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they support does not win the prize, and first pass the goal. / almost entire; as does the spina also. “The pavilion and When the wished-for day of the equestrian games arrives, tower," says Simond, " where the emperor sat, and the other before sun-rise all run headlong to the spot, passing in tower opposite, probably occupied by the judges of the swiftness the chariots that are to run; upon the success of race, are still visible, as well as the spot on the spina where which their wishes are so divided, that many pass the night the Egyptian obelisk, now on the Piazza Navona, once without sleep." Lactantius confirms this account, and stood. ..... The turf of the fine and smooth area was says, that the people often quarrelled and fought from their browzed short by goats, long-haired and white, and innugreat eagerness.

merable birds fluttering among the ivy, which mantled over We have already mentioned the few remains which exist the old walls in hereditary luxuriance, sung the approach of the Circus Maximus. Iu ancient times, there were of Spring." many others within the walls of Rome. Of the Circus The principal dimensions of this circus are as follows:Agonalis, supposed to nave been built by the emperor the length 1630 feet, the breadth 320 feet, the length of Alexander Severus, we may still trace the exact form, as the spina 908 feet, the distance from the carceres to the well as the name, in the modern Piazza Navona. The spina 505 feet. The width of the space between the spina piazza now forms a fine open space, surrounded by build and the inner walls of the circus,-or, in other words, the ings, in which the round end of the circus is fully retained ; width of the race-course, -varies, both because the two long its length is about 750 feet. The great church of St. sides of the circus are not quite parallel, and because the Peter is built upon the site of the Circus of Nero. But spina is always much nearer to the left wall than to the that of which we have spoken as standing without the right one. Between the spina and the right wall the width walls of Rome, about two miles from the Porta S. Sebas-gradually diminishes from 136 feet at the first goal, to 123 tiano, near the Appian Way, is the only one in good pre feet at the second goal; the course then sweeps round the servation. It is commonly called the Circus of Caracalla, second goal, and narrows between the spina and the left but the authority on which the name rests is fairly stated wall, from 109 feet at the second goal, to 98 feet at the by Mr. Mathews. “There is a coin of Caracalla's, with a place where it returns to the first goal. The seats, rising circus on the reverse side ;--here is a circus that wants an in rows one above the other, were supported by an arch: owner;-how easy the inference then, that it must have and in order to lighten the weight of the materials used in been Caracalla's." No proof has yet been obtained, from its construction, large amphore, or round earthen jars, have inscriptions or other sources, that this is the circus built by been employed in the crown of the arch. “Each pot might that emperor, and commemorated on his coins. The fortu- be considered a kind of arch supporting the masonry above: nate accident of being situated at a distance from the city, I and they themselves being hollow, the entire mass supported has, probably, saved it from ruin. The outer wall remains 1 by the arch below was less than if the whole were solid."




LONDON: Published by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, West Strand; and sold by all Booksçllers

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NO 305.



187, 1837.





SKETCHES OF NEW SOUTH WALES. | able, ships of almost any size and tonnage may ride
No. XVI.

close alongside the very walls. So valuable are these SOME ACCOUNT OF SYDNEY AND Port JACKSON,

deep blue waters. A site for a new dockyard was for

some time in contemplation, and I believe it was fixed AND THE COUNTRY TOWARDS BOTANY BAY.

upon, on one of the islands in the harbour towards SYDNEY is situated on the south side of Port the Parramatta River; it was begun some time ago, Jackson, about seven miles west within the head and may now be completed. Of the public works lands. It may be said to be built upon undulatory and buildings upon the suinmit of this elevated point, land, the lowest part being about the centre of the the most conspicuous are, Dawes Battery, which town, and it is almost surrounded on three sides faces eastward and commands the Cove, and a view by water, girded with sloping rocky edges. It is of the whole port; the Signal Staff, &c., a clever con. bounded on the west by Darling Harbour, on the trivance, embracing a complete code of signals, and north by the Government Domain and the Cove, on the the Government Magazine. Houses of various shapes east by Wolomoloo Bay and the Windmill Ridge, and and sizes built mostly of stone, show their white on the south by the Brickfield Hills. These are, how fronts to the shipping, and a quarry on this point, of ever, but the natural boundaries,—they may not be the the most valuable material for building, a durable appointed limits of the town. The streets are tole- freestone*, has for many years supplied the town rably wide, and laid out to run north and south, and with ample means for elegant buildings, and ornaeast and west, intersecting each other at right angles, mental decorations. A delightful public walk extends and the longest extend southward for more than a along the Cove, close to the water, immediately in mile from the harbour. Most of the principal streets front of the Government House and grounds, which are appear like those of an English town, but the side here walled in. It passes over a flight of steps cut walks are not paved. The houses are two and three out of the solid rock, and enters by this way the stories high, some are built entirely of brick, others | Domain, which of late years has also been thrown are fronted with stone, and many have the necessary open to the public for carriages, as well as foot pasluxury of spacious verandahs. The houses and cot- sengers. After ascending the steps, you arrive at a tages in the minor streets have mostly small gardens building called Fort Macquarie, an ornamental work before them, and are built on the ground floor only; of yellow sandstone, consisting of (I believe) an but some of them are neat, elegant, and roomy. | octagon tower and raised battery, whose foundation " The hotels are numerous, and many of them good. is the solid flat rock jutting out into the harbour. The public buildings are mostly exceedingly plain, This tower and battery are accessible only over a and by no means striking in their appearance; nor kind of bridge, built of the same material. It is aldo the churches display any attempt at ornamental together a pretty object on a commanding situation. or tasteful architecture. Elegant and massive por- After entering the Domain, the walk opens into the ticoes of white stone upon plain brick walls, cannot carriage road, which is shaded on either side with be correct. It is unsightly, and the effect of wrong thick and luxuriant indigenous shrubs for some way, taste; such, however, are the decorations of the prin- until it passes the north wall of the Botanical Garden, 'cipal church. The Military Barracks and Square where a bay and harbour opens into view, offering a faces George-street, and has an elevated situation. It prospect of bright waters, and fanciful masses of rock is a long row of yellow-looking buildings, two stories fringed with a variety of beautiful evergreens. in height, with numerous windows, and surrounded The road then continues on toward Wolomoloo by a spacious verandah. The centre of it has an Bay, and turns in rather a sharp angle round what is angular facing, or pediment, on the top, with a called the “ Point," or termination of the Domain. verandah projecting above as well as below, and the Here, there is a seat cut out of a rock, with an inscripmess-rooms are at either end of the building. Some tion upon it, which is called Mrs. Macquarie's chair. of the officers' quarters occupy the north and south It is a delightful spot, from which there is an excelends of the square.

lent view of the harbour. Garden Island, celebrated · The police office, a plain, heavy, brick building, as the burial-place of one or two persons of distincadjoins the market-place; the theatre is also situ- tion, lies off at a little distance from this point. The ated in George-street, the front of which is the royal formation of the island is rather long and narrow, hotel. On the top of this building there used to be but not high : it is covered with shrubs, and rendered an immense windmill, which was taken down by order a pleasing object by having two knolls or rounded of the government. At the remote end of George- hills rising upon it. street is the turnpike gate, and near it, a little off A stranger in the Domain would be struck with the the main road, a building called Carter's Barracks. | remarkable noise of the insects, which keep up an Here prisoners, who are boys, are confined, and incessant loud and shrill buzzing, that can be heard made to work according to their capacities. There a great way off ; and there is a great variety of them is also a treadmill attached, which is generally kept about Sydney of the most beautiful and brilliant going by the bodily exertions of offenders. For order. There are two or three other entrances from merly, all requisitions for drays, carts, bullocks, different quarters of Sydney into the Domain, which, harness, &c., were made at this department, from in short, may be termed a most extensive and elegant

which circumstance it derives its name. It is a shrubbery, almost encircled by water, and the fresh• neat, cleanly-looking building, and kept in excellent ness of the sea air, interwoven with various roads

order. The distilleries and warehouses, both in, and and walks, and accommodated here and there with about the neighbourhood of Sydney, are of large ." Some freestones are formed of particles of sand, cemented dimensions, and are mostly built of brick.

together by different substances, the cementing matter being some. The north-west corner of Sydney is an elevated times siliceous, at others calcareous, and at others, again, formed of

oride of iron. In the first case, the freestone would not suffer from rocky point, projecting out a considerable distance the chemical action of atmospheric influences upon it; while in the (several hundred yards,) towards the Parramatta second, rain-water, containing carbonic acid, would tend to dissolve River, and forms one side of the celebrated Cuve.

the calcareous matter, and deprive the sand of its cement. And in

the third, the action of atmospheric influences would tend to render Government storehouses and dockyard, mercantile the material unsightly, by staining it with iron rust."- De lu herke. warehouses and wharfs. surround the edge of this I am of opinion, that the freestone with which Port Jackson

abounds, is mostly of the latter kind, especially by the water-side, promontory on every side; and, what is most remark but the calca


eous is also found in

seats cut out of the rock,-seats formed of wood, and I walk is shaded with the broad and luxuriant leaf of grass plats to recline upon, with scenery around of the vine, which produces grapes in great abundance water, wood, and rock,- not mountainous or grand, and perfection. In many parts of the colony the but singularly pleasant and refreshing, and, perhaps, vine is being propagated, and the creditable attempts peculiar only to that part of the world.

of several gentlemen have met with the greatest enDarling Harbour and the Domain both afford most couragement. At Regent Ville (the seat of Sir John convenient spots for the healthy and necessary re Lamison,) there are several acres of ground planted creation of bathing. The angular corners formed with a variety of vines, which are under the manageby the irregular indentation of the rocks, are gene- ment of a first-rate gardener, who thoroughly underrally filled with beds of fine white sand*, which stands the cultivation of it. Wine has been made gradually shelves off into deep water. It is generally from this vineyard and sent to England, but I am in such spots that the bathing-places are selected; not aware of the particular sort or quality of it. At for, it must be remarked, that in the neighbourhood Bathurst it has also been cultivated with similar suc. of Sydney there are no beaches fit for bathing; the cess, and the dry soil on many parts of those plains is termination of most of the bays being very shallow, particularly favourable to the growth of the vine, The and the water covered with thick sea-weeds. Many climate is favourable for fruits of every description, families have private and commodious bathing-houses which may be brought to the greatest perfection with erected, and there are many retreats for bathers common care. Peaches grow in orchards as the about the Domain, secluded and sheltered by apple in England, and many make a kind of cider the natural formation of the rocks in a very sin- | from them ; but these trees are generally much neg. gular manner. There is one place in particular, / lected, and, though they produce fruit in abundance, which, though much noted and frequented, is ad- it is of an inferior kind, being small and tough; mirably adapted for the purposes of bathing: it is those, however, that are nurtured in gardens, prosituated on the west side of Wolomoloo Bay, and duce fruit equal in quality to the English peach. may be between 30 and 40 feet of steep declivity There is a great variety of melons in the colony,-a below one of the public roads of the Domain; cano- most desirable fruit in a warm climate ; they thrive pies of overhanging rocks, wild fig-trees, and other wonderfully, and seem to grow without any care or shrubs, conceal people from view, and afford conve- trouble. Oranges and lemons are also plentiful, but nient shelter; underneath which are rude seats of the pine-apple is not much cultivated, which is rock, which also afford additional accommodation. rather surprising; very few attempts have been made There is a curve in the declivity down which stepping to rear this noble fruit, and, consequently, it is very places have been formed; and here the shrubs, from scarce in the colony. The figs and mulberries are the wear and tear of persons going up and down, very fine, and a fruit called the log-not is commonly have disappeared. The rocks at the edge of the reared. Every other English fruit is more or less water have been cleared of their oyster-shells, (the cultivated, but there is not that attention paid geneprincipal source of annoyance in unfrequented spots,) rally to gardening which might be expected in such a and a jetty of flat rock runs out into the deep water luxurious climate. for the swimmer to plunge off, while the sand gently The Sydney market-place is conveniently situated slopes away for the accommodation of the timid. in the centre of George-street, and very commodious

Where there is so much bathing it may naturally buildings have been erected for so necessary a requibe supposed there are good swimmers, and Sydney site to the town. Square stone pillars, of good is celebrated for them. There are many young men height, support the roof, and form spacious and who think no more of swimming out a mile or more roomy colonnades, where fruits and other produce of and back, than a stranger would of taking a walk the country are exposed for sale. that distance, From habit, the exertion is not fatigue Sydney of late years has been considerably ento them, Men and women, boys and girls, all more larged and improved by the grant of allotments, on or less indulge in this healthy enjoyment; and so what was called the Windmill Ridge, east of Wolomuch, indeed, was bathing in fashion at one time, moloo Bay. These were given, I believe, conditionthat it was impossible to walk out any time of the ally, to the principal civil and military officers, who day, by the water-side about Sydney, without being have since built elegant mansions thereon, which are annoyed by bathers in all directions t. This was occupied by their respective owners. deemed incorrect; and a government order was issued Although the land about Sydney is for the most that no person should be allowed to bathe openly, I part sandy, barren, and rocky, yet, as I have stated either in the Domain, or within the precincts of before, it was by nature covered with the most luxuSydney, after six o'clock in the morning, or before riant and beautiful shrubs. Thus, in the case of this six in the evening, without incurring a heavy penalty, land, most of the gentlemen who had grants cleared which order was duly observed by the inhabitants. away, rooted out, and destroyed the whole of the

Experience has already proved, that the vine can indigenous plants upon their ground, leaving it perbe cultivated in the colony with success; and there fectly naked; while one or two, by merely removing appears no reason why New South Wales should those shrubs that were in the way, and the most not, in after-times, become as celebrated for its unsightly, laid out their ground with taste and vintage, as it is in the present day for its superior judgment. It would be absolutely necessary to clear wool. In the Botanical Garden of Sydney, one of away for a garden-piece, but the natural vegetation the walks is ornamented with trellis-work, which must have assisted in laying out the pleasure-ground, supports a light roof. There is a dome at either end whatever might be the desire of the owner. This of the walk, the interior of which is furnished with ridge is somewhat elevated, possesses a commanding seats for the accommodation of visiters. The whole view, and falls away rather abruptly on cither side. • From a late discovery made by a gentleman, it has been ascer

| A good road passes along the summit of it, joining tained that the fine sand in the bays about Port Jackson, and else the South Head road close to the site of the New where, possesses mineral properties for making a peculiar and valu

Gaol, the outer walls of which have been built many able kind of glass.

+ It was not uncommon to see several girls, from eight to twelve | years on a grand scale, but the proposed building years of age, bathing in Darling Harbour in the middle of the day. | within, from some cause or other, has never been I myself have seen them fearlessly plunging off into very deep water, I carried into effect. The principal roads which lead and most of them can dive and swim remarkably well.

from Sydney are, the main road into the interior, offer a cheering and ever-changing prospect; and, through George-street; the road to Botany Bay, and eastward is the open sea, reminding one of home, the South Head road *.

and the grand rocks of the bold headlands. There The principal public buildings which surround this are already several good houses, and building is in. open space are the Prisoners' Barracks, St. Philip's creasing on this road. A new race-course has been Church, and the Supreme Court-House ; all these laid out, a short distance southward of it, and it is are built of brick, and the two last are ornamented very probable that, in a few years, the barren aspect with porticoes of freestone. The Council Chambers of these hills will be changed, and the works of man and Military Hospital form one side of Macquarie- make up for the deficiency of nature. street, which leads southward directly into the Park; 1 The road, before it reaches the South Headland. they are built entirely of plain stone, with spacious descends into a flat, swampy on both sides, and then verandahs all round, both above and below, and they ascends gradually towards the summit. This head. are well situated. A Catholic chapel, also on a land forms the other gigantic feature to the entrance showy plan, has been built on this ground for many of Port Jackson ; and although it is not quite so years, but it has never been completed for the want, high, nor so situated as to appear so strikingly bold I believe, of pecuniary means. It is quite detached as the rock of the North Headland, it must also be from any other building, but badly situated, being considered a majestic barrier. on the slope of the range, so that it does not appear It may be said to partake of the same 'singularity to advantage from the points where it ought. Hyde as the other headlands mentioned in a former paper, Park may be termed the Campus Martius of Sydney. as it is separated from the range leading from Sydney, The military are reviewed here every three months, by a low, sandy flat, connecting a deep bay of the and on certain days. Cricket-playing, and games harbour with a romantic bay of the sea, called Bundi. and exercises of all kinds, daily take place here, and The view of Port Jackson from this headland is very the ground frequently presents a lively and animated fine. There is something altogether about the forma. scene. The road to South Head passes in a straight tion of it, which bids defiance; and it is evident from line through the centre of this public ground, and its natural features, that a system of fortification then turns eastward, up a rising ground, towards could be effected in it, which no other harbour in the the gaol-wall before mentioned; it then continues whole world can equal. It may be rendered perfectly over tolerably level ground along a range, which in impregnable, and there is not a rock in it but which some places falls abruptly, and with broken undula. | may hereafter be turned to account. To point out its tions, towards the harbour. The soil on either side advantages, however, in the position of its headland, is very sandy and barren, and the vegetation poor. | in the bracing of its numerous projecting points, and Trees of stunted growth cover the lateral ranges, its rocky islands,-to show their capabilities of imwhich shoot from this road in a northerly direction provement, and their power of being strengthened by towards the harbour, but on the south side scarcely forts and batteries, as well as the security of an. any trees are seen,-nothing but low bushes and chorage in its different bays and coves, would require numerous swamps. A range of hills are seen, ex- the aid of both naval and military science; but, as tending southward along the coast towards Botany far as regards a mercantile point of view, its advan. Bay, where they terminate ; they are covered with | tages are sufficiently known and valued. loose sand and sombre-looking plants, and the whole Upon a commanding point of the headland is the distance of interjacent country, for about seven Lighthouse, erected during the governorship of General miles, exhibits a barren, naked, and monotonous Macquarie. It is a neat and substantial stone building, appearance. In one of the swamps, not far from the the lamp of which may be about forty feet from the road, and about three miles from Sydney, there is ground. There is also a signal-staff on this point, an excellent spring of water, which is conducted into at no great distance from the edge of the precipice, the town by means of an underground channel and which communicates with the telegraph at Sydney. pipes. This was an undertaking of some years, and Information of ships seen to the northward or southit was supposed that the gentleman who had the ward is instantly given, and the town's.folk are management of it would have failed in his attempt. apprised of a vessel's approach, and know what ship, The difficulty was owing, most probably, to the in- | where from, and the nature of her cargo, long before correctness in taking the first levels, as the ground is she makes her appearance. The signal-staff at Sydvery uneven between the points. At length, how-ney has a yard-arm, whose position is due north and ever, the long-expected water made its appearance in south, similar to the staff on the headland. If, Hyde Park, where there is a pump, which supplies therefore, a ship is seen to the southward, a round, the water-carts daily. Notwithstanding, however, black ball, large enough to be seen at a great distance, the sterile appearance of the adjacent hills, many is hoisted to the south end of the yard; if to the points on this road present a variety of scene and ex-northward, to the north end,--and so on. But the tensive landscape, consequently it is the most fashion- code of signals is very great, and very ingenious, and able and frequented drive in the neighbourhood of require a book of reference to understand and become Sydney. Southward, Botany Bay spreads itself like acquainted with them. This telegraphic communicaa wide enclosed lake, and the high range of the tion is carried on to Parramatta, where there is a Illawarra Mountain and Bulgo Cliff are seen frown- similar signal station in the domain of the governor's ing over the sea coast; westward, Sydney, with its residence. spire and chequered buildings appears in view, and The summit of South Head is entirely destitute of the far-distant summit of the Blue Mountains t.timber, and covered with a rough kind of herbage. To the north, the different bays, islands, and project- Many persons cannot endure to look down a perpening points of the harbour, with vessels sailing about, dicular precipice, nay, some feel a sensation of giddi

ness before they reach the brink; and it requires a * The two last pass through what is called Hyde Park, an extensive open space of ground, which is rather more than half a mile

firm nerve to stand by the edge of this tremendous from north to south, and about a quarter of a mile from east to west. rock, and coolly look below to watch the foaming At present, it may be said to be at the back of the town, but it is probable that, before the lapse obmany years it may be in the

surge: it is truly awful and terrific, centre,

W. R. G. + See Saturday Magazine, Vol. VI.l., p. 177.

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