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The commerce of Russia is almost entirely in the die away, it is gathered and eaten by many of the products of its soil, and these products are highly half-savage tribes of the empire. important, because they are precisely of that class

Of equal importance with the culture of hemp, which is essential to the wants of mankind in general.

is that of flax, which is raised in large quantities, and Among these, hemp and flax are conspicuous, being is of an excellent quality. In many districts, the cultivated to a larger extent in that country than in

flax-grounds are as extensive as the corn-lands. It any other. Russian hemp is considered the best that is principally cultivated, as hemp also is, in what is grown. English hemp, indeed, is said to be supe

may be called the central part of European Russia. rior to it; but we raise very little of it, because the In the districts near the Kama, the finest Valachian land in our country can be turned to much better

flax is raised; Pallas says, that on the borders of that account in the culture of other articles. In the vast river, it grows to the height of seven spans, and yields and thinly-peopled district of Russia, however, the a far better yarn than the common sort. Both the culture of hemp is profitable ; and so long as the common and the Siberian flax, are found frequently

Intains its superiority, and the wild, the former in the Steppes, about the northern soil cannot be employed with more advantage, its | Ural, and the latter, on the shores of the Volga. culture to a very large extent will continue.By Many species of nettle, yielding fibres like those of comparing," says Mr. Tooke, “the enormous con

hemp and flax, are also found growing wild to a very sumption of this necessary material in the empire large extent ; from some of them, the half-savage itself with the great quantity which is annually tribes obtain a yarn, which they weave into a kind of shipped off, it is manifest, beyond all doubt, that no cloth, destitute, of course, of that strength which the produce of farming, excepting rye, is of greater con

tough fibres of the hemp and flax alone can impart. sequence to industry and trade."

The management of flax, (says Mr. Tooke,) has nothing The wild hemp grows very plentifully in some

peculiar in it; it is picked as elsewhere, cleared from the

seeds, soaked in water, and broken by beating with wooden parts of Russia; it is found in the Ural mountains,

beetles. This product, next to hemp, forms the greatest and in the neighbourhood of the Volga, “principally | article of exportation : a considerable part is wrought up in places where towns have formerly stood.” In the into linens, diaper, canvass, and the like; and even the Autumn, when it has shed its seed, and begins to seeds are exported, both in their natural state, and as oil. VOL. X.

308

In various parts of Russia, hemp seed oil, and flax- | ventures to sleep in the neighbourhood of one, will seed (or linseed) oil, is prepared in very large quan- be affected with headach, and vertigo, and a sort of tities. The process of extracting it is performed drunken dizziness. The most injurious results arise with great simplicity, and for the most part by the from the practice which prevails to a great extent peasants themselves. The seeds are crushed in small among the Russian boors, of soaking the hemp, after oil-mills, in which the moving power is a horse. it is pulled, in the neighbouring rivers, lakes, and

Our engraving illustrates the operation of sorting ponds, in order to perform the necessary operation of and drying hemp and flax in Russia. It is the rotting the substance which surrounds and unites the practice for the peasants to build, adjoining to the useful fibres; the water is spoiled, and the fish in a spot cultivated, a small hut in a circular shape; great measure destroyed. Tooke, speaks of this opposite to it, they level with great care a small spot practice as “a nuisance of such importance, as to of ground, and near this they erect a sort of rack, | call for the interference of the magistracy.” Lepechin, very lofty, with the bars, however, horizontal, instead | one of the companions of Pallas, strongly deprecates of perpendicular. This arrangement answers all the it. After describing the agriculture of the country purposes of sorting, drying, and preserving the hemp on the east of Moscow, and noting the large quantity and flax. They pass the flax through the racks, of hernp and flax which are cultivated, he says :where, being exposed to the air, it dries very fast; on The people of the district pretend, that hemp which is the ground they sort the hemp and seed, and lay the soaked in rivers, in brooks, and in large lakes, is of a very whole up in the hut until it be wanted.

superior quality ; consequently, they will repair with their The hemp.plant is said to be a native of Persia,

hemp to a distance of many miles, to reach a river; but

this method corrupts the waters, and is fatal to the fish. and to have been introduced into the north and east of Europe, over which it is now so generally distri

Yet the process of rotting is much more speedily buted, from some part of the east. We have mention

accomplished in stagnant than in running water. of it, however, as existing in both a wild and culti

The water in which hemp has been rotted, acquires vated state, somewhere in the country lying to the

an excessively disagreeable taste, and an infected north of the Danube, as early as the fifth century

odour. If there are any fish in it, they at first get before the Christian era. Herodotus describes the

intoxicated, and then as the fermentation gradually hemp as growing in Scythia, where he had, in all

absorbs all the oxygen of the water, they at last die. probability, seen it himself.

Not only, however, does the water contract these

hurtful properties, which render it unfit for the uses They have, (he says,) hemp growing in the country, very much resembling flax, except in its thickness and size ;

of man or beast, but, also, there emanate from it but this hemp is much superior to that. It both grows

effluvia, which are very likely to occasion pestilential spontaneously, and is cultivated ; and out of it the Thracians diseases in the neighbourhood. It is on this account, make themselves garments like those of flax. Any one that, in France, the magistrates intrusted with the who was not very well acquainted with it, would not discern care of the public health, have almost universally whether they were of tlax or of hemp; and he who had

forbidden the practice of the operation of rotting never seen this hemp, would think the garment to be of flax.

within the circuit of towns, in the vicinity of any

habitations, and in rivers or running waters, which From Herodotus, we also learn that the Scythians

| are used for drink, either by man or beast. were acquainted with the narcotic properties of hemp,

The process of rotting away the woody from the fibrous and that they used the seed of the plant to obtain a

parts of the plants, 'is of extreme antiquity, (says Mr. sort of intoxicating vapour-bath. He describes with

Barlow,) it being noticed in the Sacred Writings, and minuteness their simple though efficient apparatus ; having been used not only in this country, but on the Conthey placed three stakes in the ground, and around tinent, from time immemorial; notwithstanding which, it them stretched woollen fleeces, so as to form as com has proved extremely detrimental to the health, not only of plete an enclosure as possible; into this they threw

the inhabitants, but of the cattle of the countries in which

it is carried on, to a considerable degree, and is a system red-hot stones, and on the stones they threw the

which, on this account, it would be highly desirable to hemp-seed. A steam was given off, “such as no

abolish. It becomes the source of many pestilential Grecian vapour-bath could have retained ;" this steam diseases, among which, perhaps, the malaria, so prevalent served the Scythians in the place of a bath, for they in the vicinity of Rome and Naples, may be numbered ; were not in the habit of bathing the whole body in besides which, since tlax and hemp ripen about the month water. Its intoxicating nature may be clearly traced

of August, and require to be submitted to this process as in the description of its effects; the Scythians used

soon as they are taken from the ground, or at least, before

they dry, the farmer's attention becomes necessary to them, to roar with delight. Among eastern nations, at the

at a time when it is most valuable, and can least be spared ; present day, hemp is employed, though in a different namely, in the time of, or immediately antecedent to his manner, to produce similar sensations. In the corn-harvest. Hindoo economy, it serves as a substitute for malt, a The operation of rotting hemp. and flax, besides favourite intoxicating liquor, called banga, being pro- being one of some hazard to those engaged in it, is duced from it. The powdered leaves are infused in also one of considerable nicety; for its perfection, and water, with the addition of some species of aromatic; the period when it should cease, depend on several and this decoction produces, when drunk, a drowsy fortuitous circumstances, which may dispose the ecstatic feeling, which is said to be much more agree- woody matter of the stem to decompose with greater able than that brought on by opium. It is a species or less facility. Thus, it will be influenced by the of enjoyment which may be purchased at a small strength or vigour of the plant, the moisture or dryprice ; but it is also one, to which a too-frequentness of the season, the temperature of the air during recurrence will gradually bring on death. This also the process, as well as the soil from which the plant is an use to which it is applied in Egypt. Sometimes was produced. If the operation be carried too far, the leaves are mixed with tobacco for the purpose of not only the woody matter, but the fibres also will be smoking.

destroyed or injured ; and if not far enough, it has So powerful, indeed, is the narcotic secretion con- | generally been thought that the flax will not dress; tained in this plant, that its deleterious effects are | and thus, after a good crop has been produced, it felt even while it is growing in the ground ; and it is may be much injured, if not spoiled, in the incipient said, that a person who remains for any length of stage of its manufacture. The opinion has been time amidst a plantation of young hemp, or who held, that the circumstance of the operation of rot

ting, being to the cultivator one of much nicety and that an attempt was made at the close of Queen hazard combined, has, in all probability, proved a Mary's reign, to establish a colony of English ropemuch greater barrier to the cultivation of hemp and makers, in Russia, as servants of the Russia Com. flax in England, than the alleged exhaustion of soil, pany, then newly established; the plan of manuor any other cause.

facturing the ropes there, instead of bringing the hemp Another operation, likewise injurious to those to England, and manufacturing them at home, was engaged in it, is that which succeeds to rotting; it is adopted, because the charge of freight on the raw the process of breaking and dressing, which consists material was so heavy. We have an exposition of in the separation of what is commonly called the this scheme in the following extract from “a Letter of boon, or woody matter, from the harle, or useful the Company of the Merchants Adventurers to fibres. It may be performed either by machinery or Russia, unto George Killingworth, Richard Gray, by hand ; and in almost all cases, it is effected by a and Henry Lane, their agents there," dated 1557. set of blunt iron teeth or breakers, fixed upon one And whereas you have provided tarre, and as we suppiece of wood, and met by another similar set of | pose some hempe ready bought, our advice is, that in no teeth fixed to a moveable piece, which is worked by wise you send any of them hither unwrought; because our the one hand, while the flax in handfuls is introduced

fraight is four pounds a tunne, or little lesse: which is so

deare as it would not beare the charges : and, therefore, we between these teeth, in various directions, with the

have sent you seven ropemakers, as by the copies of their other hand. During the operation, a remarkably fine

covenants here inclosed shall appeare. Whom we wil you dust is given out, which is thought to be the cause of set to worke with al expedition in making of cables and the maladies to which those engaged in it are very ropes of al sorts from the smallest rope, to xii, inches: and much subject, and which particularly attack their that such tarre and hempe as is already brought to the organs of respiration. The dust, from its extreme

water-side, they may there make it out, and after that, you

settle their worke in Vologhda or Colmogro, as you shall fineness and lightness, being suspended in the air, is

thinke good, where there stuffe may be neerest to them: at inhaled with it into the lungs, where its presence

which place and places you doe assigne them a principall excites a cough more or less violent, and pains in the overseer, as well to see the deliverie of the stuffe unwrought chest, which lead to other more serious affections, as also to take charge of the stuffe wrought, and to foresee such as inflammation of the lungs, under which the that neither the yarne be burnt in tarring, nor the hem pe workmen infallibly sink. Several attempts have

rotted in the watering; and also to furnish them so with

labourers, workmen, and stuffe, as hereafter, when these been made of late years, in this country, to obviate

workman shall come away, we bee not destitute of good the danger and inconvenience arising from the com

workmen, and that these may dispatch as much as possibly mon system of rotting and dressing hemp and flax; they may, doing it substantially · for we esteeme it a prin. but in Russia, and other countries on the Continent, cipal commoditie, and that the Counsel of England doth very little progress has been made in the substitution well allowe. Let all diligence be used, that at the returne of machinery for manual labour.

of these shippes, we may see samples of all ropes and

cables, if it be possible, and so after to continue in worke, Hemp and flax are articles of great commercial

that we may have good store against the next yeere. importance to Russia ; they form a very large item in

Therefore they have neede to have a place to worke in, in the list of her exports. Nine-tenths of the whole the Winter: and at any hand let them have helpe enongh quantity of hemp imported into England, come from to spinne their stuffe; for seeing you have great plenty of Russia ; of flax the proportion is not so large, a con hempe there, and at a reasonable price, we trust we shal siderable supply of that article being obtained from

be able to bring as good stuffe from thence, and better

cheape than that out of Danske; if it be diligently used Prussia and the Netherlands. A more accurate

and have a good overseer. notion will be conveyed by the following details, re

Let the chiefest lading, (the letter continues,) of these lating to the year 1833. The total quantity of hemp four shippes be principally in waxe. Hlaxe. imported into the United Kingdom, was 527,459 cwts., traine-oyle. And if there be any more wares than these of which, 469,959 cwts. were supplied by Russia ; shippes be able to take in, then leave that which is least in the remainder is derived from various other countries,

valew, and grossest in stowage, until the next shipping : in comparatively small quantities, the territories of

for we doe purpose to ground ourselves chiefly upon these

commodities, as waxe, cables, and ropes, traine-oyle, flaxe, the East India Company furnishing 34,008 cwts. Of

and some linen yarne. As for masts, tarre, hemp, feathers, “flax, and tow, or codilla of hemp and flax," as it is

or any such other like, they would not beare the charges to entered in the public accounts, there were imported in | have any, considering our deere fraight. the same period 982,516 cwts.; of which 667,868 cwts. came from Russia, 144,138 cwts. from Prussia,

CHOICE OF COMPANY.-BE very circumspect in the choice 114,191 cwts. from the Netherlands, 31,512 cwts.

of thy company. In the society of thine equals thou shalt from France, and 15,867 cwts. from New South

enjoy more pleasure; in the society of thy superiors thou Wales, Van Diemen's Land, and Swan River.

shalt find more profit; to be the best in the company is the The consumption and importation of hemp have way to grow worse, the best means to grow better, is to be been materially diminished of late years, by the the worst there.-QUARLES. extensive use of iron or chain cables, as well in our commercial marine, as in the royal navy. During ....... HOme is the resort the late war, the price of hemp fluctuated very much;

Of love, of joy, of peace, and plenty, where, and the height to which it rose at times, in conse

Supporting and supported, polish'd friends,

And dear relations mingle into bliss.—THOMSON quence of the difficulties thrown in the way of its importation, was the principal circumstance that originally brought iron cables into use. Their vast

The greatest pleasure in life is the society of a friend, with

whom, in unrestrained exposition of one's thoughts, one superiority in point of strength and durability, has

may unravel and disentangle each skein of knotted presince occasioned their almost universal substitution judice and many-coloured opinion. In such intimacies, *for hempen cables.

however, cultivated exclusively, what Lord Bacon termed When the commerce of England with Russia idola specás are sure to be worshipped. The principles began, hemp and flax were then, as they are now,

may be right, the understanding may be sound, but the

world is viewed from a single point, and to a certain extent among the staple products of the empire. In some

inevitably erroneously. A true estimate of mankind, and papers inserted in Hakluyt's Collection of Voyages,

of the value of human pursuits, can alone be formed by one we find many curious illustrations of the early history ) who corrects his closest speculations by the collective judge of that commerce; among other things, we learn ment of society. Mayo's Philosophy of Living.

308-2

STATE OF RELIGION IN THE

it is, that about thirteen years ago a change came WEST INDIES.

over the spirit of the times. These distant corners I HAVE said elsewhere that it was made a matter of of the empire were regarded with more complacency, debate even in England, and was asserted boldly in and the erring shepherds, and their careless flocks, several instances, that the African was not a human were at last considered worthy of being received into being, but a gradation between man and monkey, the great fold of our Protestant Establishment. Two without any rational soul, and therefore to be classed eminent men were selected, and, after due consecrawith the beasts that perish. Such assertions, how tion, sent out in 1825 as bishops to the West Indies. ever, did not hinder some pious men from proceeding The Windward Islands were made the first See, and to Barbados at a very early period of its settlement; | Jamaica and its dependencies the second. It is of and who accounted it no dishonour to preach to, and the former I am now to speak, and that from personal instruct, the black slaves, and zealously to labour observation, for of the latter I know nothing except amongst them to promote their welfare in this world, from hearsay. and more especially in the next. These men were Of the excellent and pious Bishop of Barbados and ministers of the Church of England, and their labours the Islands I know not well how to write,- for whether were not altogether in vain. Every means, however, we regard him as a man, a minister of the Gospel, or were had recourse to (even to persecution) to banish as the guide and guardian of a Christian Church, he such missionaries from the colony.

is in all respects above praise. With patience, and Though they could no longer deny their humanity, much forbearance, but at the same time with firm, the early planters persuaded themselves, that the lessness, he has overcome many difficulties. - He has their slaves knew of the Gospel of Christ, they would nearly succeeded in removing from the churches be the better fitted for the duties they would require every minister of the old leaven, and has filled up of them; and although the island was divided into their places with men of sound learning and sound parishes, and churches were built for the accom doctrine, men of whom it may truly be said, that they modation of the white population, the clergymen are well calculated to adorn the doctrine of Christ were strictly prohibited from preaching to the blacks. our Saviour, and well qualified to minister in holy On no account could a person of colour be allowed things. to enter any of these churches; and it was not even Churches and chapels are now arising in every permitted that their bodies should be buried within colony, and from the attention which the Bishop has the same enclosure where that of the white man was given to the characters and qualifications of the candicommitted to the earth. Until a very late date, in dates for livings, such only have been selected as are deed, this marked distinction was kept up, though in distinguished for zeal in the good cause, and whose many other respects the slaves were indulged and learning and sound piety are certain of securing to kindly treated.

them that respect and consideration which their sacred Clergymen, as we find, were regularly appointed character so necessarily demands. Already the pastors to the parish churches as they became vacant, the of the Barbados bishopric will bear a' comparison patronage being in the governor of the island; but I | with those of England itself, and more able or pious regret that I am compelled to add, that few indeed of labourers are not to be found in any corner of tho these incumbents (however well-intentioned in the Christian world. Dr. Coleridge's see is divided into first instance,) remained steady in their conduct, or two archdeaconries, the Windward, and the Leeward. showed much zeal for the great cause which they had Archdeacon Eliot resides in Barbados, and Arche undertaken to defend. The young and thoughtless deacon Parry at Antigua. . proprietors of the soil took a delight in making the The Hurricane of 1831 * destroyed and levelled Parson as miserable as possible, until he became as almost every church and chapel in Barbados ; but one of themselves, and was blind to their faults and such have been the indefatigable exertions of the follies. The pious and faithful Christian minister Bishop and his excellent clergy, that not only all was, therefore, obliged to take his departure from the that previously existed have been rebuilt, but several island, and leave the field to some more complying new charges have been established. The want of brother. True and vital religion, in as far as the church accommodation has been long felt, and loudly Established Church was concerned, was long at a complained of, in Great Britain and Ireland; but it dreadfully low ebb; almost any man, during the last was nothing in comparison with what the colonies century, could get ordination for the colonies. Under suffered, when Dr. Coleridge was appointed to the see; such circumstances, I am, therefore, not at all sur. in fact, it had never entered into the imagination of prised, that these colonies were overrun by all de. those who first planted the churches in our colonies, scriptions of sectaries; some, no doubt, moved by a and divided these colonies into parishes, that the sincere desire to spread the truth of the Gospel, black population were of any account in such an while many were more calculated to excite discontent arrangement. They were looked upon, as I have and rebellion amongst an ignorant and superstitious shown, as altogether without the pale of the Church; heathen population, than to sow the seeds of peace consequently, provision was only made for the few and good-will. Their language and demeanour were planters and their families that resided in the district, more likely to confirm error than to explain and together with their white overseers and servants. establish the great truths of the Christian dispensation. No black or coloured persons were allowed to Indeed, it may be said, without much exaggeration, enter the consecrated temples of the Living God. that, for nearly two centuries, there was little of re The good bishop, however, soon made it known, that ligion, and nothing of discipline, in the West India he should consider every class, and all colours, of Church. She seemed abandoned by the mother professing Christians (equal as they were in the sight country as unworthy of even the slightest considera of God,) equally entitled to share in the blessings and tion, while the sectaries were allowed to prosper in benefits of Christ's Holy Gospel;—that the house of their career, doing little good and much mischief. God was open to all, and that every one was invited,

. Whether the planters themselves began to dread nay, commanded, to come and hear that Gospel the effects of unrestrained enthusiasm, or the Church preached. The clergy throughout the diocese were began to rouse herself from her criminal slumber, I

* The author's account of this Hurricane will be quoted on another cannot at this moment positively affirm; but certain occasion.

di fronu

peremptorily commanded to make these sentiments | any rate enabled to hear the Gospel preached. The fully known to all classes of their coramunities, and moment, however, it becomes that regiment's turn of to take care that no authority whatever might con- duty to proceed on service to our West India colonies, travene them without its being reported. A few, and a different state of things commences. I believe but a very few, felt alarmed, at what they While many circumstances are calculated, as it considered worse than high treason itself, or even a , were, to demoralize, and to draw him from the path hurricane; but after a very short time, when they of duty and of moral rectitude, there is not, I believe, found that the canes still continued to grow, and that a single church or chapel throughout the whole of sugar and rum might still be made from them, their the Windward and Leeward command, into which a terrors seemed to subside, and even some of these British soldier has a right to enter,--certainly not one alarmists are not ashamed now to occupy a pew with to which a regiment can be marched to hear the their black servants.

Gospel preached. There is only one regular military More crowded or more devout congregations Ichaplain in the whole command, and he is stationed never witnessed in any country than in Barbados, in Trinidad, where there is no chapel or any conveand in others of the colonies; and it is gratifying to nience whatever for preaching to the military, and observe the progress which many grown-up people where he is compelled to read the morning prayers, have made in the knowledge of the great truths of or a part of them, in the open gallery of the barracks, religion. As to the rising generation, they will be or in the barrack-yard. as well, if not better, educated than the children of In Barbados, where there are seldom fewer than the lower classes in England. The ministers of all 1200 men, and two or three hundred women and denominations of Christians are not less improved in children, a clergyman is hired at seven-and-sixpence a their manners and conduct, than are the members of day, whose chief duty it is to bury the dead, to the Establishment; and indiscreet zeal, and inflam- christen such as may be born, and now and then to matory mysticism, have given place to a pure devo marry an officer or a soldier. He does, indeed, make tion, and the steady inculcation and plain explana every effort to read the morning prayers to the diftion of the great and practical truths of Christianity. ferent regiments from the steps in front of their There is a rivalry, no doubt, kept up, but it is a several barracks, but where, though the men are rivalry of love, and that mutual harmony, that peace formed in as close order as they can stand together, and good-will, which now exist amongst all the not one in fifty can hear a word of what is read, Christian ministers in the West Indies, clearly indi while the powerful rays of the rising sun are drawing cate that the Spirit of all grace is with them, and up around them the noxious vapours, that enter their that their labours are blessed.

empty stomachs, and lungs, and pollute the stream of If it was formerly the duty of the planters (from life. worldly motives and personal interests) to prevent The short time that is passed in this dumb show the spread of religion amongst their black slaves, it of what is called religious duty, (and fortunately it is now much more their duty and their interest to | is short,) is generally productive of several cases of promote it amongst their free negroes, and, indeed, fevers, of one description or another, or of dysen. God, I hope, has opened their eyes and their under- teries, from the men standing on the grass, still wet standings to see this, for every assistance and en with dew. These church-parades, as they are called. couragement is given to the building of churches and are the most fertile sources of the worst hospital schools, and every pains taken to provide the people cases. with proper ministers and teachers.

If the same money had been laid out in building a • There may be individuals, and I regret to say church, at St. Ann's, where the garrison could attend there are some in the West Indies, as in every divine service regularly, that has been spent in building country, who, destitute of all religious feeling and a high wall to separate the barracks on the cast from belief themselves, can see no advantage in teaching a few grog-shops in their rear, it would have been it to their people; but even these have latterly found much more advantageous to the poor soldier's wellthe tide of popular opinion so strong against them, being in this world, to say nothing whatever of his that they have been compelled to remain silent, or peace of mind, and of his soul's salvation in the next: forced to sail with the stream, and I should scarcely It may truly be said, that, during the whole of the be credited, were I able-which I really am not-to ten or eleven years that the soldier is absent in the detail the progress that has been made in moral and colonies, he is compelled to live without God in the religious improvement in the short space of eight or world. No measures whatever are taken to procure ten years.

for him either the conveniencies or the consolations of Writing, as I do, with a view to instruct the unin hearing the word of God preached, or of attending formed of these kingdoms in some few matters that to any one religious duty; how then, I ask, can we may be interesting as regards our colonial policy, I expect that his moral conduct will be correct? In regret that I am compelled to notice, and that, perhaps, the good old times, every regiment had its chaplain, in rather strong terms, the cold indifference which and even during the war, the Duke of Wellington had seems to exist somewhere, with respect to the religious a clergyman attached to every division and brigade of and moral instruction of our soldiers, and their his army; I therefore recommend it seriously to the families, on colonial service. With whom this ne notice of the authorities at the Horse Guards, to conglect originates, or why it exists, I have not yet been sider, whether it would not be better to provide for able to ascertain, but that it does exist I have now to the spiritual wants of our soldiers on service, and show.

more especially in the West Indies, with a little more While a regiment remains at home, that is, in any care and anxiety, and to direct their attention to the part of the United Empire, the soldier is most care procuring of a more nutritive and congenial food, fully: attended to, and all his wants are supplied. and to the means of securing greater personal comHis focd is of the best quality, and abundant infort, than it would be to have recourse always to the quantity. His barrack-rooms are clean, and his bed terrors of the law, and this more especially when it is comfortable; and, whether Catholic or Protestant, has been so fully proved that no species of punishhe is compelled to attend a place of worship 'every ment, however severe or varied in its nature, can Sunday; and, whether he may profit or not, he is at deter soldiers from the commission of crimes, 34 11163" ;

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