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DIE SCHACHSPIELER. THE CHESS | The attitude of this angel is beautiful; the countenance PLAYERS.

is of a pensive cast, the hands are clasped, the wings BY MORITZ RETZSCH.

half-spread; the head is gently turned towards the

important charge, and we feel afraid, that at the next Is not this type well cut, in every part;

move those wings will bear the guardian spirit away. Full of rich cunning, filled with Zeuxian art ?-QUARLES.

With regard to the Chessmen : on the side of the We return with pleasure to notice the works of this

demon, the King represents himself; his Queen is Plea

sure, pressing forward in front of all; his officers are, gifted artist; and now present to our readers a copy

Indolence, like a great swine; Pride, strutting about of one of them, which appears to us astonishing in its

with a peacock's tail ; Falsehood, with one hand on conception and execution, and will, if we mistake not, /

his heart, and the other holding a dagger behind him; become the best known of all that he has executed.

Unbelief, trampling on the Cross; Anger, &c.; the Retzsch's several published outlines are familiar to

Pawns are Doubts; and, alas for devoted man! the us; and, although there is not a single instance of cross-shading, no colour of any kind, the interest

only pieces which he has taken are Anger, like a

turkey-cock, and one Doubt; while Satan has secured they excite impels us to return to them again and

several cherub forms, which are the Pawns of Man, again ; and every time we look at them, we see some new beauty.

There is no little So completely, indeed, do they take

and are symbolical of Prayer. possession of our minds, that we forget the total

beauty in the thought of introducing prayers under

the emblem of pawns; inasmuch, as, if persevering absence of those incidental aids which the higher

and effectual, they may recover the vantage-ground branches of the art call in to their assistance. What, then, is the secret of Moritz Retzsch ?" the

which had been lost. Humility, Affection, and witchcraft he has used ?"-We should answer,—A

Innocence, are also taken ; but Religion, Truth, and

Hope are still left. All the pieces are well set forth; deep moral feeling, which appeals directly to the

and it is evident that Satan's are coming down in full heart,-a perfect comprehension of his subject, and correct drawing. In this latter quality, indeed,

force against those of his antagonist.

This design requires a long study, and affords he is almost without a rival in modern days. He has been compared to Flaxman, who finished some most

much matter for reflection ; every part will bear the expressive outlines, but whose classical severity of

most minute scrutiny ; and it is scarcely possible style must always fall short in popularity, of Retzsch,

for any one to quit it, without a deep sense of the with his kindly household feelings, “common Nature's

moral which is conveyed by the allegory. daily food,” mingled, occasionally, with all that is

We cannot conclude this paper, without alluding

to a fine passage in The Pilgrim's Progress, and exawful and sublime. We are fond of emblems and allegories. The old

pressing a wish, that the issue of the contest, so wood-cut emblems of Alciatus * contain a mine of

spiritedly depicted by Retzsch, might prove as happy good and useful advice; those of George Wither,

to the party in jeopardy, and as favourable to the engraved by Crispin Pass, and “ quickened with

interests of religion, as that of Christian's fight with metrical illustrations, both moral and divine," may

Apollyon. be examined with advantage by the candid reader;

This sore combat lasted for above half a day, even till

Christian was almost quite spent. For you must know, and even Quarles, though full of strange fancies,

that Christian, by reason of his wounds, must needs grow quaintly expressed, speaks a language sufficiently

weaker and weaker. Then Apollyon, espying his opporintelligible for the improvement of the heart and tunity, began to gather up close to Christian, and, wrestmind; and this, we maintain, ought to be the chief ling with him, gave him a dreadful fall; and with that aim of art, as well as of literature.

Christian's sword flew out of his hand, Then said Apollyon, There are, perhaps, not a few persons who, how

I am sure of thee now! And with that he had almost

pressed him to death, so that Christian began to despair of ever unwilling to listen to instruction in the com

his life. But as God would have it, while Apollyon was mon course of teaching, may, by the “ocular

fetching his last blow, thereby to make a full end of this language" of a well-imagined emblem, have been

good man, Christian nimbly reached out his hand for his informed of their fault and danger, or reminded of sword, saying, Rejoice not against me, 0 mine enemy: certain duties, and risen up from the contemplation when I fall I shall arise (Mic, vii. 8); and with that of the subject, wiser and better than they sat down. I gave him a deadly thrust, which made him give back, as This remark may, in some happy instances, be found

one that had received his mortal wound. Christian per

ceiving that, made at him again, saying, -Nay, in all true with reference to our present engraving, the

these things we are more than conquerors, through Him subject of which is, SATAN PLAYING AT CHESS WITH that loved us (Rom. viii. 37); and with that Apollyon spread MAN, FOR HIS SOUL.

forth his dragon's wings, and sped him away, that Christian The peculiar powers of the artist have here a fine saw him no more. field for their exertion. The finely-formed, but The reference to Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress rewicked and terrific, countenance of Satan is directed minds us, in the first place, that it has never been towards his victim, whom he is watching with a wari. adequately illustrated, and, in the next, that Retzsch's ness and stern purpose, that make us tremble for pencil and graver might, in all probability, be well the beautiful and youthful antagonist. The fallen and profitably employed in embellishing the First angel, who “ was a murderer from the beginning,” | Part of that, extraordinary work. Would not his is robed in a mantle, with broad folds; one hand | master-hand find ample scope in delineating such is supporting his chin, as if he were intent on the scenes as the following? effect of some deeply-plotted move, and the other

1. Christian leaves the City of Destruction, and meets

i grasps a figure of Peace, which he is taking from the

Evangelist. board. The young man rests his head upon his 2. Christian comes to the Cross, and is eased of his hand, as if he were fearful of impending ruin, and burden. desirous of averting it. Between these two figures, and 3. Christian ascends the Hill Difficulty. behind the board, stands the Good Genius of Man,

4. Mistrust and Timorous leave Christian. anxious and distressed, as if fearful for the youth.

5. Christian fights Apollyon,

6. The Valley of the Shadow of Death. • An Italian who wrote, in Latin, early in the sixteenth century,

7. Vanity Fair. and whose volume of emblems went through many editions, and

8. The Trial of Christian and Faithful. obtained universal credit,

9. Christian and Hopeful escape from Doubting Castle.

DIGESTION.

soluble in hot. It is clear and transparent, inodourDIGESTION is the commencement of assimilation, or ous, a little saltish, and very perceptibly acid. It of that process by which, in animals, their food is by does not exist constantly, or accumulate in the stosuccessive mutations converted into a liquid, that is mach : but it is only secreted when wanted, or when to circulate as a living and vitalizing agent through the stomach is excited by the introduction of new their frame.

matter into it. In human beings, assimilation comprises the fol. The solvent power of the gastric juice out of the lowing steps. The solid food is bruised in the mouth, body was ascertained by Spallanzani, and Mr. Hunter and mixed with the saliva; it is then swallowed, and discovered the remarkable phenomenon, that it would conveyed along the @sophagus into the stomach, even digest, after death, the stomach which formed where it is altered into an uniform pulpy mass, termed it. Dr. Beaumont, by many experiments, has conchyme; from the stomach it passes into the small firmed the conclusions of Spallanzani. In some of intestines, where it is mixed with the bile and other the most valuable which he narrates, the same kind fluids, which cause the chyle or recrementitious part of meal was observed simultaneously undergoing dito separate from it: the chyle is absorbed by the gestion in the stomach, and in a phial of gastric lacteals, and transmitted by them to the veins; juice obtained at the same time from the same stomingling with the veins, the chyle is then passed mach, and placed in a saucepan of water kept at the through the vessels of the lungs, and aërated. The temperature of 100°. process of assimilation is then complete, and the “The effect of the gastric juice on the piece of meat inblood so formed from the food is fit to sustain life. troduced into the stomach, was exactly similar to that in

Of these changes, there is one which exclusively the phial, only more rapid after the first half-hour, and merits attention. This is the alteration which the sooner completed. Digestion commenced on, and was food undergoes in the stomach :-its conversion

confined to the surface in both situations. Agitation acceinto chyme. Mr. Abernethy emphatically called

lerated the solution in the phial, by removing the coat that

was digested on the surface, enveloping the remainder of this Digestion; that is to say, he restricted the term

the meat in the gastric juice, and giving the fluid access digestion to this function. What precedes this to the undigested portion." change is mechanical, and a mechanical substitute

The dissolved food, or the chyme, has the appearmay be found for it. The steps in assimilation

ance of a thick homogeneous liquid, the colour of which follow this change, if it has been perfectly

which partakes slightly of the colour of the food executed, and the meal converted into proper chyme,

eaten. It is always of a lightish or grayish colour, are unfelt by us, executed independently of volition,

varying in its shade and appearance from that of and certain, if the system is in health, to be accom

cream, to a grayish or dark-coloured gruel. Chyme plished properly.

from butter, fat meats, oil, resembles rich cream. . All . The stomach is the seat of hunger; we take food

chyme is acid. to allay its cravings, which are found to be equally

The perfectness of digestion (the food being diappeased, whether the food is swallowed in the ordi

gestible, and the stomach in health,) is dependent nary manner, or directly introduced into the organ.

on the quantity of the gastric juice : if the quantity Consistently with these curious facts, it is well

of the latter is proportionate to the meal which has known that the natural disposition of a very hungry

been taken, the whole is changed into chyme. If person is to chew hastily and imperfectly, and to bolt

the quantity of gastric juice is insufficient, a residue his food. He is not satisfied till the food reaches

of undigested food remains in the stomach, and behis stomach. Food, however, when insufficiently

comes a source of irritation and derangement of masticated, and swallowed in large and hard masses,

function. It is not necessary that the stomach should is liable to injure the cesophagus in going down, and

be emptied of one meal before another is introduced when it reaches the stomach, is difficult of digestion.

| into it. The presence of a second meal, crude and One purpose of the senses of taste and flavour which

fresh, does not necessarily disturb the digestion of the we enjoy, is to induce us to continue comminuting

first. If the stomach is in full vigour, and can furnish the food in the mouth, and bruising it as long as its

the absolute quantity of gastric juice required for taste and flavour last; while we are gratifying these

both, both meals will undergo together harmonious senses, the food acquires the requisite consistence for

digestion. easy swallowing and easy digestion. The time gained

[Abridged from Mayo's Philosophy of Living.] by this process prevents the stomach being too rapidly filled, and allows the appetite to be satiated before the stomach is overloaded.

Is it not strange, that some should be so delicate as not to The substances introduced into the stomach are

bear a disagreeable picture in the house, and yet force in reference to their consistence either innutritious

every face they see about them to wear a gloom of unliquids, or liquids with food mixed, or solids. The easiness and discontent?--Persian Letters. first are quickly absorbed and carried out of the stomach; the second undergo a separation of the DEATH,-If thou expect death as a friend, prepare to enliquid; after which the solider part, like ordinary tertain it; if thou expect death as an enemy, prepare to solid food, is digested.

overcome it : death has no advantage but when it comes a The process of digestion is strictly chemical. It stranger.-QUARLES. is the result of the action of a solvent fluid upon the aliment, and takes place almost equally well without

A BUTTERFLY. as within the body, if the proper temperature is

CHILD of the sun ! pursue thy rapturous flight, maintained.

Mingling with her thou lovest in fields of light; The solvent fluid is poured out by the lining mem And, where the flowers of paradise unfold, brane of the stomach, as the perspiration pours off

Quaff fragrant nectar from their cups of gold, the surface of the body. It is called the gastric

.There shall thy wings, rich as an evening sky, juice. It consists of water holding in solution free

Expand and shut in silent ecstasy.

.... Yet wert thou once a worm, a thing that crept muriatic and acetic acids, phosphates and muriates

On the bare earth, then wrought a tomb, and slept: with bases of potassa and soda, magnesia and lime, And such is man; soon from his cell of clay, and an animal matter soluble in cold water, but in It burst a seraph in the blaze of day.—ROGERS.

.. 311--2

THE PHILOSOPHERS' STONE,

source the term chemistry is probably derived, which

first occurs in a Greek lexicon (or dictionary), whose No. I.

author lived about 800 years since. At that time, Wærn speaking of a person who is eminently suc chemistry, or as it was sometimes then called, cessful in the acquisition of wealth, it is common to alchymy, was understood to mean the art of preparing remark, that “ everything he touches turns to gold." gold and silver ; but there is reason to believe that the This form of expression, it is most likely, owes its expectation of making these precious metals was not origin to the delusion which for many centuries | the sole object of all who practised chemistry. The prevailed in the world, inducing the belief in the writings of this period are, however, so full of mysexistence of a substance, usually termed the Philoso tical allusions, and of allegorical expressions, that it is phers' Stone, which was said to possess the extraordi utterly impossible to understand their import. We nary property of changing the base metals into gold are, therefore, as likely to do their authors injustice, and silver.

by imputing to them a greater share of ignorance This delusion, for it certainly deserves no better than they deserve, as we are to give them credit for name, was not cherished by those only whose igno- | the knowledge they possessed. rance might be supposed to offer some excuse for The information which has been handed down their credulity. All classes of society were more or to us respecting the chemical arts as known to the less powerfully affected by it. Kings and nobles, ancients, is as scanty as it is unsatisfactory. Everystatesmen and philosophers, of all nations, thought thing connected with trades and manufactures was it not beneath their dignity to engage in a pursuit, viewed by those of them who made any pretensions whose avowed object was to obtain the means of to learning, as beneath their notice. Their historians realizing immense riches by the labour of a day, or were incapable of transmitting to posterity an inteleven of a single moment. Many there were who ligible account of the processes practised in their days, spent their whole lives, wasting their own fortunes because they had never given themselves the trouble and the fortunes of others, in a fruitless search after to inquire into, or examine them. From a few scatthis imaginary secret. Among these, there were tered and incidental notices, it may be fairly inferred, some who have left behind them in their writings, that at a very remote period many useful processes such proofs of intelligence and soberness of thought were known), and as accident, rather than systematic in reference to other subjects, that if the fact were research, favoured the discovery of others, their not attested by daily experience and observation, we number from time to time gradually increased. But should probably be disposed to doubt if extremes so there was such a manifest deficiency of skill in per, opposite could meet in the same individual.

forming experiments, and of accuracy in observing Nor was it the means of acquiring wealth that results, that what had been once done could not with • alone occupied the attention, and called forth the certainty be repeated, unless accident may be pre

energies of mankind, at the periods to which we are sumed to have had its share in the operation. Hence, now alluding. The philosophers' stone, it was gene- a science essentially founded on experiment and rally asserted, and by thousands implicitly believed, observation, and destined to confer on the world possessed the power of ensuring health and long life. benefits of the most important character, consisted, Thus, whilst some were engaged in making number- originally, of little else than the vague speculations less experiments, in the hope of at length enriching and visionary conceits of men who possessed neither themselves to the utmost extent of their wishes ; patience to examine, nor judgment to appreciate, the others, with no less diligence, were seeking an unj. phenomena which were constantly forcing themselves versal medicine, which was to cure all diseases, and upon their notice. to confer on its fortunate possessor so large a share With these brief remarks, we must leave the of youthful vigour, that life would thereby be pro- chemists of antiquity. Let some of their successors longed to a very distant, if not an indefinite, period. now engage our attention; especially those to whom

A connected account of the origin and progress of we have already alluded under the name of alchyalchymy, the name by which the pretended art of mists. changing the baser metals into gold and silver is It is difficult to determine the exact period when known, our readers must not expect. It would alchymy, in the sense we are now going to employ occupy a much larger space than we can afford. A the term, first began to be viewed as a separate few hints must suffice.

branch of chemistry. About 1200 years ago, the Viewed in the most favourable aspect, and with Arabians seem to have practised chemistry, and by every disposition to make allowance for the character them its scattered facts were most probably collected, of the times in which the alchymists lived, their pro- and arranged into something like regular order. But ceedings furnish materials for a dark page in the although chemistry, or, as it was perhaps more frerecords of the human intellect. Enslaved by avarice, quently called, alchymy, was at that time generally and given up to the most degrading superstitions, we understood to denote the art of preparing gold and often behold them taking shelter beneath a veil of silver, there is no evidence that such an expectation religious sanctity, that they may the more effectually was seriously entertained, even by the most expert perpetrate the grossest deceptions. Here and there, practitioners. Among these, Geber, who is supposed it is true, we meet with an instance in which a laud- to have been a physician, is the most conspicuous. able desire for knowledge seems to have preserved | If the writings which bear his name are genuine, they its possessor from some of those acts of folly and show that he had the most implicit belief in the exextreme credulity, with which the history of alchymy istence of the philosophers' stone, for the making of abounds. But even in these cases, we find apparent which he professes to give minute instructions. He good sense and integrity of purpose associated with makes no allusion, however, to the possibility of propretensions so absurd, and with vanity so excessive, curing gold by such means, nor indeed by any other. that we are at a loss to know what we should do,-- His attention, was almost exclusively directed to the whether to admire, to pity, or to condemn.

| conversion of metals into medicines, of whose virThe term alchymy, is supposed to be formed of two tues he entertained very exalted notions. The success Arabic words, (al, the, and kimia, secret or hidden,) which, in many instances, attended the use of these and signifies the occult or secret art. From the same preparations, and the unexpected results which often

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arose out of the processes to which the various metals were subjected in order to obtain them, must have had an extraordinary effect upon minds disposed on all occasions to yield a willing assent to whatever partook of the marvellous. It is no wonder, therefore, that persons who peopled the air, the earth, and all the other elements, with good or evil spirits, as it suited their fancies or their inclinations, should also invest with mysterious impossibilities the simplest operations in nature.

Passing over 500 or 600 years, which with great propriety come under the denomination of the “ dark ages," we arrive at a period when alchymy was esteemed as one of the noblest pursuits which could engage the attention of mankind. The credit it had thus attained was chiefly due to the influence of the priests, who not only encouraged others in following this wild dream, but were deeply concerned in it themselves. As a curious illustration of this historical fact, we may mention that five small crucibles of graduated sizes were lately found plastered up in a small niche in a room over the large entrance-porch of the church of St. Thomas at Salisbury. The gentleman (Rev. Edward Duke, M.A.) to whose learned work we are indebted for this information, is of opinion that these carefully-concealed crucibles were evidently intended for alchymical purposes. He conceives, however, that they were employed not for the purpose of making gold, but for the higher and more difficult branch of the art, namely, the making the “Elixir of Life," which was believed to consist of the “ quintessence of gold.”

Before we go further, it will be proper to explain, in as few words as possible, the opinions entertained by the alchymists. As far as we can understand them, they were as follows, namely : that all the metals were compounds, and, as some supposed, consisting of sulphur and mercury. The baser metals, it was asserted, contained the same constituents as gold, but were contaminated by admixture with impurities of various kinds, and in different proportions. These impurities, it was supposed, could be separated, or their effects neutralized; when the particular metal operated upon would be capable of assuming the properties and character of gold. As already stated, the substance whose agency it was imagined would effect these wonderful changes, they distinguished generally by the name of " philosophers' stone," which is described as a red powder, possessing a peculiar odour. The change itself was called transmutation. We shall soon return to this subject again.

R. R.

Child of the sun ! he loves to lie
'Mid nature's embers, parched and dry,
Where o'er some tower, in ruin laid,
The peepul spreads its haunted shade,
Or round a tomb his scales to wreathy
Fit warder in the gate of death!
Come on ! yet pause! behold us now
Beneath the bamboo's arched bough;
Where, gemming oft that sacred gloom,
Glows the geranium's scarlet bloom ;
And winds our path through many a bower
Of fragrant tree and giant flower :-
The ceiba's crimson pomp displayed
O'er the broad plaintain's humbler shade,
And dusk anana's prickly blade;
While, o'er the brake so wild and fair,
The betel waves his crest in air.
With pendant train, and rushing wings,
Aloft the gorgeous peacock springs;
And he, the bird of hundred dyes,
Whose plumes the dames of Ava prize.-
So rich a shade,-so green a sod,
Our English fairies never trod;
Yet who in Indian bower has stood,
But thought on England's "good green wood;"
And bless'd, beneath the palmy shade,
Iler hazel.and her hawthorn glade ;
And breathed a prayer (how oft in vain !)
To gaze upon her oaks again.

A truce to thought ! the jackal's cry
Resounds like sylvan revelry;
And, through the trees, yon failing ray
Will scantly serve to guide our way.
Yet, mark! as fade the upper skies,
Each thicket opes ten thousand eyes :-
Before, beside us, and above,
The fire-fly lights his lamp of love,
Retreating, chasing, sinking, soaring,
The darkness of the copse exploring;
While, to this cooler air confest,
The broad dhatura bares her breast,
Of fragrant scent, and virgin white,
A pearl around the locks of night!
Still as we pass, in softened hum, .
Along the breezy alleys come
The village song,—the horn,—the drum.-
Still as we pass, from bush and brier,
The shrill cigala strikes his lyre;
And, what is she whose liquid strain
Thrills through yon copse of sugar-cane ?
I know the soul-entrancing swell!. is
It is-it must be-Philomel !

Enough! enough! the rustling trees
Announce a shower upon the breeze. -
The flashes of the Summer sky
Assume a deeper, ruddier dye;
Yon lamp that trembles on the stream
From forth our cabin sheds its beam;
And we must early sleep, to find,
Betimes, the morning's healthy wind.
But oh! with thankful hearts confess
E'en here there may be happiness;
And He, the bounteous Sire,-has given
His peace on earth-his lope of heaven !

Візное НЕВЕ.

AN EVENING WALK IN BENGAL. Our task is done! o'er Gunga's breast The sun is sinking down to rest ; And, moored beneath the tamarind bough, Our bark has found its harbour now. With furled sail, and painted side, Behold the tiny frigate ride. Upon her deck, 'mid charcoal gleams, The Moslem's savoury supper steams; While, all apart, beneath the wood, The Ilindoo cooks his simpler food. Come, walk with me the jungle through ;If yonder hunter tell us true, Far off, in desert dank and rude The tiger holds his solitude ; Nor (taught by recent harm to shun The thunders of the English gun), A dreadful guest, but rarely seen, Returns to scare the village green.Come boldly on ! no venomed snake Can shelter in so cool a brake;

The most lasting families have only their seasons, more or less, of a certain constitutional strength. They have their Spring and Summer sunshine glare, their wane, decline, and death; they flourish and shine, perhaps, for ages; at last they sicken: their light grows pale, and, at a crisis when the offsets are withered, and the old stock is blasted, the whole tribe disappears. There are limits ordained to everything under the sun. Man will not abide in honour. Of all human vanities, family-pride is one of the weakest. Reader, go thy way; secure thy name in the book of life, where the page fades not, nor the title alters nor expiresleave the rest to heralds and the parish register.BORLASE.

Men should consider, that the more they enjoy, they are accountable for so much the more; and as they are capable of doing the more good, so by neglecting these opportunities, they expose themselves to the greater punishments.-BISHOP CONYBEARE.

POPULAR LEGENDS AND FICTIONS. that the Scandinavians believed in elemental intelli- VII.

gences. Earth sent her spirits in the form of giants ; TUTELARY SPIRITS.

the sylphs of the air appeared as birds; by the bull,

water is evidently typified; and the dragon proceeded The household gods of the ancients were the Lares from the spheres of fire. and Penates, and Genii. The first, according to the notions which prevailed in those days of paganism,

FIRE SPIRITS. presided over the highways, the conservation of public | HECLA, a burning mountain in Iceland, is in some safety, and also over private houses, in most of which degree connected with the Scandic mythology. This the Romans had a particular place called Lararium, | baleful mountain could not fail to be deemed the wherein were deposited the images of their domestic resort of the spirits of fire, known by tradition in gods, and the statues of their ancestors. Of the Scandinavia. Their great opponent was Luridan. It Penates, the deities who also presided over new-born was written in the “ Book of Vanagastus the Norinfants, there were three classes or ranks; those

wegian," that Luridan the spirit of the air « travels at who presided over empires and states; those who the behest of the magician to Lapland, and Finmark. had the protection of cities; and those who took

and Skriefinia, even unto the Frozen Ocean. It is the care or guardianship of private families. The his nature to be always at enmity with fire," -and latter, who were called the lesser Penates, and were

he wages continual wars with the fiery spirits of the placed in the utmost recess of the house, (thence mountain Hecla, called Penetrale,) were reckoned so sacred, that the

In the contest they do often extirpate and destroy one expression of driving a man from his Penates was

another, killing and crushing when they meet in mighty used to signify his being proscribed, or expelled his and violent troops, in the air and upon the sea. At such country.

time many of the fiery spirits are destroyed when the enemy Some writers do not make any distinction between hath brought them off the mountain to fight upon the water: the Genii and the Penates, or Lares; but they were

on the contrary, when the battle is on the mountain itself,

the spirits of the air are often worsted; and then great very different. The ancients assigned to everything

mournings and doleful noises are heard in Iceland, and its guardian or peculiar genius; cities, groves, foun

Russia, and Norway, for many days after. tains, hills, were all provided with keepers of this

Amongst the known spirits of the sphere of fire, kind, and to each man they allotted no less than

Jack-with-the-Lantern, whom Milton calls the Friar, two,-one good the other bad, who attended him

and Will-with-the-Wisp, must not be forgotten. Acfrom the cradle to the grave. The Greeks called

cording to a monkish Chronicle of the Abbey of them demons. They were represented under various

Corvey, brother Sebastian was seduced by one of these figures, such as those of boys, girls, old men, and

pretended sprites, on the mystic eve of St. John, in even serpents. The sacrifices offered to these

the year 1034, as he was returning home in the evendivinities were wine and flowers, to which they

| ing, from a neighbouring village; and on the following sometimes joined incense, parched wheat, and flour; occasionally the victim was a swine, though animal

day brother Sebastian died.

Among some of the German peasants, it is still offerings to them were not usual. The images were

believed, with reasonable consistency, that Willcrowned with wreaths from the plane-tree, a tree

with-the-Wisp is of a very fiery temper, and easily consecrated to the genii.

offended. They have a spatt-reim," or mocking The Scandinavians, like other ancient nations,

verse, which, they say, sorely vexes him when he cherished a belief in the existence of tutelary spirits. The Icelanders indeed professed to be pecu

happens to be near it:

Heerwisch! ho! ho! ho ! liarly grateful to them for defeating the enterprise

Brenst wie haberstroh of Harold Gorman, king of Norway, who, as we are

Schag mich blitzeblo ! told in his Saga, was desirous of learning the internal

About thirty years ago, says one of their legends, a state of the island, upon which he longed to wreak

girl of the village of Lorsch wantonly sang out this his vengeance, and to that intent bade a skilful |

rhyme whilst Will was dancing over the marshy troldman, or magician, to proceed thither, in such

meadows: instantly he followed the maiden; she a shape as might best conceal him. The magi

ran homewards as fast as her legs could carry her, cian changed himself into a whale, and swam

vainly striving to escape the spiteful goblin; but just to the island; but the rocks and mountains

as she was crossing the threshold of the door, Will were covered with opposing landvatten, or guardian

flew in after her, and struck every person in the room spirits, who prepared to defend their trust. The

with his fiery wings so violently, that they were stunned magician, nothing daunted, swam to Vaporaford,

by the shock. and attempted to land; but a huge and hideous

With this electric demon may also be classed the dragon unwreathed his folds down the sides of the

fire-demons, who, it has been pretended, point out rock, and was followed by innumerable serpents, spit

concealed treasures by playing in livid flames on the ting venom against the intruder. The whale could not

surface of the ground, or over the sepulchral mound; oppose them, and swam westward to Oreford; but

the trolds who light the graw-fire, and the warden there came down a bird whose wings extended athwart

spirits who wrap the dungeon-tower of the castle the bay, followed by countless flocks of spirits in the

| of Kufstein in lambent fire. same shape; and when he attempted to enter Budaford, on the southern coast, a mighty bull rushed

THE NORTHERN LIGHTS. down and waded into the sea, roaring tremendously, When the Aurora Borealis, or Great Northern and the guardian spirits of Budaford accompanied Lights, beamed through the sky, the Scandinavians their leader. The unwearied whale now swam to hailed the “holy light," as it is still called in Norway; Vrekanskinda ; there he beheld a giant coming to for they believed that it announced the approach of meet him, whose head ranged over the very summit the Valkyrs, the maids of Slaughter, proceeding from of the snow-clad mountains. He was armed with Valhalla, to summon the warriors to the feast of an iron club, and a crowd of gigantic spirits followed Odin. Their old chroniclers pretended to see in these him to the shore.

beautiful appearances fiery armies, flaming spears, This fable is worthy of notice, because it proves and blazing swords, and to be appalled by the por

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