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From another specimen, the stone appears to be agate of a

CROWNS AND CORONETS. milky hue, semipellucid, and strikes fire. The vein from All nations, even in the early stages of civilization, which it appears broken off, is one inch and a quarter thick. A third specimen contained a portion of cornelian have attached great importance to outward marks of partially crystallized, a fragment of chalcedony, and a frag- dignity, for the purpose of distinguishing the most ment of a crystal of white quartz."

worthy of the community from his fellow-countryNauwai,- A canoe; Pupa, Bark, also a canoe, Kuttal,

The most ancient of these emblems of honour another species, also a canoe. The canoes are made of

were wreaths of flowers, or leaves, worn as a kind of one sheet of bark taken whole from the tree and softened with fire, when they are tied up in a folded point at each chaplet round the head. With these simple ornaend; a quantity of earth forms a hearth, on which they ments, the head of the priest, the conqueror, or the roast their bait and fish, when out fishing.

bride at her 'nuptials, was decorated. The principal Ngór-ro, Pum-me-ri, Yo-nei, -Species of grass-tree; materials employed for this purpose were the leaves the stems of which form their spears, cemented together of ivy, of laurel, or if the occasion was the celeat the ends by the resinous substance which exudes from bration of the festival of some heathen deity, such the root, until they become from eight to twelve feet long: Aowers as were more peculiarly dedicated to its serA hard wood forms the last joint, in which is cemented a splinter of pointed bone, forming a barb. It is a deadly vice, as, for instance, fig. 3, of grapes and vineweapon, thrown by a lever nearly four feet long, held in the leaves, worn in honour of Bacchus, the heathen god hand with the poised spear.

of wine. Animals that were slaughtered for sacrifice Nung-ngún, - A song. There are poets among them who were also decorated with wreaths and garlands. By compose songs, which are sung and danced to by their own degrees imitations in metal were substituted for tribe in the first place; after this other tribes learn the natural wreaths; and thus at length, the tiara, the song and dance, which itinerate from tribe to tribe throughout the country, until from change of dialect, the coronet, and the crown, were invented. very words are not understood correctly by distant blacks. Among the Greeks and Romans, the different kinds

Pun-ti-mai,-A messenger, an ambassador. These are of coronets given to conquerors and others, were regenerally decorated with the down of the swan or hawk on duced to a regular system. Thus there was the their heads when on an embassy. They arrange the time, Corona agonothetarum, formed of laurel-leaves, given place, and manner of engagement in battle; or when to the victor in athletic exercises; the Corona aurea, punishing a supposed offender or real aggressor.

They bring intelligence of the movements of hostile tribes, or

the golden crown, (fig. 5,) the reward of very great the last new song and dance. When they travel at night, bravery; the Corona castrensis for the warrior who a fire-stick is always carried by them as a protection first entered the enemy's camp; the Corona muralis against “ the powers of darkness;" or evil spirits, of which for him who first scaled the walls of a fortress; with these savages are in continual dread. Tur-rur-ma,-An instrument of war, called by Europeans honourable than the Corona civica, the civic crown,

many others, among which none was considered more Boomering, of a half-moon shape, which when thrown into the air, revolves on its own centre, and returns, forming a

(fig. 4). Among the Romans, this was the highest circle in its orbit from and to the thrower; to effect which military reward, and was bestowed upon the man it is thrown against the wind; but, in war, it is thrown who had saved the life of a citizen; it bore the against the ground, which it strikes in its revolution, and inscription, Ob civem servatum, that is, on account of a rebounds apparently with double violence, and hits at citizen preserved : it was made of oak-leaves. He random some distant object, wounding severely with its whose life had been saved, presented it, at the comsharpened extremities. Tir-ril,—The tick a venomous insect in this country, mand of his leader, to his preserver, whom he was

Other which destroys young dogs, pigs, lambs, cats, &c., but is thenceforward bound to honour as a father. not fatal to man. It is exactly similar in size and shape to marks of honour were also bestowed on its possessor. the English tick, but its effects are soon discovered by the At the theatre, he wore the crown, and was assigned animal which is attacked becoming paralyzed in its hind a seat next to the senators : at his entrance the quarters : sickness comes on, and death generally follows whole audience rose up to testify their respect, &c. in two or three days after the paralysis has taken place. In the three last cases which occurred to some lambs, two

Another crown, or chaplet, the Corona obsidialıs, table-spoonsful of common salt were administered with a (fig. 2,) was presented to him who first brought relief successful result.

to a besieged city: it was formed of some plant that Tem-bi-ri-be-en,-The death-adder. The usual remedy bore seed fit for human food; as, for instance, corn, with the Aborigines for the bite is suction; but a case millet, &c.; that made of wheat (fig. 1.) was worn occurred not long since, in which a young girl was bitten on the occasion of a harvest-home. by the venomous adder; her father sucked the wound, and both died immediately.

The kingly crown was at first merely a golden As one step, under Providence, of substituting most'ancient of these is the crown of Constantine, or of

circle, at times decorated with precious stones; the “pure and undefiled Religion” for these manifold Lombardy, (fig. 9,) commonly called the iron crown. delusions, (the fruits of human folly and corruption,) that of presenting to the ignorant Australian islanders This celebrated crown (says Mr. Duppa,) is a broad a GRAMMAR, and a portion of the Gospel in their own

circle of gold set with large rubies, emeralds, and saptongue, will, it is hoped, be most beneficial. It is

phires. It is kept in the cathedral of Monza, in an orna

mented cross, deposited over an altar, closely shut up with almost impossible to gain any effectual hold on weak

folding-doors of gilt brass. It is composed of six equal and darkened minds, unless we can communicate pieces of beaten gold, joined together by close hinges; and with them on terms of ease and confidence. To do the jewels and embossed gold ornaments are set in a this, nothing is more likely to contribute than to be ground of blue and gold enamel, which to me was income acquainted with the language in which they were teresting, as it exhibited an exact resemblance to the born, and the peculiar errors with which their minds workmanship of the enamelled part of a gold ornament,

now in the Ashmolean museum, which once belonged to are beset : for thus, when managed by prudent king Alfred, and is the most curious piece of antiquity in hands, the weapons of Christian truth may become that museum. But for those who have an appetite for "mighty through God, to the pulling down of relics, the most important part of this crown is a narrow strong-holds, casting down imaginations, and every riin of iron, which is attached to the inside of it

. This high thing that exalteth itself against the knowledge rim is about three-eighths of an inch broad, and a tenth of God, and bringing into captivity every thought of an inch thick, said to have been made out of one of the

nails used at the crucifixion of our Saviour. The crown to the obedience of Christ.",

is said to have been presented to Constantine by his mother, the empress Helena; and the sacred iron ring was to protect him in battle,


Agilulf, king of Lombardy, was the first person of an 'archbishop; that of a bishop is of the same crowned with it, in 590. Charlemagne wore it at his form, but without the strawberry-leaves. coronation, in 774, and Napoleon received the same The crowns worn in former times by the kings of honour in 1805, when installed king of Italy; at England, have varied much in form and material. this time he established the order of the iron crown, The Saxon kings had a crown consisting of a simple which is still acknowledged by the emperor of Austria. fillet of gold. Egbert improved its appearance by

The tiara, or “triple crown of the Pope of Rome, placing on the fillet a row of points or rays, and (fig. 6,) is of very singular construction; it is shaped after him, Edmond Ironside tipped these points with like a high cap, surrounded by a series of three pearl ; William the Conqueror had on his coronet coronets or crowns; the towering shape of the tiara points and leaves placed alternately, each point being seems to have been in imitation of a cap formed of tipped with three pearls, while the whole crown was wool, called an infula, which was worn by the Greek surmounted with a cross. William Rufus disconand Roman priests when performing a sacrifice. It is tinued the leaves. Henry the First had a row of supposed, that Constantine the Great, in the fifteenth fleur-de-lis; from this time to Edward the Third, the century, presented the Pope with a golden crown, crown was variously ornamented with points and which the latter united with the cap. In 1303, fleur-de-lis, placed alternately; but this monarch Boniface the Eighth, then Pope, is said to have added enriched his crown with fleur-de-lis and crosses a second coronet, as a sign of power over temporal, alternately, as at present. Edward the Fourth was as well as spiritual matters; while the third coronet, the first who wore a close crown, with two arches of which brought the tiara to its present form, was gold, embellished with pearls; and the same form, added by Urban the Fifth, who died in 1370. It is with trifling variations, has been continued to the not known with any certainty on what account this present day. The English crown of our engraving, triple form was assumed. Some believe it was to indi- is called the “St. Edward's crown," and was made cate their power over the three parts of the globe which in imitation of the ancient crown said to be worn by. were then known, namely, Europe, Asia, and Africa. that monarch, kept in Westminster Abbey till the

The engraving contains representations of four beginning of the civil wars in England, when, with kingly crowns of modern times; fig. 11, is the the rest of the regalia, it was seized and sold in British crown, worn at the coronation of George the 1642. It was prepared for the coronation of Charles Third ; a crown of a somewhat different shape has the Second, and is embellished with pearls and prebeen employed since then, but in all heraldic repre- cious stones, as diamonds, rubies, emeralds, sapphires, sentations that in the engraving is copied; fig. 10, and has a mound of gold on the top, enriched with a the French crown ; fig. 8, the crown of Austria ; | fillet of the same metal, covered also with precious fig. 7, that of the emperor of Russia.

stones. The cap is of purple velvet, lined with white The different orders of nobility beneath that of the silk, and turned up with ermine. king are distinguished by the various crowns. Fig. A small crown formed of very rich materials, has, 12, is that of the prince of Wales; fig. 13, a duke ; since that time, been made for each king and queen fig. 14, a marquess; fig. 15, an earl; fig. 16, a vis- at their coronation, to be worn at the dinner. count; fig. 17, a baron, Fig. 18 represents the mitre

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dissatisfaction to the rest of the canton; and in the

revolutionary ferment which agitated Switzerland as IN SWITZERLAND.

well as other countries of Europe in the latter part Bern, the capital of the canton of the same name, of 1830, its removal was demanded. A new constiis one of the largest and most populous towns in tution was completed by the middle of the following Switzerland. Its origin is altogether modern : it was year; extensive popular changes were made,--the founded in the year 1191 hy Berthold the Fifth, duke representative system was placed on a new footing, of Zähringen, who designed it as an instrument for the members of the council were elected by the town repressing the refractory spirit of his nobles. Upon and country districts, according to their population, his death, in 1218, it was elevated to the rank of an and the last remnant of the ancient supremacy of imperial city by the emperor Frederic the Second, the burghers of Bern was entirely obliterated. who, besides conferring upon the inhabitants many The situation of Bern is remarkable. It stands considerable privileges, is said to have also compiled upon the left bank of the rapid Aar, which sweeps in for them a legislative code, which served for a long a sudden bend round three of its sides; the fourth time subsequent as the basis of their civil laws. By opens towards the west, upon the neck of the little the charter, or bull, which he then granted, the ma- promontory thus formed, and is fortified. The rocky gistrates and the coruncil of government were chosen bed of the river is much below the level of the town in a general assembly of the citizens, every one of and its steep, craggy banks, serve for a considerable whom possessing a house in the town had a vote. distance as a natural rampart. Placed in this elevated

In the course of time, the citizens were divided into position, Bern is seen to great advantage, especially four tribes, or guilds, each headed by a “ banneret," or from the opposite side of the Aar. standard-bearer, whose office was one of considerable

As we descended the hill to the bridge, (says a modern dignity, and who was enabled to exercise great influ- writer,) it stood out brightly on its beautiful peninsula ; ence at the elections. The burghers, as a body, did houses and trees, churches and gardens, hanging one abore not long retain their political privileges; the members another, like the sunny terraces of Italy, all blended in of the council came gradually to hold their functions harmonious confusion, while the rushing Aar, green and for life, and to fill up all vacancies in their number beautiful, swept proudly round its base, encircled in its

turn by sloping banks full of the bland and pastoral from a few powerful families, without reference to the character of beauty which marks its sweet vicinity. We general assemblies. At an early period of its history were cheated out of the silver Alps by a mountain of Bern was involved, after the custom of the middle clouds, which very ungenteelly put its wool-packs in the ages, in constant broils with the feudal lords in its way; but the picture sustained itself

, and superbly too, neighbourhood. Some of these, indeed, became

even without those powerful auxiliaries. burghers of the rising city, and thus eventually ob- The canton of Bern is remarkable for the excel. tained a share in its governinent; but others struggled lence of its roads. Simond describes them as reagainst it to the extent of their power, till in the end sembling the best of England, and as being wider, they were all defeated. Their territories passed suc- The principal road leading to the capital is a superb cessively into the hands of the conquerors, either by causeway planted with lime-trees, which in the sum. sale or surrender ; and the authority of the city being mer season impart a delightful perfume to the air: thus extended, its governors became the rulers of a the magnificence of this entrance is thought to detract comparatively large and populous state.

from the effect produced by the first view of the town The rising strength of Bern excited the jealousy of itself. It seems to denote the vicinity of a large city, the empire scarcely a century after its foundation. and when “quiet, unpretending Bern develops its Rodolph of Hapsburg, the founder of the House of steep streets and cloistered colonnades," a feeling of Austria, and his son Albert the First, strove in vain disappointment may be experienced. Simond says to humble it; and the defeat of the emperor, Louis that the impression of a stranger on entering Bern is the Fifth (of Bavaria), in 1339, served only to con

that it is an ancient and extensive city ; yet before solidate its power, and raise it to the first rank among the twelfth century it had not a name, and its size and the states of Western Helvetia. A few years after population are still comparatively insignificant. wards it was adınitted into the Swiss confederation, It is a republic; yet it looks kingly. Something of of which it eventually became the largest and most Roman majesty appears in its lofty terraces; in those massy populous canton. Its last conquest was that of the arches on each side of the streets ; in the abundance of Pays de l'aud, which was wrested from the Duke of magnificent avenues of trees. The very silence and absence

water flowing night and day into gigantic basins; in the Savoy in 1536, in consequence of an attack made by of bustle, a certain stateliness and reserved demeanour in him upon Geneva, the ally of Bern. From that the inhabitants, by showing it to be not a money-making time forward, the various acquisitions of territory town, implies that its wealth springs from more solid and which the city had made, remained peaceably annexed permanent sources than trade can afford, and that another to it, and quietly governed by baillis, chosen from spirit animates its inhabitants. In short, of all the first among the members of the council

, until the changes being a Roman town would be nearer right than any other.

sight impressions and guesses about Bern, that of its brought about by the French revolution, and the Luxury at Bern seens wholly directed to objects of public triumphs of Buonaparte. A French army entered utility by the side of those gigantic terraces, of those fine the canton in 1798, and met a brave resistance ; but fountains and noble shades, you see none but simple and the government being destitute of energy and decision, solid dwellings, yet scarcely any beggarly ones ; not an the enemy penetrated to the capital, which they equipage to be seen, but many a country wagon coming to plundered in their usual manner. Henceforward,

market with a capital team of horses or oxen. the absolute supremacy of the city as the ruling Reminiscences of the Rhine, &c.) strike a stranger on

Two things (says another writer, the author of Slight power of the whole cauton ceased. By the constitu- approaching Bern. The first is the marked attention paid tion of 1815, the country districts obtained the power to the wants and comforts of the humbler classes of society, of returning, through the agency of electoral colleges, for whom the path seems smoothed, the benches placed, ninety-nine out of the two hundred and ninety-vine the shelves to rest their loads upon arranged with paternal members of the sovereign council; two hundred

care. Nothing here is magnificent except the roads, which being still chosen from among the burghers of Bern, highest order ; but everytning denotes an equality of com

are broad and noble, shared by fine trees, and kept in the by a commission of the council itself. Yet this pre- forts. The pageantry with which an absolute governm.ent ponderance on the part of the city was a source of (however narrow may be its sphere of action,) loves to

surround itself is here dispensed with. There are ferr | turned to this spot while I remained in Bern, and contemearriages--no shows--I believe no theatre (this is a mis- plated this magnificent amphitheatre in all the varieties take); but (and this is the second point that fixes the lent to it by the different lights and hues of morning, noon, stranger's attention) instead of the pompous trappings of and evening, and so vivid and pleasing are my recollections an arrogant aristocracy, the eye is recreated by the sight of of the hours I spent there, that were I asked to enumerate a happy population, well fed, well dressed, well lodged, the advantages of different spots as to places of residence, and having an air of contentment about them indicative of I should certainly bear this platform in mind. Many other the absence of anxiety.

cities have fine promenades, and pointes de vue, as the Bern is justly accounted one of the neatest cities French call them; but then an hour or two, perhaps, is of Europe; regularity without monotony is its cha- required to get at them; whereas one may walk from any racteristic. The principal streets are broad, and of part of Bern to the platform in ten minutes. the length of the town from east to west, in which

The mountains here spoken of are the Bernese Alps; direction they run parallel to each other, and not they present one of the most interesting objects in quite straight, according to Coxe, but gently curved; nature. At a distance of forty miles, the whole quarter * I do not recollect many streets in England,” says

of the horizon from south to west is terminated by a Mr. Inglis, “superior to the Grande Rue of Bern.”

bold outline of extraordinary forms, rude and strange, This regular disposition of the city has not been the perhaps, in themselves, yet blending in perfect hargradual work of time, but it is to be traced to a very mony. Every instant is marked by a change of early period; Bern was rebuilt on its present plan scene, every hue is successively displayed, till the after its entire destruction by fire in 1405.

The whole central chain of the Alps, so lately burning under streets are abundantly supplied with fountains deco- the level rays of the setting sun, presents only a sucrated with an extensive variety of appendages, and cession of pale and livid forms sinking into night. often presenting the oddest appearance imaginable,

It is at first difficult (says Simond,) to account for the with their “stiff warriors, grogram dames, and alle

new and lively interest a knowledge of the names of these gorical conundrums which might puzzle even Spenser this implies a knowledge of their geography or respective

mountains adds to the contemplation of the prospect, but himself.” The houses are generally lofty and hand. positions which at once explains shades of colour and of some, their material being stone, and their style of distinctness unnoticed before, and enables us to mark the building uniform. Most of the streets have arcades, hidden lake or deep valley by the scarcely perceptible vaaffording a sheltered communication with the shops. pour rising between these distant ridges. Thus it is botany These " side-galleries" (says Simond,) are the prototypes mineralogy to the contemplation of heaven and earth.

adds to the pleasure we receive from plants, astronomy and of the Palais Royal at Paris, and of several new construc. tivns in that capital and in London, as they were originally Among the public buildings of Bern, besides the imitated froin the Lombard towns, which, from their supe. cathedral, we may particularize two large hospitals, rior state of civilization, were the models of the Imperial--the Burgerspital, or Burgher Hospital, and the torns of Germany and Switzerland as to architecture and Inselspital, or Island Hospital. There is a noble municipal institutions; therefore they should not be too severely criticised: the pillars indeed are too massy, and

edifice of freestone, serving as a prison and house of the arches are too low for the shops to have sufficient light correction; it is the largest of its kind in Switzerand air. Covered ways screening passengers from the land. The Town Hall is a lumbering mass of anti. Winter storms seem absolutely requisite in a situation like quity, and the Corn Magazine, which rests upon that of Bern, elevated to more than 1700 feet above the pillars, a large and splendid building. The Library, level of the sea; they would scarcely be less useful in a

the Museum, the Arsenal, the Theatre, or Hotel de tropical climate, and their convenience is so obvious in all climates, that they will be adopted in time all over Europe.

Musique, the Casino upon the Platform, and some

charitable institutions besides those mentioned, all The public buildings of Bern require little in the way of description, though Coxe says that they are

contribute to that general air of neatness and elebuilt “in a noble simplicity of style, and announce

gance which pervades the city. The Museum conthe riches and grandeur of this republic." At the

tains sone excellent models of the Alps. Before

the invasion of the French, the Arsenal was well head of them stands the münster, or cathedral," a

stocked with arms and ammunition for 60,000 men, noble piece of Gothic architecture,” according to the same writer—which dates from the rebuilding of

Coxe says; they emptied it, of course, at the same the town in the early part of the fifteenth century.

time that they plundered the treasury of more than All that need be said of it is, that it has an unfinished 30,000,000 of francs in gold and silver. There are

two barrières, which are spoken of as handsome steeple-some curious sculpture in the chief entrance and some fine painted glass in the windows. But

structures ; near one of them, that of Aarberg, is the terrace on which it stands deserves more notice.

the bürenyraben, or bear-ditch, in which a family of This is an artificial platform (the Plateforme, indeed, bears has been constantly maintained at the expense is its name), raised at a great expense, more than a

of the state for some hundred years. hundred feet above the river at its base, and planted tains on its parapet-wall

, which is 108 feet in

One of the many terraces adorning the town conwith noble chestnut trees, The chief attraction, however, of the Plateforme, height, an inscription recording a singular accident,

which happened there about the iniddle of the and that which has rendered it the favourite walk of the inhabitants, is the magnificent view which it seventeenth century. A young student having

mounted a horse, which was grazing on the terrace, affords,-a view, which as Coxe observes would be most striking anywhere, but the effect of which is his companions frighted the animal, and caused it to greatly heightened when seen from the midst of a leap over. The horse was killed, but though the im

prudent rider had several limbs broken, he survived. large town. Tourists speak of it with rapture.

Looking over (says Simond), we observed that the wall The Aar (says Mr. Inglis,) sweeps in a noble stream below, gardens in terraces hang upon the bank, which for projects gradually below, forming an inclined plane, which, a mile in length presents a beautiful declivity, covered with though, little deviating from the vertical, must lave re

tarded the fall. As if there was something catching in it, fruit-trees, and evergreens, and weeping willows, and enamelled with the dyes of a thousand flowers. Beyond and employed in sweeping the terrace with other prisoners,

a woman condemned to the wheel-barrow for some crime, the river the eye ranges over a country rich in every kind

took her opportunity and jumped over at the same place of verdure, sprinkled with villages, and thickly studded

two years ago, but she was killed on the spot. with white houses and cottages; and beyond stretches the vast line of mountains, their summits distinguishable from

The practice here alluded to of employing convicts the clouds only by their greater purity. I frequently re- in chains to clean the streets, existed till lately in

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