, reached the shore in

with innumerable difficulties, which his master would safety. The children who had been first carried over,

not take the trouble to explain, expecting that he thinking themselves abandoned by their parents, made the l air resound with their cries; but their tears soon ceased to

should content himself with the implicit practice of fiow, when the affectionate family was again reunited. positive rules. Ludwig, therefore, was so disgusted Campaign in Russia


with arithmetic, that, after much scolding and beating, making various geometrical figures on paper, to illus. he went from school, without having learnt anything trate the theory by a solution of the problems. He more than reading, writing, and his catechism. was thus busied in his cottage till March ; and the

He was then sent into the field to keep cows, and joy arising from the knowledge he had acquired, wag in this employment he soon became clownish, and exceeded only by his desire of knowing more negligent of everything else, so that the greater part He was now necessarily recalled to that labour by of what he had learnt was forgotten. He associated which alone he could procure himself food; and with the sordid and the vicious, and he became in- was, besides, without money to procure such books sensible like them; and as he grew up he abandoned and instruments as were absolutely necessary to himself to such pleasures as were within his reach. pursue his geometrical studies. However, with the But a desire of surpassing others, that principle which assistance of a neighbouring artificer, he procured is productive of every kind of greatness, was still the figures which he found represented by the dia. living in his breast; he remembered to have been grams in his work to be made in wood; and with praised by his master, and preferred above his com- these he went to work at every interval of leisure, rades, when he was learning to read and write; and which now happened only once a week, after Divine he was still desirous of the same pleasure, though he service on a Sunday. He was still in want of a new did not know how to obtain it.

book; and having laid by a little sum, he made a In the Autumn of 1735 he bought a small Bible, purchase at the fair of three small volumes, from at the end of which was a catechism, with references which he acquired a complete knowledge of trigoto a great number of texts, upon which the principles nometry. After this acquisition he could not rest contained in the answers were founded. Ludwig had till he had begun to study astronomy : his next purnever been used to take anything upon trust; and chase, therefore, was an introduction to that science, was, therefore, continually turning over the leaves of which he read with indefatigable diligence, and inhis Bible, to find the passages referred to in the cate- vented innumerable expedients to supply the want chism; but this he found so irksome a task, that he of proper instruments. determined to have the whole at one view; and there. During his study of geometry and astronomy, he fore set about to transcribe the catechism, with all the had frequently met with the word philosophy, and texts at large, brought into their proper places. With this became more and more the object of his attenthis exercise he filled two quires of paper; and tion. He conceived that it was the name of some though when he began, his writing was scarcely science of great importance and extent, with which legible, yet, before he had finished, it was greatly he was wholly unacquainted ; and being continually improved; for an art that has been once learnt is upon the watch for assistance, he at last picked up a easily recovered.

book, called, An Introduction to the Knowledge of God, In the month of March, 1736, he was employea of Man, and of the Universe. In reading this book, to receive the excise of the little district in which he he was struck with a variety of objects equally intelived; and he found that in order to discharge this resting and new. office, it was necessary for him not only to write, but But as this book contained only general principles. to be master of the two first rules of arithmetic. he went to Dresden, and inquired among the bookHis ambition had now an object, and a desire to keep sellers, who was the most celebrated author that had the accounts of the tax he was to gather better than written on philosophy. He was recommended to the others of his station, determined him once more to works of Wolfius, written in the German language ; apply to arithmetic. His mind was continually upon and, Wolfius having been mentioned in several books the stretch to find out some way of supplying the he had read as one of the most able men of his age, want of an instructor; and recollecting that one of he readily took him for his guide in the regions of his school-fellows had a book from which examples philosophy of several rules were taken by the master to exercise | At Wolfius's Logic he laboured a full year, still the scholars, he went in search of him, and having attending to his other studies. In this book he was borrowed the important volume, he pursued his referred to another, called Mathematical Principles ; studies with such application that in six months he but on inquiring for it, he found it too dear for his was master of the rule of three with fractions.

finances, and was obliged to content himself with The reluctance with which he began to learn the | an abridgment, from which he derived both pleasure powers and properties of figures was now at an end : and profit; it employed him from October, 1743, to he knew enough to make him earnestly desirous of February, 1745. knowing more; he was, therefore, impatient to pro- He then proceeded to metaphysics, at which he ceed from this book to one that was more difhcult; laboured till the October following; and he would and having at length found means to procure one fain have entered on the study of physics, but his that treated of more intricate and complicated calcu. indigence was an insuperable impediment, and he lations, he made himself master of that also before was obliged to content himself with this author's the end of 1739. He had the good fortune, soon morality, politics, and remarks on metaphysics, till after, to meet with a treatise of geometry, written by July, 1746, when he had scraped together a sum Pachek, whose arithmetic he had been studying, to sufficient to buy the Physics ; and this work he read which he applied with great assiduity; but not being twice within the year. able to comprehend the theory, nor yet to discover About this time, a dealer in old books sold him a the utility of the practice, he laid it aside, to which volume of Wolfius's Mathematical Principles at Large, he was also induced by the necessity of his immediate and the spherical trigonometry which he found in it attendance to his field and his vines.

was a new treasure which he was very desirous to The severe Winter of 1740 obliged him to keep make his own. This cost him incredible labour, and long within his cottage, when he had once more re- filled every moment that he could spare from his course to his book of geometry; and having at length business and his sleep, for more than a year. comprehended some of the leading principles, he He proceeded to the study of Kalrel's Law of procured a little box ruler, and an old pair of com- | Nature and Nations, and procured a little book on the passes, on one point of which he mounted a pen, terrestrial and celestial globes. These books, with a With these instruments he employed himsclf in / few that he borrowed, were the sources from which

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