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NO 318.

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SKETCHES OF NEW SOUTH WALES. brushwood, offering a dreary and melancholy aspect, No, XVIII.

and though they are in many places very narrow and

rocky, yet they do not possess, in the foundation and ACCOUNT OF COUNTRY SOUTH OF BOTANY BAY, IN

strata of the rocks, that peculiar and striking apTHE COUNTY OF CUMBERLAND.

pearance which distinguishes the country north or The country and coast which lies south of Sydney, Sydney. There are some parts, however, about the between Botany Bay and the Shoal Haven River, is centre of this portion of country, which are very also worthy of notice from its singularity of features; wild and difficult to explore, where a confused mass and in order to describe this portion of territory, it of hollow misty ravines and broken pointed ridges may be best to arrange it under two separate divisions, are so jumbled together, and concentrated, that it the one part being in the county of Cumberland, the quite puzzles and bewilders the imagination in beholdother in the county of Camden, I will commence, ing them. . therefore, with a description of that portion of Cum The accompanying sketch represents the appearance berland which I was instructed to survey in 1830, of some of these ridges as may be viewed about and which is bounded as follows:--on the north by seven miles eastward of Mr. Hamilton Hume's resiBotany Bay and George's River to Liverpool, a dis dence at Appin. It will be observed that these sum tance of about twenty miles ; on the west by Tuggerah mits appear nearly upon an equal level, which is the Creek, (which stream is a continuation, and may be case with the generality of them, and consequently called the principal head of the above river,) to its | when this country is overlooked from a distant emisource, about twenty-three miles. On the south by nence, these deep ravines are not perceived, but the the Illawarra range, and road to the descent of the surface of the country presents a dull, wooded, flat mountain, about thirteen miles, and on the east by the appearance. The mountain-coast range, however, is sea.coast for nearly thirty miles.

more irregular in its outline, it dips in low connexions, The country within the above limits is not altoge- and rises between Port Hacking and the Illawarra ther dissimilar in character to that between Port road in rounded hills and bluff masses. In the Jackson and Broken Bay, (of which a short descrip- vicinity of the ridges where this sketch was taken, tion has been given in a former paper,) though the (another view of which has been sketched upon my feature of the sea.coast is in many respects very dif- plan of the survey, and deposited in the Surveyor ferent, consequently, in describing the scenery of a General's department,) no traveller could cross directly country whose features bear a characteristic resem- eastward from the Appin road to the sea-coast, alblance to other places before treated of, various repe- though the distance does not exceed fifteen miles. titions may occur which may seem unnecessary; but At the fall of some of the swamps, from which the it must be important, in a geological point of view, waters supplying the creeks fall suddenly into their to show wherein the similarity of feature lies, and confined channels, there are several romantic catawhere the force of waters has tended to produceracts which vary in their depth of fall, and in their similar effects upon the surface. In doing this, it bodies of water. From this circumstance, one stream would be impossible to follow any method of descrip- which also takes its rise near the descent of the tion which shall not involve considerable repetition, Illawarra road, was named by the late Surveyor Gene, my object being merely to communicate a knowledge ral Oxley, the Cataract River, which will be hereafter of those few tracks of country which have come mentioned, under my own particular observation and survey, the It was on one of the ridges leading to this intricate nature of which, to the present day, are known only spot, that we found the skeleton of a horse. It had to a few individuals, and which may still remain un a chain and log of wood fastened to one of the foreknown and unvisited for years to come.

legs, and the animal, wandering probably in search of Like the country north of Port Jackson, this por- water or pasture, had got himself entangled and must tion is also intersected by three principal streams, have been starved to death. These centre ridges, as which take their rise from the Illawarra range near they approach George's River and Botany Bay, the road, and also flow directly northward. Their change their appearance and abrupt formation. On chief sources are in extensive swamps on very high the flat table summits of some of them there are land, at the back of the coast-range. These swamps singular and unaccountable patches of excellent appear green, are in many places furrowed as if with forest-land, perfectly detached, and surrounded by a plough, are very watery and nearly destitute of the complete sterility of white sand, low scrub, and timber,

rock. These patches, which in some places cover The most westerly stream is called by the natives more than a hundred acres, and in others less, Tuggerah (cold) Creek, which, flowing northward appear at a distance little elevated points, from the parallel with, and near to the Appin and Campbell circumstance of the trees rising suddenly with their town roads, unites with George's River in an acute tall shafts above the surrounding scenery. They are bend near the town of Liverpool, and there makes heavily timbered with the iron-bark and forest oakeastward towards the sea. The centre stream, which trees, both valuable in the neighbourhood of towns, is the largest, and called the "Woronora," also flows and the soil, moreover, is good, and clothed with rich into George's River near its opening into Botany | pasturage. Bay, and the other stream, (whose native name I Now, it is evident, that these patches of land, from forget, but which is sometimes called the Port their proximity to the towns of Sydney and LiverHacking River,) flows into that port a few miles pool, and the means of water-carriage to them, must south of Botany Bay, There are, of course, innu soon become very valuable; and although most of merable minor tributary streams running into these, them have been granted away to settlers, they have, which only the minute tracings on a large map could with one or two exceptions, remained neglected. properly define. The ridges which divide these deep Sums of money might be realized from them by the water-courses are, for the most part, broken, precipi- means which they afford for making shingles, and tous, and barren; they are covered, as usual in such splitting posts and rails for fences, thereby clearing tracts of country, with low straggling trees and the land with a great profit. Again, this kind of * The Emu frequents, as well as the wild Turkey, these swampy

timber in the neighbourhood of Sydney will every plains, and were seen at various times by myself and party,

year decrease, and consequently must rise in value,

and already, many gentlemen, who have estates in the but there the land is barren and exposed; circular neighbourhood of Sydney, and between the Parra- pools of water and small swamps abound upon it, matta road and George's River, will neither allow with green patches of dry and rough herbage scattered their timber to be cut down, nor their lands to be here and there. trespassed on. Some park-deer, which were brought The entrance to Port Hacking is narrow and danto New South Wales many years ago, and let loose, gerous, and never attempted by vessels of any size. have increased wonderfully, and it was no uncommon It is almost blocked up by a reef of sunken rocks, circumstance for sportsmen to take their guns into which rise straight across from one point out to the the bush not many miles from Sydney, and return in other, over which the waves are seen to break and the evening with a fine doe or buck behind their give warning of danger. The headlands, both north saddles. In consequence of this, the late Dr. Wardell and south, are composed of black rocks, which are caused to be inserted in the newspaper the laws and neither high nor striking in appearance. The south regulations respecting deer and game in England, head of Port Hacking is perfectly bare, and many of and prohibiting every person from trespassing on his the neighbouring hills are altogether destitute of timgrounds (at Petersham, about six miles from Sydney), ber, and being covered with green herbage, they for that purpose.

appear from the sea like cultivated farms. From this These bush-lands, therefore, are beginning to show point a range of mountain extends southward along their park-fences, and display an importance, which, the coast towards Illawarra, and attains a great from their former dreariness, and gloomy aspect, height, where the public road before mentioned de. might not have been expected. There are several scends into that rich and luxuriant district. On the parcels of land on the south side of George's River, west side of this range are the gullies of the Port which have been occupied and cultivated many years, Hacking river, but its castern side falls in perpensome of which are situated in such sequestered glens, |. dicular cliffs upon the sea-shore for several miles. corners, and nooks of the ranges, as scarcely to be There is no harbour or inlet for vessels of any known, or visited, except by their respective occupiers.description, and but one or two short sandy beaches Many of these people gain a livelihood, some by between Port Hacking and the Coal Cliff. Near this fishing, others by making lime from the shells, and point there is a farm called Stanwell Park, which is taking it to Liverpool in boats, &c., to which place | romantically situated in the first recess of the mounthe river is navigable for barges. There are also tain-range. A flat, and some land cleared on the some tracts of forest-ranges, which fall upon George's inner side of one of the cliffs, are clearly distinguishRiver between Liverpool and Campbell-town. When able from the summits, together with a beautiful following these down with my party, we fell in with wide beach, whose finely-curved line, from the base wild horses which were in exceeding good condition. of one rugged precipice to the other, is a conspicuous I afterwards heard that many attempts had been object in the grandeur of the scene, though everymade by stock-keepers to drive them in, but in vain. thing below appears so diminutive from the rocky

The nature of the ground is such, that the wild ani- | heights above. The coast between Port Jackson and mals can gallop into the secure retreat of ravines Broken Bay is diversified by projecting headlands, where no horseman dare follow. The only likely connected by long sand-bars with lagoons, and teamethod of getting them would be by stratagem, tree swamps within them, but the coast between Port which is sometimes practised in securing horses that Hacking and Illawarra may be termed a bold and have strayed away; for the more simple and gentle, uninterrupted line of mountain-cliffs. This bold the method of catching, treating, and subduing wild outline of coast mountain-cliffs continues southward horses, the better. I have seen a wild horse caught from Port Hacking about forty miles, when it conby a rope thrown over its head, and then fastened to nects with the Mittagong range near Bong-Bong, by a post. The animal got frightened, ran off, pulled taking a westerly direction. After passing what is and struggled till he broke his neck. All these called the “ Coal Cliff," which is about thirty-four patches of forest-land abounded with the larger sort miles south of Port Jackson, the rich flats of the of kangaroos, at the time I was employed in survey Illawarra country commence, between the base of ing the ground, and scarcely a day passed without the mountain-precipices and the sea, and the range our dogs killing two or more of them. There are then lies back further from the shore. some farms on the south side of Botany Bay, and a The view from the summits, over a point on the very fair run for cattle on the ranges to the westward. coast called Bulli, is extensive and grand, and here This side is more irregular than the other, being in the table-land suddenly breaks off in abrupt perpendented with bays, mud-banks, and mangrove-flats by dicular masses of rock, and falls in steep wooded the shore. But some parts of the land which divides undulations towards the shore. The descent of the the bay from Port Hacking, is rather of a peculiar road is difficult, and may be called dangerous for formation.

horsemen; yet, many as there are who travel up and The headlands are here also separated from the down, an accident rarely occurs. The traveller in main land by sand-bars, as before described. A his descent finds himself entering a totally different chaos of low sandy ridges, without form or order, region from the country which he has passed over in have been thrown up in an extraordinary manner. his journey towards the mountain. The main road In some places the steep banks of sand run in rows, from Sydney to Illawarra branches off from the then cross-ways; in others hillocks have been formed, Parramatta road about five miles from the capital, pyramidal, unconnected (the sport and plaything of and passes through Liverpool about sixteen miles the wave), assuming a variety of curious accidental further a little south of westward. This town is shapes. But it is evident from the vegetation which the thoroughfare, at present, to the main southern exists in many places upon it, that it has not been roads, and the bush through which this main road disturbed or inundated by the sea for many years, has been made is for many miles very dreary and Some of the sandy flats which are sheltered, abound uninviting. The soil, also, is rotten in many parts, with the cabbage-trees, fern, and apple-trees, and and, consequently, there have been few farms cleared, although they are not clothed with grass, yet the and the tedious sameness of the aspect is not relieved. soil must be very productive. The elevated points It crosses two or three salt-water creeks which flow between the headlands possess this sandy character, into George's River, one of which may be nearly

318–2

thirty yards or more wide: The bridge-builders an equal portion of useless lands, and the very shape have been very unfortunate on this creek, since there or form of the lands so included are not widely dif. has scarcely ever been a flood but the bridge has dis- | ferent. The mountain-rivulets of both derive their appeared, and the whole fabric been swept away. | sources from the southern extremities, flow northward Another part of this road (which, indeed, with these the same, and disembogue themselves in a similar exceptions, is very good,) is subject to an inundation way, into rivers or inlets of the sea. for nearly half a mile, which prevents carriages from Again, these two districts, which lie so immediately passing. The land is low and flat, and there is not a north and south of Sydney, possess similar disad. sufficient drain to carry off or hold the water.

vantages in the formation of their narrow, broken The screech of the black cockatoo, and the sound ridges and impassable ravines, and it is probable that ing note of the bell-bird, often arrest the traveller's both portions will remain like some regions of the attention. The former always resort in these dismal Blue Mountains, a blank, uninhabited and useless. forests, and are scarcely ever seen (like the white | Tracts of country, which, though surrounded as they cockatoo) in cheerful and open lands. They are are by the industrious labours of men, will, never. neither so plentiful or common as the white, nor do theless, remain for years and years unnoticed and they congregate in such flocks, as more than seven or unseen. A road, a path, or even a deserted hut, eight are seldom seen together. They are of a jet gives life and expectation to a place,-it shows where shining black, having a formidable crest of feathers some one has been, and once dwelt; but the solitude on the top of the head, which they erect at pleasure; and awful dreariness which reigns amid the trackless but the inside of the wings, and the wide feathers of chaos of dark and impassable ravines is disheartening. the tail, are of a brilliant red. They feed mostly

W. R. G. upon insects, and cut out grubs from the bark of trees with their powerful beaks; but they rarely, if

WHEN any one acknowledges a moral governor of the ever, annoy the settler by attacking his maize-fields, world; perceives that domestic and social relations are nor have I ever heard of one being tamed. The belle perpetually operating, and seem intended to operate, to rebird is small and plain, and celebrated only for its tain and direct men in the path of duty; and feels that the peculiar note, which is strikingly clear, and remark- | voice of conscience, the peace of heart which results from able in sound. It is invariably the inhabitant of se.

a course of virtue, and the consolations of devotion, are

ever ready to assume their office, as our guides and aids in qucstered ravines and mountain-hollows.

the conduct of all our actions ;-he will probably be willing The site of the town of Liverpool is close to the

to acknowledge also that the means of a moral government bend of George's River, as I have before mentioned, of each individual are not wanting; and will no longer be where it turns eastward toward the sea. The form oppressed or disturbed by the apprehension that the superof the town is apparent, from the streets being laid intendence of the world may be too difficult for its Ruler, out of a good width and fenced in, but the houses

and that any of His subjects and servants may be over

looked. He will no more fear that the moral than that the are few and scattered. The surface of the town, as

physical laws of God's creation should be forgotten in any well as the neighbouring country, is flat and dismal.

particular case: and as he knows that every sparrow which There is, however, a good church, and a very superior falls to the ground contains in its structure innumerable hospital in the town, which, though built of brick, marks of the Divine care and kindness, he will be perhas been erected in creditable style. There is also a suaded that every man, however apparently humble and gaol, which is surrounded by a wall. and a kind of insignificant, will have his moral being dealt with according timber-yard and barrack for prisoners.

to the laws of God's wisdoin and love; will be enlightened, The river,

supported, and raised, if he use the appointed means which probably, hereafter, may be of more importance to

God's administration of the world of moral light and good the place, but at present it is used only for the con offers to his use. ---WHEWELL. veyance of heavy materials, as wood, stone, lime, and manure, &c., in boats.

Religion is too often represented as a state of melancholy About three and a half miles south of Liverpool,

gloom, as a barren desert, in which we are condemned to the road branches off to Campbell-town, which is

wander without one object to delight the eyes, or to cheer

the heart; as a dreary banishment from all the innocent eight miles further on, and then continues southward

pleasures and harmless gratifications of the world around through the Appin district, till it crosses Tuggerah | us. But it is not in the solitude of seclusion, it is not in Creek, at a place called King's Falls, from whence it austerities of perpetual and monastic penance, that Christi turns directly eastward to the descent of the moun anity consists; it is a religion of joy; it promotes the hap tain, the whole distance from Sydney being nearly

piness of mankind here, as well as hereafter. Happiness fifty-four miles. The land from Liverpool begins to

is not only pointed to as an object, but it is inculcated as

a duty. They, therefore, form a very erroneous estimate of improve, and there are several good farms and gen

its doctrines and its duties, who shall represent melancholy tlemanly residences towards Campbell-town. The as its precept, or enforce severity as its practice. It is the Appin range is also under extensive circulation, and messenger of glad tidings to man, it is the minister of the soil is for the most part excellent; but as soon comfort to the afflicted children of mortality; to every disas the road crosses the King's Falls, utter barrenness

consolate soul, as to Jerusalem of old, it speaks comfortably;

it tells her that “her warfare is accomplished, that her and gloom accompany the traveller to the mountain,

iniquity is pardoned." On the other hand, he that would Campbell-town is merely a village, having but one unite the joys of the Lord with the pleasures of sin, he street, the houses of which are nearly all inns. There that would combine the purity of the Gospel with the polluis a small church and court-house, which are both tion of guilt, will discover too late that he cannot enter into built of brick. The town is often badly off for water a composition with the Almighty for the gratification of in dry seasons, and the people are obliged to fetch it

his passions, and that when the infatuations of sin shall from Tuggerah Creek, which is more than a mile

have passed away, no joy will then remain, but a fearful

anticipation of the wrath to come. It is in the innocent distant.

mind alone, that the happiness of Christianity can take Now, as I have before stated, the inland features, root; and as the purity of the soul is stained with the as well as the boundaries of this portion of country, contagion of guilt, in such proportion will its real joys fade are nearly of a similar character to the country

off from the polluted surface. -RENNELL. described between Port Jackson and Broken Bay. There is in both a river on the north, the sea on the

FRIENDSHIP hath the skill and observation of the best

physician, the diligence and vigilance of the best nurse, east, a range and road on the south, and the same

and the tenderness and patience of the best mother. on the west. The boundaries of both include nearly LORD CLARENDON.

POPULAR ILLUSTRATIONS OF LIFE | three, distinct periods or eras, namely :-The period ASSURANCE.

from infancy to puberty, or the commencement of II.

manhood ; from and during manhood to the com

mencement of old age ; and from the beginning of HUMAN LIFE AND THE TABLES OF MORTALITY.

that era to the termination of existence. During It would only be repeating an acknowledged truth, infancy life is exceedingly precarious, and the morto say that Human Life is uncertain, and that its tality of that season far exceeds the mortality of a duration varies, according to the age and circum- middle age. This is in a great measure owing to the stances of the life proposed. But although age may delicacy of the human frame at this very tender in some measure denote the value of life, it does not age, and to the fatality of the numerous disorders necessarily follow that an equality in age will pro- which infect childhood in its very early states. The duce an equality in the duration of existence. There period of manhood is marked by a certain but a slow are very few of our readers who could not select, decay, while from old age to death, the velocity of from the circle of their own acquaintance, many who, mortality is extremely great. In these papers it will with equal ages, have by no means an equal prospect be our object to confine our inquiries to the obser. of seeing the commencement of another year. During vations which have been made on the duration of life the patriarchal ages, before the follies and intem- in our own country, and among our own people, and perance of mankind had spread disease and its con- to the use which has been made of the materials sequent miseries, age might perhaps with propriety collected in the construction of the various tables of have been adopted as the standard measure of mortality by which the Life Offices regulate their longevity; but of later years it has only served to charges. measure out the portion of existence due to man The observations, upon the accuracy of which the kind collectively. The life of man may terminate law of mortality in this kingdom depends, have been at any period between birth and the extremity of chiefly drawn from the examination of the parish old age, and although it would be extremely diffi. registers of different cities, towns, and villages, and cult to assign the exact period at which the disso. from the population and other returns made to lution of a single individual might be expected Parliament. The origin of the parish registers and to occur, yet it is by no means so difficult a task bills of mortality as they are still called, has been to portion out the number of years due to a large already given in a former paper in the Saturday Magamass or body of mankind. The progress of popu. | zine*. Other and very different sources have been lation and the waste of life, have long since been examined, and have been found to produce data, in found to be regulated by an absolute and almost some cases, superior to that procured from the unerring law. It is not indeed pretended that the registers of even the oldest parishes. We shall, in action of this law is everywhere the same. It would the course of this paper, allude to the various sources be the extreme of folly, to suppose that the duration which have provided data for these inquiries, but we of existence is the same amongst all nations, and in cannot promise more than a very brief sketch of the all climates, at all periods, and among all classes of subject, and a short but succinct account of the three society; a thousand causes interfere either to or four principal Tables which have been constructed increase or to diminish the mortality of particular upon the materials furnished by the British empire. places, and particular periods. Some countries are The first in importance, and the oldest, of these scourged by periodical endemics, and some periods tables, was formed by the celebrated Dr. Price, from are marked by scarcity and famine. The waste of the parish registers of the town of Northampton, a life is greater among people who arrive early at small central and healthy borough town, which in maturity, than it is among those in whom maturity itself combines many of the advantages of both town is backward. It is for this reason that the natives and country. We shall not be able in this place to and inhabitants of warm climates, who are, as it give a detailed account of the method pursued by were, forced into premature perfection, seldom or Dr. Price in forming this table, the tabular numever reach the extremity of life; nor do we want bers of which are, of course, wholly artificial, and evidence to show that the waste of life is sensibly have been produced by a series of mathematical affected by the comparative scarcity or abundance of assumptions, but the ground-work of it is substanprovision. Every material rise in the price of food, tially correct, and founded upon real observations. is invariably attended by a corresponding decrease in It is not to speak too favourably of this table, to say, the number of the yearly births, by an increase in that frequent use and subsequent experience have the sickness, and by an excess in the mortality of concurred in rendering testimony to its value and that year; but, with all this apparent fickleness of accuracy, especially in the later stages of existence, nature to contend with, our statists have traced the In its tabular form it consists of 11,650 individuals. mortality of the different countries and classes of who are traced from birth to the termination of exmankind, with an exactness and regularity which is istence, which, according to this table, is at the age scarcely credible.

of ninety-six years. The numbers dying in each The constitution and arrangement of the hunian year are noted, and, consequently, the number surviframe, however perfect it may originally have been. / ving to commence the ensuing year. In its form it intimate that it was not formed to continue in / is as follows :healthy action, or to perform with regularity its

Commencement of each Year, various functions, for a longer period than seventy At Birth

3000 or eighty years. From constitutional defects or At 1 year

8650

1367

7283

» 2 years hereditary weakness,—from

502 intemperance, self-in

„ 3 )

6781 ............ 335 dulgence or folly a certain number of every gene

6446 ration fall sick, and of these a certain number

,, 5 ,
....... 6240

181 annually die, at every age, but in such a manner and

From an examination of the above specimen, the by such a law, that the rate of mortality gradually

| nature of these tables will be made apparent; it diminishes from birth to puberty, and is from that

commences with the birth of 11,650 children, out of period gradually accelerated until the extremity of life. Life may, indeed, be said to be divided into

• Vol. I. pp. 82, 118.

No. Born and Living at the

No. Dving cach

Year.

Age

11650

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