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EAST INDIA STATIONS. No. X.
the wretched fragments of a magnificence such as London
itself cannot boast. The ruins really extended as far as DELHI. PART 2.
the eye could reach, and our track, all along, wound The city of Delhi, or Shahjehanabad, affords to intel-amongst them. lectual minds almost endless gratification in the vast
In our way, one mass of ruins, larger than the rest, was number of interesting objects which greet the eye of pointed out to us as the old Patan palace. It has been a
large and solid fortress, in a plain and unornamented style the spectator on every side. It is difficult to limit of architecture
, and would have been pictạresque, had it the time which might be spent in rambling over the been in a country where trees grow, and ivy was green, ruins of old Delhi, and contemplating the various but is here only ugly and melancholy. It is chietly rearchitectural remains with which they abound. markable for a high, black pillar of cast metal, called Next to the Imperial Palace, of which an account
Firoze's Walking-stick. This was originally a Hindoo was given in a former paper, the most striking build-work; the emblem, I apprehend, of Siva, which stood in a ing of Shahjehanabad is the Jumna Musjeed, which temple in the same spot, and concerning which there
was a tradition, like that attached to the coronation-stone is indeed a magnificent edifice. This mosque is of the Scots, that whilst it stood, the children of Brahma erected on the summit of a rock of considerable were to rule in Indraput. On the conquest of the country height. Three handsome gateways, which are reached by the Mussulmans, the vanity of the prediction was shown, by three fine flights of steps, here lead into a qua
and Firoze enclosed it within the court of his palace, as a drangle of the noblest dimensions. The whole is trophy of the victory of Islam over idolatry. It is covered paved with granite inlaid with marble, and surrounded which is evidently the original, and probably contains the
with inscriptions, mostly Persian and Arabic, but that on three sides by an open cloister. In the centre of prophecy, is in a character now obsolete and unknown, this splendid area is a large marble reservoir of water, though apparently akin to the Nagree. with some small fountains, supplied by machinery About a mile and a half further, still through ruins, is from the canal. On its western side, and reached by Humaiöon's tomb, à noble building of granite, inlaid with another flight of steps, is the mosque itself, which is marble, and in a very chaste and simple style of Gothic
architecture. It is surrounded by a large garden with tera splendid hall, entered by three lofty arches, sur
races and fountains, all now gone to decay, excepting one mounted by three domes of white marble. It has at of the latter, which enables the poor people who live in the each end a very tall minaret.
out-buildings of the tomb, to cultivate a little wheat. The The ornaments (observes Bishop Heber) are less florid, and garden itself is surrounded by an embattled wall, with the building less picturesque, than the splendid group of towers, four gateways, and a cloister within all round. In the Imambura, and its accompaniments at Lucknow; but the centre of the square is a platform of about twenty feet the situation is far more commanding, and the size, the high, and I should apprehend 200 feet square, supported solidity, and rich materials of this building, impressed me also by cloisters, and ascended by four great flights of more than anything of the kind which I have seen in India. granite steps. Above rises the tomb, also a square, with a From its fine square is obtained a striking view of great dome of white marble in its centre.
The apartments the whole city. The Jumna Musjeed was the work within are a circular room, about as large as the Radcliffe
Library (at Oxford), in the centre of which lies, under a of Arungzebe, who, like many other usurpers, en- small raised slab, the unfortunate prince to whose memory deavoured to gain a reputation for piety; and the this fine building was erected. In the angles are smaller better to impose upon a credulous multitude, who apartments, wherein other branches of his family lie inmight have attributed his desire to gain the throne terred. From the top of the building, I was surprised to by the imprisonment of his father, and the murder
see that we had still ruins on every side; and that more of his brothers, to ambitious motives, clothed himself particularly to the westward, and where old Indraput stood, in the rags of a faqueer, and in this humble guise hills, seven or eight miles off.
the desolation apparently extended to a range of barren sought the shrine of the Jumna Musjeed, to pray for On coming down, we were conducted about a mile westthe success of his rebellious army. This mosque is ward to a burying-ground, or collection of tombs and small kept in good repair by a grant of the English Go- mosques, some of them very beautiful, amongst which the vernment. It is much frequented by worshippers, most remarkable was a little chapel in honour of a celeof whom many hundreds may be seen at one time, shrine, most of the deceased members of the present im
brated Mussulman saint, Nizam-ud-deen. Round his prostrate on the pavement. It is also the resort of perial' family lie buried, each in his own little enclosure, numerous beggars, and the poorer classes of travellers, surrounded by very elegant lattice-work of white marble. who find all the shelter which the climate renders Workmen were einployed at this time in completing the necessary, in the nooks and recesses of the building. tomb of the late prince Jelanguir, the third and darling
The Kala Musjeed, another mosque, is small, and son of the emperor, who died lately at Allahabad, whither has nothing worthy of notice about it, but its plain he had been banished by the British Government, for his ness, solidity, and great antiquity; being a work of eldest brother. The few remaining resources of the house
violent character, and his culpable intrigues against his the first Patan conquerors, and belonging to the times of Timour, are drawn on to do honour to his remains, and of primitive Mussulman simplicity. It is exactly on the tomb, though small, will certainly be very elegant. the plan of the original Arabian mosques ;~ square The flowers, &c., into which the marble is carved, are as court, surrounded by a cloister, and roofed with many delicate, and in as good taste and execution as any of the small domes of the plainest and most solid construc ordinary Italian artists could produce. Another tomb, tion, like the rudest specimens of what is called the daughter of Shahjehan. 'It has no size or importance, but
which interested me very much, was that of Jehanara, early Norman architecture. It has no minaret : the she was one of the few amiable characters which the family crier stands on the roof to proclaim the hour of of Timour can show. In the prime of youth and beauty, prayer.
when her father was dethroned, imprisoned, and I believe, We can scarcely give a better idea of the general blinded, by his wicked son, Arungzebe, she applied for character of the present state of old Delhi than by leave to share his captivity, and continued to wait on him transcribing Bishop Ileber's account of his visit to wards, she was a bountiful benefactress to the poor, and to
as a nurse and servant till the day of his death. Afterthe tomb of the Emperor Humaiöon, which is distant six miles from the modern city.
In one part of these ruins is a very deep tank, surroundFrom the Agra gate to Humaiöon's tomb is.a most awful ed by buildings, sixty or seventy feet above the surface of scene of desolation, ruins after ruins, tombs after tomlis, the water, from the top of which several boys and young men fragments of brickwork, freestone, granite, and marble, jumped down and swam to the steps, in order to obtain a scattered everywhere over a soil naturally rocky and barren, tritling bukshish. It was a formidable sight to a stranger, without cultivation, except in one or two small spots, and but they seemed to feel no inconvenience, except from cold, without a single tree. I was reminded of Caffa in the and were very thankful for a couple of rupees, to be divided Crimea, but this was Caffa on the scale of London, with | amongst their number.
But the grand object of attraction in the neigh- | for what purpose this splendid monument as erected; and bourhood of Shahjehanabad, is the Kootab Minar, a conjecture, weary of a hopeless task, is now content to magnificent tower, two hundred and forty-two feet in permit its origin to remain in obscurity. According to the height, which rises in the midst of the ruins of old general supposition, it was erected in the thirteenth cen
tury; but this is not certain, nor can it be ascertained Delhi, at the distance of pine miles south of the whether the founder was Moslem or Hingoa, though the modern city. Bishop Heber thus describes his visit majority of opinions inclines to the latter. to it:
architectural beauty of this wonderful building,—the height We went out at the Agra gate, and rode through the of the column, supposed to exceed that of any other in the same dismal field of tombs which we had formerly traversed, world, its amazing strength, the richness of the materials, escorted by three of Colonel Skinner's horse. Before we
and the magnificence and variety of its embellishments, had cleared the ruins, another body of fifteen or twenty combine to render it the surpassing wonder of a land wild-looking horse, some with long spears, some with mat- abounding in buildings of the highest degree of splendour locks and matches lighted, galloped up from behind a large and interest. The extraordinary elegance and grandeur tomb, and their leader, dropping the point of his lance of this remarkable tower have preserved it from the ruin said, that he was sent by the Raja of Bullumghur, “the
with which it has been lately threatened ; the government, fort of spears," to conduct me through his district
. We anxious to preserve so valuable a relic of Indian antiquity, did not require this additional escort, but as it was civilly directed its restoration and repair,-a difficult and someintended, I, of course, took it civilly, and we went on to
what hazardous work, which has been admirably performed gether to a beautiful mausoleum, about five miles further, by Major Smith, of the Engineers. From the summit, raised in honour of Suster Jung, an ancestor of the king which is ascended by a spiral staircase, the view is of the of Qude, who still keeps up his tomb, and the garden round
most sublime description; a desert, covered with ruins full it, in good repair. We did not stop here, but proceeded on
of awful beauty, surrounds it on all sides, watered by the elephants, which Mr. Elliott had stationed for us, leaving snake-like Jumna, which winds its huge silvery folds along our horses under the care of the Bullumghur luwars. Our the crumbling remains of palaces and tombs. In the route lay over a country still rocky and barren, and still back-ground rises the dark lofty walls and frowning towers sprinkled with tombs and ruins, tilí, on ascending a little of an ancient fortress, the strong-hold of the Patan chiefs ; eminence, we saw one of the most extensive and striking and the eye, wandering over the stupendous and still scenes of ruins which I have met with in any country beautiful fragments of former grandeur, rests at last upon The Kootab Minar, the object of principal attraction, is the white and glittering mosques and minarets of the really the finest tower I have ever seen, and must, when
modern city, closing in the distance, and finely contrasting, its spire was complete, have been still more beautiful. by its luxuriant groves and richly-flowering gardens, with
the loneliness and desolation of the scene beneath. The remaining great arches of the principal mosque, with their granite pillars, covered with inscriptions in the tlorid This description of Delhi must not be concluded Çufic character, are as fine, in their way, as any of the without a notice of the new suburb, lately erected to details of York Minster. In front of the principal of supply habitations for the increasing population of these great arches is a metal pillar similar to that in Firoze the city, and named after Mr. Trevelyan, its projector, Shah's castle, and several other remains of a Hindoo palace Trevelyanpore
. The plan of this new quarter has and temple, more ancient than the foundation of the Kootab, and which I should have thought striking, if they been much approved for its elegant simplicity, though had not been in such a neighbourhood. A multitude of of course there are divers opinions concerning it. ruined mosques, tombs, serais, &c., are packed closely The centre, a large quadrangle, called Bentinck round, mostly in the Patan style of architecture, and some
Square, is entered by four streets, opening from the of them very fine. One, more particularly, on a hill, and middle of each side. The whole extent of the streets, surrounded by a wall with battlements and towers, struck which are ninety feet in width, and the façade of the me as peculiarly suited, by its solid and simple architecture, to its blended character,-in itself very appropriate to the square, present an unbroken front of Doric columns, religion of Islam,-of fortress, tomb, and temple. These supporting a piazza behind, in which are commodious Patans built like giants, and finished their work like shops and dwelling-houses, ranged with great regujewellers. Yet the ornaments, florid as they are in their larity. The four triangular spaces at the back, formed proper places, are never thrown away, or allowed to inter by the arms of the cross, are intended for stable and fere with the general severe and solemn character of their court-yards for the cattle and bullock-carts belonging edifices. The staircase within the great Minar is good, except the uppermost story of all, which is ruinous, to the inhabitants. The whole forms a very striking and difficult of access. I went up, however, and was re
contrast with the ancient ruins by which it is surwarded by the very extensive view, from a height of 240 rounded. feet, of Delhi, the course of the Jumna for many miles, Another place of great interest in the neighbourhood and the ruins of Toghlikabad, another giantly Patan foun. of the city is a gigantic astronomical observatory, dation, which lay to the south-west.
supposed to be the work of Jey Sing, a Hindoo rajah, This column, which is, probably, at this moment, who flourished in the seventeenth century. The dial the largest in the world, tends to the circular, its is still in good repair, a stupendous work, of which base being a polygon of twenty-seven sides. The the gnomon, of solid masonry, is sixty feet high. It structure is divided into four stories, at unequal dis- is not, however, possible to convey any just idea by tances, ornamented by a large cupola of red granite.
mere description of these enormous instruments. The surface is futed in three of the stories, having
With reference to the religious condition of Delhi, twenty-seven divisions partly semicircular and partly it may be mentioned that Bishop Heber gives this angular. The upper story is quite plain, and com
notice in his Journal. posed entirely of marble. Though exposed to the
January 2, 1825.—This day being Sunday, I confirmed storms of centuries, the shaft has suffered, except at about twenty persons, and' 1 afterwards 'preached and the summit, no perceptible injury; the minutest or- administered the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, Mr. naments, and these are numerous and various, appear Fisher reading prayers. The congregation was numerous, still as perfect as evert.
and there were nearly forty communicants. In the evening It is not, known, (remarks Miss Roberts,) by whom or
also we had a good congregation.
The bishop also mentions, that Colonel Skinner, of * A very tolerable account of it is given in Hamilton's India. + See the Oriental Annual for 1834. There are near the Cuttab
whom he speaks as being “a good and modest, as Minar, the remains of a much larger tower, which, if completed, well as a brave man,” had “just devoted twenty would have been a most prodigious monument of human enterprise thousand sicca rupees to build a church at Delhi 1." perfect tower, and has a winding passage, but without stairs, in the May it please God to prosper this good work where centre. It is not more than forty feet high, but, had it been finished it is so much needed !
D. I. E. in due proportion, it would have been one of the greatest artificial wonders in the universe, next to the large pyramid in the vicinity of Bishop Heber's Journal, from which, together with Miss Grand Cairo.
Roberts's Scenes in Hindostan, this article is chiefly taken,
POPULAR ERRORS AND SUPERSTITIONS.
ESSENTIAL SALT OF LEMONS,
(Binoxalate of potash.)
The substance whose properties we are now going The figure shown in the engraving, is a repre- to describe, is known in commerce as the salt of sentation of one of those flinty stones so frequently sorrel; a name which is far more significant than that found in gravel-pits; these stones are generally it more commonly but very improperly bears, namely, known by the name of thunderbolts, and are believed essential salt of lemons. by many to come from the clouds; they are, however, On a late occasion, when writing about oxalic acid *, petrified casts of the interior of the shell of several we mentioned that it was contained in the juice of species of the Echinus, sea egg, sea hedgehog, the several kinds of plants, and especially in that of the petrifying matter having occupied the place of the Oralis acetosella, or wood sorrel, and the Rumex animal, while the chalky shell has perished by the acetosa, or common sorrel. We stated, also, that the action of the air, or by violence. The shells of the acid, as procured from these and other plants, was recent echini are frequently found on the sea-shore ; generally combined with potash or lime; such when the animal is living, the outer part of their combinations being called oxalates. covering is furnished with numerous spines, which Now it happens that in both varieties of sorrel enable the creature to roll itself along at the bottom above mentioned, as well as in several others, which of the water ; from this arises its name of the sea it is unnecessary here to enumerate, an oxalate of hedgehog.
potash exists ready formed, and hence the origin of the name, salt of sorrel. Large quantities of it are prepared from the wood sorrel in Switzerland, and other neighbouring countries; about sixty or seventy pounds of the plant, when in full vegetation, yielding only five ounces of the crystallized salt.
The process by which the salt of sorrel is obtained, is very simple. The expressed juice of the leaves, being diluted with water, is suffered to remain at rest for a few days until the feculent parts have subsided, or, if greater despatch is necessary, it is clarified with
the whites of eggs. When the liquor is sufficiently There is a ridiculous belief in some parts of the clear, it is drawn off and evaporated by boiling, until country, that the hairs from a horse's tail, when
a pellicle appears on its surface. It is then set in dropped in the water, become endued with life; in
a cool place to crystallize. When the first crop of England, this transformation is supposed to produce crystals has been obtained, the liquor which remains the Gordius aquaticus, a small thread-like worm, of a red is again evaporated and crystallized; and so the colour, which is found in groups knotted together in process continues, until no more of the salt can be the water. In Scotland, we understand, the product of
separated. the hair is supposed to be a small eel; we need scarcely
The chemical name for salt of sorrel, as indicated say that both these ideas are perfectly erroneous.
at the head of this paper, is binoxalate of potash, It is certainly puzzling, at first sight, to understand the prefix bin distinguishing it from two other salts in what manner ponds or other pieces of water, in formed by the union of oxalic acid and potash. which previously no fish were known, should be The first of these three compounds is the simple suddenly found full of small eels'; but the difficulty oxalate, consisting of one proportional of acid, and vanishes, on referring to the natural history of the eel
one of potash. It crystallizes in oblique four-sided tribe; there it will be seen, that they (the young eels prisms, which are cooling and bitter to the taste. in particular,) perform very long migrations over the Next in order is that under consideration, and, as its moist grass, chiefly in the night-time; even full
name imports, (bi, or bin, from a Latin word signifying grown eels will leave their native element after dark, two,) contains two proportionals of acid, and one of in search of food.
the base (potash). The crystals of this salt are The common snake and the blind-worm are sup- small, of a needley form, and sometimes a little posed by many to be poisonous, but this is an error; flattened. The last of these compounds is called there being no venomous reptile in Great Britain, quadroxalate, (from a Latin word signifying four,) except the viper, or adder.
and consists of four proportionals of acid united to It is a commonly-received opinion, that coals are to
one of potash. The first and last of these salts are be found as near London as Blackheath, but that the little known excepting to chemists. sceking for them is forbidden, on account of the
Binoxalate of potash (salt of sorrel) unites readily Newcastle coal-trade being so excellent a nursery for with several of the earths, as it does also, under seamen. But geologists have ascertained that,
certain circumstances, with most of the metals.
On The great coal-field of Britain, which is composed of nu- account of this last-mentioned property, it is very merous subordinate coal-fields, crosses the island in a generally employed in removing ink-spots and irondiagonal direction, the south boundary-line extending from moulds from linen,-one proportional of its acid near the mouth of the river Humber, to the south part of uniting, in either case, with the iron present, and the Bristol channel, on the west coast; and the north boundary-line extending from the south 'side of the river thus forming a soluble and colourless compound Tay, in Scotland, westward, by the south side of the called oxalate of iron. Ochil mountains, to near Dumbarton, on the river Clyde; With sugar and water the salt of sorrel forms a within these boundary-lines, North and South Wales are pleasant beverage, and, in consequence of its baving included. This area is about two hundred and sixty miles been substituted for lemons for purposes of this kind, in length, and, on an average, about one hundred and fifty it obtained the very absurd name of essential salt of miles in breadth; and no coal-field of any consequence has been found, either to the north or south of the lines men
lemons. However agreeable our acidulated drink tioned, excepting some small patches of thin coals of infe- may be which has been thus prepared, we by no rior quality; and the coal-field of Brora, in Sutherlandshire, means recommend it to those who have any regard in Scotland, which is far disjoined from any other coalfield.
See Saturaay Magazine, Vol. X., p. 180.
for their health. Almost all the alkaline salts of EXPEDITION TO THE BROCKEN oxalic acid are more or less. poisonous. That to The Brocken was within fifteen miles of us, but we which we are now directing attention, is so in an had been told that if the weather were unfavourable, eminent degree ; and in any cases where it has been the ascent would be a most fatiguing labour, and ignorantly employed for making a refreshing beve. utterly fruitless, as nine times out of ten, the top of rage, or for imparting an acid flavour to punch, if it the mountain is so enveloped in clouds as to veil has not proved fatal, that result has depended more every object below in impenetrable mist. Our good upon its quantity than its quality.
R. R. star, however, still prevailed. The morning was not
bright, but it was dry, and a brisk wind gave us hope
that the remaining clouds might all be so completely THE SEA.
blown off before evening, as to permit our seeing the The mean depth of the sea is, according to La Place, sun-set brilliantly from the Witches' Orchestra.
We started at half past five for Ilsingbourg, -a from four to five miles. If the existing waters were encreased only by one-fourth, it would drown the wild-looking village, situated at the entrance of a
narrow gorge, through which dashes a mountainearth, with the exception of some high mountains. If the volume of the ocean were augmented only by torrent, having there found a way from a spring
amidst the mountains. A barren waste leads to it; one-eighth, considerable portions of the present continents would be submerged, and the seasons would it round; and high above their heads, rises the giant
a hundred hills, covered with tangled forests, fence be changed all over the globe. Evaporation would be so much extended, that rains would fall conti- Brocken, amidst whose deep covers superstition has
been cradled for ages. nually, destroy the harvest, and fruits, and flowers,
At eleven o'clock, three mules were led to the and subvert the whole economy of nature.
garden-gate. Our guide had but one eye; but the There is, perhaps, nothing more beautiful in our whole system than the process by which the fields expression of his other features was in no degree are irrigated from the skies—the rivers are fed from lessened by this misfortune ; and if a kind and gentle
nature could ever be unmistakenly read on any the mountains and the ocean restrained within
countenance, it was on his. bounds, which it never can exceed so long as that process continues on the present scale. The vapour between throbbing temples, to picture forth a darker
I will defy the boldest imagination that ever worked ,
world than the eye looks upon, while scaling the lighter than the atmosphere; condensed, it falls Ilsinbourg side of the Brocken. Here and there, upon the earth in water; or, attracted to the moun- tains, it gathers on their summits, dissolves, and however, are spots of exquisite loveliness; and the
uncertain humour of the weather increased their perpetually replenishes the conduits with which, ex
effect. ternally or internally, they are all furnished. By these conduits the Auid is conveyed to the rivers human labour are visible, both in the felled timber,
During about a third part of the ascent, traces of which flow on the surface of the earth, and to the and in the huts of the charcoal-burners. At one springs which lie deep in its bosom, destined to point in the early part of our progress, the guide supply man with a purer element. If we suppose the sea, then, to be considerably of my mule, making a signal to my companions to
stopped, and without saying a word, turned the head diminished, the Amazon, and the Mississippi, those inland seas of the western world, would become in- hundred feet above our heads, on which stood a
turn theirs. He then pointed aloft to a crag five considerable brooks; the brooks would wholly dis- colossal cross of iron. It is quite necessary to be on appear, the atmosphere would be deprived of its due such a spot, to conceive the sublime effect of this proportion of humidity; all nature would assume the garb of desolation, the bird would droop on the holy emblem, thus suddenly seen, as it were, in the
clouds. wing, the lower animals would perish on the barren
As we mounted higher and higher, we crossed the soil, and man himself would wither away like the noisy torrent by slight log bridges, which seemed sickly grass at his feet.
He must indeed be incorrigibly blind, or scarcely just wide enough to fit the feet of the mule without elevated in the scale of reason above the monkey, and its awful bridges; and, with them, every trace
an inch to spare. At length we quitted the stream, who would presume to say, or could for a moment of a path. What must have been the horrible conhonestly think, when duly informed on the subject, vulsion which has so scattered the surface of this that the machinery by which the process of evapo; mountain, and covered its sides with such gigantic ration and condensation has been constantly carried
yet loose masses of granite rock ! One of these on upon earth for so many centuries, exhibits no
masses measured fifty-five feet in length and forty in traces of Divine science and power, and especially of breadth ; its height was beyond our reach, but could benevolence towards the countless beings whose sub
not have been less than thirty feet. The most beausistence and happiness absolutely depend upon the tiful mosses “sheathed the terrors" of some of their circumstance of the waters of the ocean, earth, and
In air, uniformly preserving the average of their present every interval between them, enormous pines still
sharp angles, but many were perfectly bare. mutual proportions.- Quarterly Review.
lifted their dark heads, but their fringed branches no longer swept the ground. The stems were bare, and
the wind moaned among the tops in sounds such as I Books.-Use common-place books or collections, as indexes never heard before. By degrees the trees ceased altoto light thee to the authors, lest thou be abused. He that gether; the mosses and lichens apparently ceased takes learning upon trust, makes a fair cupboard with another's plate. He is an ill-advised purchaser, whose title
with them; and a monstrous expanse, entirely covered depends more on witnesses than evidences.-QUARLES.
by detached, bare, dry, sun-whitened rocks, stretched
upwards and all around, between which dark, brackish It is our nature, when we do not know wbat may happen
streams were heard, and occasionally seen, trickling to us, to fear the worst that can happen; and hence it is,
down the mountain. that uncertainty is so terrible, that we often seek to be rid The scaling this hideous precipice was the most of it, at the hazard of certain mischief.-BURKB. tremendous part of the expedition; but having